robbypowell's version from 2015-10-14 12:58


Question Answer
Most common cause of death in the USCardiovascular disease
2nd Most common cause of death in the USCancer
Most common cancer of men in the USProstate
#1 killer type of cancer of men in the USLung
#1 killer type of cancer of women in the USLung
Most common cancer of women in the USBreast
What type of cancer is the 6th most common in men and the 12th most common in womenOral Cancer
Define: Mass of abnormal cellular growth, the cells of which undergo irreversible change w/ loss of the usual genetic control of cell cycleNeoplasm
Is Neoplasia reversible?No, IRREVERSIBLE
unrestricted, uncoordinated, or autonomous growth are indicative loss of ____ controlGENETIC control
Neoplasia is caused by irreversible change in what part of cells?GENES (mutation)
T/F: Neoplasia is always a result of genetic mutationTrue (for the scope of this class)
T/F: Neoplasms can be Malignant or BenignTrue
What is a better term for cancerous growth than tumor?Malignant Neoplasm ("tumor" is non-specific and can be other than cancer)
Scabby, painless & ulcerative neoplasm on skin exposed to sunBasal Cell Carcinoma
Neoplasm that commonly grows out of salivary glands (benign)Pleomorphic Adenoma
Localized Aggressive Neoplasm from Odontogenic EpitheliumAmeloblastoma (source cell: ameloblasts)
Is a neoplasm benign or malignant if it has a capsule surrounding it?Benign (capsulation is an example of "well-defined")
T/F: A metastatic tumor is definitively, malignantT
Are all malignant tumors metastatic?No, there are some that are not... also may not have reached that stage
A "seeding" or "colonozing" pattern of growth is what possible feature of neoplasiaMetastasis
Metastatic colon or pancreas cancer is commonly carried to what organ?Liver
Metastatic Prostate or Breast cancer commonly migrate to what site?Vertebrae
A male who comes in complaining of back pain caused by malignant neoplasia commonly has what type of cancer?Prostate Carcinoma
A female who comes in complaining of back pain caused by malignant neoplasia commonly has what type of cancer?Breast
T/F: Metastatic cancer cells can cause native cells to proliferate in their new siteTrue (e.g. Prostate cancer and Osteoblasts of Vertebrae)
Metastatic Osteoblastic Carcinoma in a patient with Prostate Carcinoma means what?Prostate cancer metastasizes, travels to vertebrae, causes osteoblasts to become hyperactive
How do well-differentiated cells compare morphologically to the cells around them?(tricky) means they look the same, they have differentiated completely (from precursor)
How do poorly differentiated cells compare morphologically to the cells around them?(tricky) they look different, they did not go through the differentiation process well... and so don't look the same
Tumor cells that don't look anything like their origin cells are called _____ tumorsAnaplastic
Chemical with affinity for nuclear staining (analysis)Hemathoxalin
benign tumor, usually superficial with near normal looking lipocytesLipoma (benign)
deeply seated, malignant, fat tumor with pleomorphic cells and nuclei, source cell LipoblastsLiposarcoma
Fatty neoplasm with lipocytes and fat cells with large nuclei impinged on by surrounding fat vacuoleLiposarcoma (these cells are "Lipoblasts")
_____ intestinal polyps rarely transform into malignancy, while _____ intestinal polyps are a precursor for invasive malignancyHamartomatous (benign); Adenomatous Instesinal Polyp (precursor for Adenocarcinoma malignancy)
neoplasm formed from glandular structures in epithelial tissueAdenoma
colon polyp that is open, ulcerated and obstructive (into lumen) is benign or malignant?Malignant
chronic bleeding from ulceration of malignant colon polyp can cause what systemic condition?Anemia
"Apple Core" appearance of bowel on Barium Enema FluoroscopyMalignant polyps (constricting lumen of bowel)
Minima stool (narrow, dark) is a sign of what type of cancer?Advanced Rectal cancer
Common Malignant cancer of the ColonColonic Adeno-Carcinoma
E.G. of Malignant Cancer from smokingBronco-genic Carcinoma
This type of growth develops in response to mechanical stimulation, therefore stops with the elimination of stimulusHyperplasia
Benign Excess growth of gingival tissue in response to excessive mechanical rubbingInflammatory Fibrous Hyperplasia (Denture fissuratum)
benign, reversible adaptive change of one type of tissue into another due to exposure to an irritantMetaplasia (e.g. Barrett's Esophagus)
Bronchial ciliated epithelium changing to squamos epithelium is an example of ____Metaplasia
lower esophageal squamous epithelium changing to columnar “gastric epithelium” in chronic acid regurgitation (Barrette’s esophagus) is an example of ____Metaplasia
T/F: Metaplasia is associated with genetic mutationFALSE (same genes, just different expression) hence, still reversible
precursor of Esophageal AdenocarcinomaBarrett's Esophagus (precancerous metaplasia)(only sometimes becomes cancerous)
Cancer of the lower esophagus is typically caused by ___ ___ while cancer of the upper esophagus is typically caused by ____Acid Reflux; Smoking
Shifting of the J-line into the esophagus is a ____ change known as ____ ___metaplastic; Barrette's Esophagus
Normal esophageal lining is ___ ___ epithelium but changes to ___ ___ cells in Barrette's esophagussimple squamos epithelium; gastric columnar cells
Abnormal cellular organization/proliferation, reflecting irreversible changes in surface/lining epithelium (non-invasive)Dysplasia
3 examples of types of dysplasia1) epithelial (cervical, laryngeal, bronchial, oral mucosal, epidermis), 2) Breast Atypical Ductal Hyperplasia, & 3) Intestinal Dysplasia
5 sites of epithelial dysplasiaCervix, Larynx, Bronchi, Oral Mucosa, Epidermis (skin) (CBMOLE)
Leukoplakia of the tongue is an example of ____ ____Epithelial Dysplasia
Benign ____ of the tongue can look like LeukoplakiaBenign Keratosis
Pneumoconiosis can lead to what reversible precancerous state?Bronchial Metaplasia
Biologically, cells acquired genetic changes similar to those seen in cancer (precancerous changes, but —No invasion into adjacent tissues)Dysplasia
Is Ductal Carcinoma In-Situ malignant?No, it is pre-cancerous dysplasia
Intestinal Dysplasia progresses, ultimately, into Intestinal _______Adenocarcinoma
3 steps of Intestinal Dysplasia PROGRESSION: 1) Dysplasia 2) _________ _________ neoplasm 3) ____ neoplasm (adenocarcinoma)In situ; Invasive
Paresthesia results from _____ invasionNeural invasion
spread of cancer cells from the primary site to a distant siteMetastasis
Intravasation, Extravasation and Colonialization are signs of ____Metastasis
3 possible paths of metastatic spreaddirect extension (with seeding), Lymphatic spread, Hematoagenous spread (blood?)
most common target for metastasis of oral carcinomalymph nodes
most common target for intestinal adenocarcinomaliver
metastasis of what malignant neoplasm is uncommon, except in childrenSarcoma
Most common metastatic tumors in adults are ____Carcinomas
Most common cancer of the mouthSquamos Cell Carcinoma
Cross striations of muscle cells associated with what type of tumors?Rhabdomyosarcoma
spindled malignant smooth muscle cells, what type of cancer?Leiomyosarcoma
Which has a better prognosis, lip Squamos Cell Carcinoma or Lung Squamos Cell Carcinoma?Lip, more easily detected early on & easier to access
Which has a better prognosis on skin, SCC or Melanoma?SCC; it's just less bad
loss of similarity to tissue type/orientation (tumor looks nothing like cells of origin)Anaplasia
Which tumor has clinical effects: pain & swelling of upper leg, inability to walkOsteosarcoma of femur
Metastatic Osteosarcoma of the jaw usually spreads to the _____Lungs
3 Paraneoplastic syndrome examples givenCachexia (wasting), Dermatomyositis (inflammation/skin rash/weakness), Cushing syndrome (lung cancer --> ACTH)
Cancer can develop from exposure to environmental _____ or _____ factorCarcinogen; Hereditary
3 Acquired environmental factors that can damage cell leading to neoplastic mutationChemical, Radiation, Viruses
Autonomous growth comes from the corruption of what type of genes?Proto-onco genes (turn into onco genes)
proteins which have the ability to promote cell growth in the absence of normal growth-promoting signalsOncoproteins (create autonomous growth)
2 key Growth Inhibiting genes (Tumor Suppressor)p53 & pRB
HPV16 encodes E6 and E7, which bind to & disable ___ & ____ genes, respectively Epithelial cells then enter “S” phase of cell cycle, divide & multiply → CancerP53 & Retinoblastoma (pRB)
What HPV associated with oral or cervial cancer was listed as disabling p53 & pRB?HPV16
HPV-driven Oropharyngeal Carcinoma is most frequently caused by which HPV?HPV 16
more than ____ americans are HPV positive20 million
how many new HPV infections are there annually?6 million
what % of sexually active young people become infected w/ HPV?50%
what is the most common strain of HPV?HPV 16
What HPV associated oncoprotein disables p53?E6
What HPV associated oncoprotein disables pRB?E7
Most common site of HPV related squamos cell carcinoma in head and neckOropharynx
is HPV negative oropharyngeal cancer keratinizing or non-keratinizing?Keratinizing
is HPV positive oropharyngeal cancer keratinizing or non-keratinizing?NON-keratinizing
Loss of NOTCH1 gene expression of HPV+ oral cancer correlates with a ____ prognosisPOOR
HPV positive oral cancer has a ____ survival rate than HPV negative oral cancerHigher (yeah, really)
4 Proapoptotic genes (don't want them to mutate)CD95, FasL, APAF-1, TP53
2 Examples of cancer that results from genetic spell checker mutation (can't correct)HPNCC, Xeroderma Pigmentosa
Deficiency of DNA Repair where pt cannot repair epithelial cellsXeroderma Pigmentosa
average of _________ mutations in some cancers like breast and colon90 (result from accumulation of multiple mutations)
Translocation between Ch#8 (myc oncog) & Ch#14 (Ig gene) associated with what?Burkitt's Lymphoma
Watch dial painters were exposed to Radium chronically and usually developedOsteosarcoma
What oncogenic virus leads to Hepatocellular Carcinoma?Hepatitis B
name 4 oncogenic virusesHPV 16, Hepatitis B, Epstein Barr, HHV-8, (kaposi sarcoma), HTLV-1
name one oncogenic bacteriaHelicobacter Pylori

molecular jank

Question Answer
Growth promoting genes (manage part of cell cycle)Proto-onco genes
Growth Inhibiting genes (cell cycle inhibitors)Tumor Suppressor genes
genes for programmed cell deathApoptotic genes
binding of a ____ ____ to its specific receptor on cell membrane promotes division and proliferation of normal cellsGrowth Factor
At the end of activated cell cycle (division/proliferation), ____ ____ genes ultimately stops cell cycleGrowth Inhibiting (tumor suppressor)
pRB is what type of signal?Cell Cycle Inhibitor
example of a specific cell cycle signal to prevent excessive cell growth by inhibiting cell cycle progression until a cell is ready to divide?pRB
example of cell cycle and apoptosis regulatorp53
what does p53 do?cell cycle and apoptosis regulation
what type of change to proto-oncogenes promotes genetic loss of regulatory function w/ clonal expansion?Mutation (switched on growth promotion)
what type of change to apoptotic regulators promotes neoplasia w/ clonal expansion?loss of apoptotic regulators (p53) (switched off)
what type of change to tumor suppressor genes promotes neoplasia w/ clonal expansion?loss of cell cycle inhibitors/tumor suppressor genes (switched off)


Question Answer
T/F: Clinical stage applies only to malignant neoplasmsT
Clinical stage is meant to convey what about a cancer?Extent of SPREAD (metastasis?)
What is the 5 y survival rate of Stage 1 cancer?85%
What is the 5 y survival rate of Stage 2 cancer?66%
What is the 5 y survival rate of Stage 3 cancer?41%
What is the 5 y survival rate of Stage 4 cancer?9%
M1 makes cancer a stage ___ cancerStage 4
N1 (minimal lymph node involvement) makes cancer a stage ___ cancerStage 3
Tumor of size greater than 4 cm that has not breached into adjacent tissues is stage ___ cancer
Question Answer
T1 means that the tumor is what size?2cm or less
T2 means that the tumor is what size?2-4 cm
A tumor of


Question Answer
44-year-old woman sees her physician because she feels asymptomatic “lumps” in the right axilla. The physician notes right axillary lymphadenopathy on physical examination. The nodes are painless but firm. Which of the following is the most likely diagnosis?Ductal Carcinoma of breast

Benign vs Malignant

Question Answer
Well-Defined Marginsbenign
Infiltrative Marginsmalignant
No Metastasisbenign
Frequent Metastasismalignant
mainly slow growth ratebenign
slow to fast growth ratemalignant
good cell differentiationbenign
poor cell differentiationmalignant
near normal nuclear morphologybenign
abnormal nuclear morphologymalignant
uniform nucleibenign
pleomorphic nucleimalignant
small nucleibenign
enlarged nucleimalignant
hyperchromatic (when stained) nucleimalignant
no mitosis or rare mitosisbenign
frequent mitosismalignant
irregular cell morphologymalignant

let's play wheel of neoplasia (is it malignant or benign? what is its Tissue Of Origin?)

Question Answer
Squamos Cell CarcinomaMAL; Epithelial (strat squam)
AdenocarcinomaMAL; Epithelial (glandular)
Squamos PapillomaBEN; (start squam)
AdenomaBEN; (glandular)
FibromaBEN; Connective (fibroblasts)
LipomaBEN; Connective (lipocytes)
ChondromaBEN; Connective (chondrocytes)
OsteomaBEN; Connective (Osteoblasts)
HemangiomaBEN; Blood Vessels
LymphangiomaBEN; Lymph Vessels
LeiomyomaBEN; Smooth muscle
RhabdomyomaBEN; Skeletal/Cardiac Muscle
NeurofibromaBEN ; Peripheral Nerve
Squamous cell carcinomaMAL***; Epithelial (start squad)
AdenocarcinomaMAL, Epithelial (glandular)
FibrosarcomaMAL; Connective (fibroblasts)
LiposarcomaMAL; Connective (lipocytes)
ChondrosarcomaMAL; Connective (Chondrocytes)
OsteosarcomaMAL***; Connective (Osteoblasts)
AngiosracomaMAL; blood vessels
LymphangiosarcomaMAL; lymph vessels
LeiomyosracomaMAL; smooth muscle
RhabdomyosarcomaMAL***; skeletal/cardiac muscle
NeurofibrosarcomaMAL; peripheral nerves
LeukemiaMAL***; Hematopoietic (bone marrow)
Multiple Myeloma MAL***; Hematopoietic (bone marrow)
LymphomaMAL***; Lymphocytes

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