robbypowell's version from 2015-09-11 15:44


Question Answer
Two vital roles of Circulation (necessary for health of cells)1. Delivery of nutrients 2. Removal of wastes
The process of clotting that prevents blood loss after vessel damageHEMOSTASIS
Inadequate Hemostasis reuslts in ____HEMORRHAGE (w/ potential for hypotension, shock & death)
Excessive Hemostasis results in ____Thrombosis
Thrombosis can dislodge and migrate to form an _____ which can then cause ____ cell death... called an ___Embolism, Ischemic, Infraction
Normal fluid exchange is a balance between ___ pressure and ____ pressureIntravascular & Osmotic
What is the water composition (by weight) of a newborn? (total)83%
What is the water composition (by weight) of an adult (total)60% water by weight
What % of body weight is Intracellular fluid ?40%
What % of body weight is Interstitial Fluid?10%
What % of body weight is Intravascular Fluid?5%
Do newborns or adults have higher water proportions of body weight?Newborns
What is the normal Systolic pressure?120mm Hg
What is Cardiac Output?The Volume of Blood pumped by the Heart per minute (mL/min)
The Volume of Blood pumped by the Heart per minute (mL/min)Cardiac Output
Amount of blood pumped out of heart with each beat (term)Stroke volume
What is stroke volume? (definition)Amount of blood pumped out of heart with each beat
What is the "normal" stroke volume?70ml per heart beat
What is the "normal" heart rate?70 bp
What is the formula for Cardiac Output? (CO)CO = Stroke Volume * Heart Rate
What is the "normal" Cardiac Output?4900 mL/min (4.9 L/min)
During vigorous exercise, Cardiac Input can increase ___ foldSEVEN FOLD
Do Arterioles or Venules have greater Hydrostatic Pressure (Intravascular)Arterial is higher than Venous
Where is the concentration of Plasma Proteins higher, Intravascular or Extravascular (interstitial) ?Intravascular
Plasma Fluid & small nutrient molecules exit capillaries through ____ ___ and the interstitial compartment in a process known as ___ _________Endothelial Gaps; Bulk Flow
Can Blood cells pass through capillary Endothelial gaps (capillaries) under normal conditions?No (yes with increased blood pressure)
Can Plasma proteins pass through Endothelial gaps (capillaries) under normal conditions?No (yes with increased blood pressure)
Can sugars pass through endothelial gaps (capillaries) under normal conditions?Yes
In terms of fluid exchange across capillaries... ____ hydrostatic pressure is affected by BP, while ____ pressure depends on Plasma ProteinIntravascular; Oncotic (Osmotic)
Extra fluid in the interstitial compartment is removed by ____ vesselsLymphatic Vessels
What organ is involved with maintaining normal blood volume?KIDNEY (affects fluid exchange)
What Endocrine Factors affect fluid volume?ADH (conserve H2O), Aldosterone
Disturbances of water & electrolyte balance lead to ___EDEMA
Disturbances in volume of circulating blood can lead to ____, ___, & ___Hyperemia, Hemorrhage, Hypovolemic Shock
list 3 types of Obstructive disturbances to vesselsThrombus, Embolism, Infarction
The abnormal accumulation of fluid in the interstitial tissue spaces or body cavitiesEdema
Right side heart failure leads to ____ edemaPeripheral Edema
Left side heart failure leads to ____ edemaPulmonary Edema
Drop in concentration of Plasma proteins will cause edema b/c of lesser ____ pressureOsmotic (BOP)
Blockage of Lymphatic drainage leads to...Edema
Low Albumin levels lead toEdema
Increased Hydrostatic Intravascular pressure leads toEDEMA
Reduced Plasma Osmotic pressure can be brought about by Kidney problems called ____ ___Nephrotic Syndrome
Reduced Plasma Osmotic pressure can be brought about by Liver problem called ____ ____Liver Cirrhosis (Ascites)
T/F: Reduced Plasma Osmotic pressure can be brought about by MalnutritionTrue
What fluid is associated with Non-inflammatory Edema?Transudate
What fluid is associated with Inflammatory Edema?Exudate
What is Anasarca?Diffuse swelling of all tissue
What is Ascites (Hydroperitoneum)Fluid in the Peritoneal Cavity (edema in abdominal cavity)
What is Hydrothorax?Fluid in the Pleural Cavity (edema around lungs)
What is the mechanism behind Edema associated with Elephantiasis (filarrias)scarred Lymphatic drainage
What is disease (cause) associated with Nutmeg Liver?Right side Heart failure (dammed down stream)
What is disease (cause) Pulmonary Edema?Left-sided Heart Failure (dammed down stream)
What are the 4 symptoms associated with Peripheral Edema (as a result of Right-sided Heart Failure)Pitting Edema of the Extremities, Chronic Passive Congestion of Liver (Nutmeg Liver), Kidney & Spleen
What does Pulmonary Edema as a result of CHF manifest clinically?Paroxysmal Nocturnal Dyspnea (and can progress to ORTHOPNEA)
Clinical presentation as Paroxysmal Nocturnal Dyspnea is probably associated with ____ Edema, resulting from ___ sided Heart FailurePulmonary; Left
Capillary Congestion and Macrophages in the Alveolar spaces are indicative of what ?Pulmonary Edema caused by Left-sided Heart failure
Clinically Observable signs associated with Right sided Heart FailurePitting of Extremities, Jugular Vein Distention
Congestive Venous Syndrom is synonymous with ___ EdemaPeripheral Edema (from right side heart failure)
What Liver Enzymes would show up as excessive on someone with Congestive Venous Syndrome (as a result of Right sided Heart failure)Aspartate Transaminase (AST), Alanine Transaminase (ALT)
Cardiac Cirrhosis (Chronic Passive Congestion) is caused by ...Right-sided Heart failure and the damming of blood that it causes
The mechanism of Edema in Congestive Venous Syndrome isINCREASED INTRAVASCULAR hydrostatic pressure
What type of Thrombi usually show Lines of Zahn?Cardiac & Arterial Thrombi
What type of Thrombi usually do NOT show Lines of Zahn?Venous Thrombi
What are the 4 possible causes for a Brain Infarct?Thrombosis (clot originating in infarcted vessel), Embolism (migrating cause from elsewhere), Rupture, Compression by Tumor
Sudden onset of Dypsnea with a bed-ridden patient who flatlines and cannot be resuscitated is likely caused by ...Venous Stasis caused by Deep Vein Thrombosis (associate deep vein thrombosis with long periods of immobility and then getting up and walking)
Periorbital Edema, Leg Edema, Salt retention associated with what cause?Nephrotic syndrome
The mechanism behind Generalized Edema from Nephrotic Syndrome is due to a/an ____ in ____ pressure.Drop in Osmotic Pressure (BOP) --> Edema (this is due to lower concentrations of plasma proteins)
Liver Cirrhosis causes Generalized Edema... specifically in the ___ cavityPeritoneal (abdominal)
Juvenile Myxedema is a type of _____Hypothyroidism
Two types of Edema with especially Poor prognosisBrain & Lung (acute respiratory distress syndrome)
Two types of Edema with especially Good prognosisVisceral organs (?), Subcutaneous Edema
Bringing in too much blood (definition)Hyperemia (disturbance in volume)
Insufficient drainage (definition)Congestion (disturbance in volume)
Two causes for too much blood volume in a tissueHyperemia OR Congestion (hyperemia is too much supply, Congestion is insufficient drainage)
Short duration Venous congestion has what outcome?no sig pathology (mold or no cyanosis)
Long duration Venous congestion has what outcome?Cyanosis (tissues abnormally blue-red)
Persistent Venous congestion has what outcome?Hypoxia --> anoxia --> cell death --> ISCHEMIC Cell necrosis (Infarct) --> Fibrosis & loss of function (heart, lungs, liver)
The presence of blood, HEMOSIDERIN and Alveolar Macrophages within Alveolar spaces is indicative ofPulmonary Edema (caused by Left Congestive Heart Failure)
On microscopic examination of Cardiac Cirrhosis where would the fatty, necrotic, or fibrotic cells be found... the healthier cells?Perilobular (symptomatic) Peripheral (less affected)
Escape of blood from a vessel, could be external, or internalHemorrhage
deficiency of platelets in the blood. This causes bleeding into the tissues, bruising, and slow blood clotting after injury.Thrombocytopenia
any qualitative disorder of platelets. (definition, term, general)Thrombocytopathy
Disease of what organ leads to clotting disorderLiver (clotting factors synthesized here)
Hemophilia A is deficiency of which Clotting Factor?Clotting Factor 8
Hemophilia B (christmas disease) is deficiency of what clotting factor?Clotting Factor 9
Lack of what Vitamin will lead to inability to clot normally?Vitamin K
1-2mm Hemorrhagic spots seen on skin, mucosal or serial surfacesPetechiae (clinical pattern of HEMORRHAGE)
Petechiae are signs of thrombocytopenia (insufficient platelets), throbocytopathy, clotting factor deficits & Vitamin ___ deficiencyVITAMIN C ((aka SCURVY)
several cm subcutaneous hematoma (type of hemorrhage)Ecchymosis
What pattern of hemorrhage is commonly seen after anticoagulant therapy?Large Blood Clots w/in tissues, cavities and spaces
Large blood clots within tissues, cavities or spaces are commonly seen after _____ therapy.Anticoagulation
Chronic loss of relatively small amounts of blood lead to ____ANEMIA
Large amounts of blood loss may lead to what serious condition?Hypovolemic SHOCK
Hemorrhagic pooling in vital organs such as the ___ or ___ ___ can be life threateningBrain, Pericardial Sac
Hemorrhagic pooling in the retina may lead to ___Cool sunglasses (j/k it's blindness)
The final common pathway for several potentially lethal events, including exsanguination, extensive trauma, burns, myocardial infarction, pulmonary embolism, and sepsisSHOCK
Shock is characterized by ___ of tissue --> cellular ___ --> ischemia --> necrosisHypoperfusion, hypoxia
Inadequate blood supply to an organ or tissueHypoperfusion
Inadequate OXYGEN supply to an organ or tissue (or cell)Hypoxia
Developmental Spherical Dilations in the Circle of WillisBerry Aneurism (associated w/ childhood brain aneurism)
What type of Necrosis results from Brain Infarct?Liquefactive Necrosis
detached intravascular mass carried by the blood to a site distant from its point of originEmbolism
formation of a “clot” in uninjured tissue, living vessel or heartThrombus
3 components of Thrombus formation (players that make it happen)Vascular wall (endothelial cells), Platelets, Coagulation Cascades (clotting factors)
3 Causes of Thrombosis (etiology)Injury to Endothelium (atherosclerosis counts), Abnormal blood flow (stasis or turbulence), Hypercoagulability (alteration of coagulation cascade)
T/F: Oral Contraceptives or Hyperestrogenic states can lead to Thrombosis formationTrue
T/F: Vitamin K deficiency can lead to Thrombus formationFalse
T/F: Myocardial Infarction can lead to Thrombus formationTrue
T/F: Cardiac Arrhythmia leads to Thrombus formation(made up example, not listed as True) False
Propagation (Thrombus)more accumulation of platelets & fibrin leading to vessel obstruction
Organization & Recanalization (thrombus) proliferation of vascular endothelial cells to form a solid mass w/in the thrombus or endothelial-lined channels
Thrombus resolution is achieved via ______Fibrinolysis (thrombus DISSOLUTION)
Fibrin (in thrombi) is broken up by ____Plasmin
Plasmin breaks down ____ through the process of _____Fibrin, Fibrinolysis
Lines of Zahn are formed by alternating ___ & ____/___Erythrocytes; Platelets/fibrin
Thrombus that is WHITE, DRY & FRIABLE... often with Observable LINES OF ZAHNArterial Thrombus
Thrombus that is RED, and GELATINOUSVenous Thrombus
____ Thrombi may CALCIFY and form a ____Venous Thrombous; PHLEBOLITH
Complete occlusion of an artery leads to ____ necrosis or ____ ISCHEMIC necrosis; Infarction
Short-term complete occlusion of a vein leads to ____ & ____Edema, Hypoxia (long-standing occlusion can lead to Infarct)
99% of Embolisms are caused by ____Thrombi
What is the most common source of embolism?Thrombus (99%)
What is Caisson Disease?Gas Embolism (Decompression Sickness)
What is the name for Doppler Instrument capable of recording blood flow?Venogram
Systemic "arterial" emboli originate from ____ ventricle, ___ or ___Left Ventricle, Valve, or Aorta
Infarction due to embolus that lodges in the brain, lower extremities, spleen or kidney is most likely an ____ Embolism(ARTERIAL EMBOLISM)
Damage to the Endocardium could result in what type of Thrombus formation?Mural Thrombus


Question Answer
Embolism from AtherosclerosisAtheromatous Embolus
What type of embolism is common after bone fracture?Bone marrow/fat embolus
Occluded coronary artery would lead to what condition?Myocardial Infarction
Infarction manifests as ___ ___ necrosis in all organs except for the ____ which manifests as ___ necrosisIschemic coagulative; brain, Liquefactive necrosis
Red Infarct occurs in complete ___ occlusion, tissues w/ ___ circulationVENOURS; Dual circulation
White (anemic) Infarct occurs w/ complete ___ occlusion is solid organs with End circulationARTERIAL
Over 1/2 of all deaths are caused by...Cardiovascular disease
Most cardiovascular deaths are due to ___ ___Myocardial Infarction