robbypowell's version from 2015-09-11 02:23

cellular injury and adaptation

Question Answer
Steady state of a cell is called ____Homeostasis
What are the 2 possible outcomes of stress to a cell?Adaptation & Injury
What are the 2 possible outcomes of IRREVERSIBLE injury to a cell?Necrosis & Apoptosis
Fatty change is associated with what type of injury to a cell?Acute/Reversible
the onset of Decreased or lost function is associated with what type of Injury to a cell?Reversible
Sequence of Hierarchical effects of Irreversible cell Injury1. Biochemical alteration 2. Ultrastructural changes 3. Light microscope detectable changes 4. Gross morphologic changes
Form of Adaptation to Increased Demand or Stimulus (by growth hormones)Hyperplasia or Hypertrophy
Form of Adaptation to Decreased nutrients or stimulationAtrophy
Form of Adaption to Chronic Irritation (physical or chemical)Metaplasia
responses of cells to normal stimulation is called ____ AdaptationPhysiologic
responses of cells to stress is called ___ AdaptationPathologic
(Adaptation) Increase in the size of cellsHypertrophy
(Adaptation) Increase in cell number (due to proliferation)Hyperplasia
(Adaptation) Increase in organ sizeHypertrophy
Triggers of HypertrophyMechanical & Trophic (ex. cardiac muscle)
Triggers of HyperplasiaHormonal & Growth Factor triggers
Disease w/ Hyperplasia of Epidermis due to excess Epidermal Growth FactorAcanthosis Nigrans
What effect does Increased Load have on Cardiac MuscleHypertrophy
What effect does Reduced Oxygen have on Cardiac MuscleFatty Change --> Death
What adaptation of the Endometrium can lead to MALIGNANT NEOPLASIA?Hyperplasia
(Adaptation) Shrinkage in the size of cellAtrophy
(Adaptation) Reversible change from one differentiation path to anotherMetaplasia
(Adaptation) Survival Mechanism in times of nutrient deprivation (often accompanying atrophy)AUTOPHAGY
(Adaptation) difficult, painful disordered transition from one tissue type to anotherDYS-PLASIA
What type of Metaplasia does the Bronchiole Epithelium undergo in response to smoking?Squamos Metaplasia (becomes scams)
What type of Metaplasia does the Esophagus undergo in response to Reflux?Glandular Metaplasia (becomes like stomach lining)
What mechanism causes intracellular accumulation in Fatty Liver?Abnormal Metabolism (STEATOSIS is Fatty Liver)
What mechanism causes intracellular accumulation of Endogenous Materials?Lack of Enzyme
What mechanism causes intracellular accumulation of Abnormal Proteins?Defective Protein folding or transport
What mechanism causes intracellular accumulation of Exogenous materials?Uptake of undigestible materials
What are the 3 types of injury leading to Necrosis?Ischemia, Hypoxia, Chemical (toxic)
Where is Fat Necrosis (Saponification) found?Mesenteric Fat
What Caspase is associated with Extrinsic Apoptotic Pathway?Caspase 8 (activated by Fas-FasL, TNFR-TNF-Alpha)
What Caspase is associated with Intrinsic Apoptotic Pathway?Caspase 9 (activated by Cytochrome C release from Mitochondria)
What receptors are associated with Extrinsic Apoptotic Pathway?Fas-FasL & TNFR-TNF-Alpha
What is released from Mitochondria and associated with Intrinsic Apoptotic Pathway?Cytochrome C
Type of Cell death where Cell shrinks and Nucleus shrinksApoptosis
What is the cell size of a cell that has undergone Apoptosis?Reduced (Shrinkage)
What is the cell size of a necrotic cell?Enlarged (swelling)
Pyknosis, Karyhexosis & Karyolysis are associated with ___Necrosis
Fragmentation of nucleus into nucleosome-size fragments is associated with ___Apoptosis
A disrupted Plasma membrane is associated with ___Necrosis
Leakage of cellular contents is associated with ___Necrosis
Blebbing bodies w/ intact membrane is associated with ___Apoptosis
Is Inflammation associated with Necrosis?Yes (frequently)
Is inflammation associated with Apoptosis?No
Is Necrosis pathologic or physiologic?PATHOLOGIC ALWAYS
Is Apoptosis pathologic or physiologic?Either


Question Answer
10 yo girl seen for growth failure, Bone age 8 yo. Grew normally until age 7. Skin is dry and thick. Has Slow reflexes. Enlarged ThyroidHYPOTHYROIDISM (Juvenile Myxedema)
61 yo man has increasing ALT & AST, with lower leg swelling. He also has prominent jugular veins and pitting of lower extremities...Congestive Heart Failure (sounds like Right)