Histoplasma capsulatum. granulomas (w/extensive fibrosis, he said)
what are two toxic agents which can cause Toxic pneumonias in dogs?
(1) Paraquat ( a herbicide) (2) Uremic pneumonopathy
What does Paraquat do to the lungs, and how?
Following ingestion or inhalation, causes necrosis of alveolar type I cells and injury to blood air barrier, through release of free –radicals.
Uremic pneumonopathy-->how does this process work to cause toxic pneumonias? what are the lesions?
Associated non renal lesions (ulcers, hemorrhages) with chronic uremia. Lesions Pulmonary edema, calcification of smooth muscles and alveolar walls in the lung, giving lungs a gritty texture. Lungs do not collapse (interstitial type of pneumonia) on opening the thorax.
if you see Ca++ depositions in the lungs, what are you thinking it is?
uremic pneumonopathy (from non-renal lesions with chronic uremia)
What are the Parasites of lungs and pulmonary vessels in dogs/cats? (4)
what's important to know about the incidence of pneumonia of cats?
Pneumonia are not common in cats.They suffer mainly from pleural effusion
Feline pneumonitis--> etiological agent? how does it affect the lungs?
Chlamydophila felis--> TRICK QUESTION! most important cause of persistent conjunctivitis., although name is pneumonitis but it does not cause pulmonary infection.
Bacterial pneumonias in cats--> which two bact agents cause this and what are the lesions?
P. multocida and B. bronchiseptica which are present in nasal cavity of cats may cause bronchopneumonia. Pyothorax is main lesion in pasteurella infection in cats.
how does Tuberculosis affect cats?
Involves mainly intestines., skin and lungs. Lung lesions in the form of nodules, resemble lymphosarcoma (needs differential).
Mycotic pneumonia---> which fungal agent affects the lungs of cats, and what lesions does it cause?
Cryptococcosis: (Cryptococcus neoformans) this is the ONLY FUNGI WHICH IS NATURALLY present in the nasal cavity of dogs and cats. When there is STRESS, the fungus will cause granulomatous lesions in many tissues, and the lungs specifically will consist of multiple granuloma
what is Lipid pneumonia? what are the lesions? microscopic appearance?
This is a special form of aspiration pneumonia where oil is aspirated into the lungs. This can occur in all sp. lesions are mult. yellowish white nodules. Microscopically, lipid laden microphages fill the alveoli. lipid is both (intracellular in macrophages) an extracellular (macs cant digest lipid)
Endogenous lipid pneumonia-- what causes this?
more often in lab rodents but can happen in cats/dogs rarely. Usually idiopathic, some can happen as sequale to obstruction of airway and can also be seen in the vicinity of cancerous lung lesions. lesions are like aspiration lipid pneumonia
How can you differentiate lipid (aspiration) pneumonia from endogenous lipid pneumonia?
ENDOGENOUS is in MACS, the exogenous lipids occur in the ASPIRATION
what are the three parasites that cause Parasitic pneumonias in cats?
what are the three main lesions a fetus could get pneumonia?
(1) Pneumonia due to contaminated meconium (2) Pneumonia due to organisms reaching lungs through amniotic fluid (3) Pneumonia due to organisms reaching lungs through blood
fetal pneumonia most often occurs in who?
in fetus of foals and food producing animals
Pneumonia due to contaminated meconium occurs when? what are the lesions?
Intrauterine hypoxia and acidosis causes release of meconium into the amniotic fluid, causing pneumonia. Lesions are Brochopneumonia,but diffusely distributed, not confined to anterioventral parts of the lungs. Meconium stains light yellow because of bile content.
Pneumonia due to organisms reaching lungs through amniotic fluid: which organisms? What are the lesions?
B. abortus, A. pyogenes, occasionally fungi and Ureaplasma. Amniotic fluid gets contaminated with organisms from lesions of placenta. Lesions- Suppurative bronchopneumonia-- cranioventral lung!
Pneumonia due to organisms reaching lungs through blood: what are some of the organisms which do this? what are the lesions?
Listeria, salmonella and chlamydia and viruses (PI-3 in cattle and EVR in horses): leads to INTERSTITIAL PNEUMONIA. (Differential: In listeriosis additional lesions may be in brain and liver; in Chlamydiosis in liver and spleen)
Primary tumors of lungs originate in what tissues? benign or malig?
Origin from epithelium- bronchiolar or bronchioalveoalar. Benign or malignant.
which is more common: primary or secondary lung tumors?
Secondary tumors or metastatic tumors: High incidence compared to primary tumors.
what syndrome can accompany a secondary (metastatic) lung tumor, and who does it happen in most commonly?
Specially in dogs- *paraneoplastic syndromes like hypercalcemia, endocrinopathies and osteoarthropathy may accompany the tumors.
are Metastatic or secondary tumors of lung benign of malig? are they usually single or mult?
ALL ARE MALIG!!!!!!! usually mult foci.
Metastatic or secondary tumors of lung in DOGS are usually...(which tumors?)
mammary, lymphoma, melanoma.
Metastatic or secondary tumors of lung in CATS are usually...(which tumors?)
Pleural calcification usually happens in WHO, and WHY?
usually in dogs in chonic uremia and vit. D toxicity
what are the LESIONS of pleural calcification?
Linear white streaks in parietal pleura, mainly over the inter-costal muscles
what is pneumothorax, and what is the main cause of it?
air in the pleural cavity; mainly traumatic.
what is pleural effusion?
Accumulation of any fluid (transudate, exudate, blood and lymph in the thoracic cavity).
what is hydrothorax? describe it
Non-inflammatory edema (transudate) in pleural cavity. The accumulated fluid is clear, watery, colorless to light yellow color, odorless, fails to coagulate.
what are two possible causes of plural effusion?
(1) Generalized causes of edema. (2) Widespread neoplasia of pleura, impairment of lymphatic drainage.
Exudative pleural effusion--> what causes this? (what is the exudate like?)
In certain systemic diseases, like black disease in sheep, mulberry heart disease in pigs, African horse sickness and ANTU poisoning, altering permeability of blood vessels. The exudate may be dirty, thick in appearance with high protein content and inflammatory cells.
What is chylothorax? what is it like, and what are the causes?
Chylothorax: Milky (lymph rich in triglycerides) fluid in thorax, due to rupture of thoracic or right lymphatic ducts, due to trauma, surgery or idiopathic causes.
what is hemothorax? what usually causes it? how might the lungs be affected?
Blood in the pleural cavity; due to rupture of blood vessels by trauma, malignancy, inflammation or aneurism. Lungs are partially atelectic.
what is the most common condition of inflammation of plura, usually secondary to what?
Pleuritis (pleurisy), usually secondary to pneumonia.
what are the two major causes of pleuritis (aka?)
(aka pleurisy) (1) Infection-by direct extension from lungs. (2) Trauma through thoracic wall or diaphragm.
what are the lesions of pleuritis (pleurisy?)
Typical of serous membrane i.e. serous and becoming later fibrinous or purulent (pyothorax or thoracic empyema).
what are 2 examples of Some specific pleuritis?
(1) Pyogranulomatous- Nocardia, actinomyces and FIP virus. (2) tuberculous pleuritis- pearl disease. (looks like pearls on serosa bc granulomatous nodules))
three causes of pyogranulomatous pleuritis?
Nocardia, actinomyces and FIP virus
how common are primary tumors of pleura?
Pleural mesothelioma happens in who? etiology?
Reported in dog, cat, horse, cow and goat. In calves it is believed congenital. (Cause: in humans related to asbestosis and smoking; in animals such association not reported.)
How does pleural mesothelioma appear grossly? Microscopically? usually benign or malig?
Tumor is seen as multiple discrete nodules on pleural surface, microscopically looks carcinoma or fibrosarcoma. Rarely metastasize.
is mesothelioma 1* or 2*?
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