Path- Respiratory 6

untimely's version from 2015-04-23 03:33

Pneumonia of dogs

Question Answer
Canine distemper is caused by what etiological agent? What age is most affected?Morbilivirus. 12-16 weeks of age. (YOUNG)
what are the gross lesions of canine distemper? microscopic?GROSS: Interstitial pneumonia. there can be secondary bacterial infection. MICROSCOPIC: inclusion bodies in cytoplasm and nuc
Canine adenovirus type 2 infection causes what kind of lesions?bronchointerstitial pneumonia (Adenovirus pneumonia is rare in dogs, usually a consequence of immunosuppression. also intranuc. inclusion bodies)
Canine herpesvirus 1--> what problems does this virus cause? What age does it affect?If mom is infected, abortion and stillbirths. If puppy, ‘fading puppy syndrome’ (failure to thrive, resp and GI probs). In older dogs, necrotizing rhino-tracheitis-->bronchopneumonia
which pneumonia can canine herpesvirus 1 cause?in adult dogs, can cause bronchopneumonia
Canine Influenza--> etiological agent?Influenza A virus, believed mutated strain of equine influenza virus H3N8 strain
Canine influenza--> what are the clinical signs and lesions?CS: mainly a cough. Virus makes dogs suseptible to bacterial bronchopneumonia
what are the lesions of bacterial pneumonia in a dog?suppurative bronchopneumonia (NOTE: usually only bacterial pneumonia when dog's defenses are lowered, such as in a viral infection)
what are the bacteria most commonly involved in bacterial pneumonia of the dog?(remember usually after virus/defenses lowered) P.multocida, Streptococcus sp., E.coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and B. bronchiseptica
which bacteria is the cause of fatal hemorrhagic pleuropneumonia with hemorrhages on pleura in dogs?Streptococcus zooepidemicus
Mycotic pneumonia is usually caused by what in dogs? (3-4)usually OPPORTUNISTIC (Aspergillus) fungi or SYSTEMIC fungi (Blastomycosis, Coccidioidomycosis, Histoplasmosis)
Blastomycosis---> etiological agent? what are the lesions in the lungs? (other organs?)B. dermatitidis. Lesions in the lungs: multifocal pyogranulomas. (disseminates hematogenously to other organs)
Coccidioidomycosis--> etiological agent? pulmonary lesions?Coccidioides immitis. pyogranulomas lesions in lungs. (mostly in western USA)
Histoplasmosis--> etiological agent? pulmonary lesions?Histoplasma capsulatum. granulomas (w/extensive fibrosis, he said)
what are two toxic agents which can cause Toxic pneumonias in dogs?(1) Paraquat ( a herbicide) (2) Uremic pneumonopathy
What does Paraquat do to the lungs, and how?Following ingestion or inhalation, causes necrosis of alveolar type I cells and injury to blood air barrier, through release of free –radicals.
Uremic pneumonopathy-->how does this process work to cause toxic pneumonias? what are the lesions?Associated non renal lesions (ulcers, hemorrhages) with chronic uremia. Lesions Pulmonary edema, calcification of smooth muscles and alveolar walls in the lung, giving lungs a gritty texture. Lungs do not collapse (interstitial type of pneumonia) on opening the thorax.
if you see Ca++ depositions in the lungs, what are you thinking it is?uremic pneumonopathy (from non-renal lesions with chronic uremia)
What are the Parasites of lungs and pulmonary vessels in dogs/cats? (4)(1) Dirofilaria immitis and Angiostrongylus vasorum (2) Paragonimus kellikoti (3) Filaroides hirthi (4) Toxoplasma gondii
Dirofilaria immitis and Angiostrongylus vasorum--> what kinda damage do these parasites do to the heart, and what is a big sequale?Parasitize right ventricle and pulmonary vessels, cause chronic arteritis, leading to pulmonary hypertension and congestive heart failure (--> R VENT HYPERTROPHY)
Paragonimus kellikoti--> how does this parasite affect the lungs?(lung fluke) Adult parasite live in cysts on pleura.
Filaroides hirthi--> how does this parasite affect the lungs?Parasitize alveoli and bronchioles. Mild reaction with adults, but dead worms produce granulomatous nodules in sub pleural region
Toxoplasma gondii--> how does this parasite affect the lungs?Necrotizing interstitial pneumonia

Pneumonia of cats

Question Answer
what's important to know about the incidence of pneumonia of cats?Pneumonia are not common in cats.They suffer mainly from pleural effusion
Feline pneumonitis--> etiological agent? how does it affect the lungs?Chlamydophila felis--> TRICK QUESTION! most important cause of persistent conjunctivitis., although name is pneumonitis but it does not cause pulmonary infection.
Bacterial pneumonias in cats--> which two bact agents cause this and what are the lesions?P. multocida and B. bronchiseptica which are present in nasal cavity of cats may cause bronchopneumonia. Pyothorax is main lesion in pasteurella infection in cats.
how does Tuberculosis affect cats?Involves mainly intestines., skin and lungs. Lung lesions in the form of nodules, resemble lymphosarcoma (needs differential).
Mycotic pneumonia---> which fungal agent affects the lungs of cats, and what lesions does it cause?Cryptococcosis: (Cryptococcus neoformans) this is the ONLY FUNGI WHICH IS NATURALLY present in the nasal cavity of dogs and cats. When there is STRESS, the fungus will cause granulomatous lesions in many tissues, and the lungs specifically will consist of multiple granuloma
what is Lipid pneumonia? what are the lesions? microscopic appearance?This is a special form of aspiration pneumonia where oil is aspirated into the lungs. This can occur in all sp. lesions are mult. yellowish white nodules. Microscopically, lipid laden microphages fill the alveoli. lipid is both (intracellular in macrophages) an extracellular (macs cant digest lipid)
Endogenous lipid pneumonia-- what causes this?more often in lab rodents but can happen in cats/dogs rarely. Usually idiopathic, some can happen as sequale to obstruction of airway and can also be seen in the vicinity of cancerous lung lesions. lesions are like aspiration lipid pneumonia
How can you differentiate lipid (aspiration) pneumonia from endogenous lipid pneumonia?ENDOGENOUS is in MACS, the exogenous lipids occur in the ASPIRATION
what are the three parasites that cause Parasitic pneumonias in cats?(1) Aelurostrongylus abstrusus (2) Capillaria aerophila (3) Dirofilaria immitis
Aelurostrongylus abstrusus is aka? where does it live, and what kinda lesions does it cause to the lungs? Sequale?aka feline lung worm. Adults live in bronchi, produce catarrhal inflammation. Nodules produced by larvae are1cm, multifocal and subpleural-- *Pyothorax is usual sequel.~
Capillaria aerophila cause what lung problems?Chronic tracheitis and bronchitis
how does Dirofilaria immitis affect lungs?heart worm in cats which extends to pulmonary vessels in lungs.

Fetal pneumonia, tumors

Question Answer
what are the three main lesions a fetus could get pneumonia?(1) Pneumonia due to contaminated meconium (2) Pneumonia due to organisms reaching lungs through amniotic fluid (3) Pneumonia due to organisms reaching lungs through blood
fetal pneumonia most often occurs in who?in fetus of foals and food producing animals
Pneumonia due to contaminated meconium occurs when? what are the lesions?Intrauterine hypoxia and acidosis causes release of meconium into the amniotic fluid, causing pneumonia. Lesions are Brochopneumonia,but diffusely distributed, not confined to anterioventral parts of the lungs. Meconium stains light yellow because of bile content.
Pneumonia due to organisms reaching lungs through amniotic fluid: which organisms? What are the lesions?B. abortus, A. pyogenes, occasionally fungi and Ureaplasma. Amniotic fluid gets contaminated with organisms from lesions of placenta. Lesions- Suppurative bronchopneumonia-- cranioventral lung!
Pneumonia due to organisms reaching lungs through blood: what are some of the organisms which do this? what are the lesions?Listeria, salmonella and chlamydia and viruses (PI-3 in cattle and EVR in horses): leads to INTERSTITIAL PNEUMONIA. (Differential: In listeriosis additional lesions may be in brain and liver; in Chlamydiosis in liver and spleen)
Primary tumors of lungs originate in what tissues? benign or malig?Origin from epithelium- bronchiolar or bronchioalveoalar. Benign or malignant.
which is more common: primary or secondary lung tumors?Secondary tumors or metastatic tumors: High incidence compared to primary tumors.
what syndrome can accompany a secondary (metastatic) lung tumor, and who does it happen in most commonly?Specially in dogs- *paraneoplastic syndromes like hypercalcemia, endocrinopathies and osteoarthropathy may accompany the tumors.
are Metastatic or secondary tumors of lung benign of malig? are they usually single or mult?ALL ARE MALIG!!!!!!! usually mult foci.
Metastatic or secondary tumors of lung in DOGS are usually...(which tumors?)mammary, lymphoma, melanoma.
Metastatic or secondary tumors of lung in CATS are usually...(which tumors?)mammary, thyroid, VAFS (vx associated fibrosarcoma)
Metastatic or secondary tumors of lung in COWS are usually...(which tumors?)Uterine adenocarcinoma
Metastatic or secondary tumors of lung in HORSES are usually...(which tumors?)melanoma, adenocarcinomas, lymphosarcoma, squamous cell carcinomas.
what are the three tumor Metastasis seen in multiple species?Hemangiosarcoma, fibrosarcoma, Osteosarcoma
Pulmonary adenomatosis affects WHO specifically, and what cells does it arise from?Specific tumor of sheep. It is a A neoplastic disease arising from the cells of alveoli and bronchioles (pneumocyte II and clara cells)
**pulmonary adenomatosis of sheep is caused by what? how is this transmitted?Etiology- type B and D retrovirus. Respiratory exudates from affected sheep are infectious. Natural transmission seems to occur by respiratory route.
**what are the clinical signs for pulmonary adenomatosis? what age is it seen in?(SHEEP!) takes a long time to develop, so seen in ADULT sheep. Serous thin fluid produced by neoplastic cells discharges from nostrils when head is lowered.
**gross appearance of pulmonary adenomatosis?small 1mm to 1cm sized nodules, soft, gray projecting from the lung surface, diffusely in both lungs.
**what is the microscopic appearance of pulmonary adenomatosis?Microscopically tumor cells composed of columnar or cuboidal cells lining the alveoli and bronchioles, occasionally form papillary ingrowths ( gland like).
can pulmonary adenomatosis metastasize?Metastasis to bronchial and mediastinal lymph nodes and other tissues like muscle, pleura, liver and kidney have been reported.

Pathology of pleura and mediastinum

Question Answer
what are 3 NON-inflammatory conditions which can affect the plura/mediastinum?Pleural calcification, Peumothorax, Pleural Effusion
Pleural calcification usually happens in WHO, and WHY?usually in dogs in chonic uremia and vit. D toxicity
what are the LESIONS of pleural calcification?Linear white streaks in parietal pleura, mainly over the inter-costal muscles
what is pneumothorax, and what is the main cause of it?air in the pleural cavity; mainly traumatic.
what is pleural effusion?Accumulation of any fluid (transudate, exudate, blood and lymph in the thoracic cavity).
what is hydrothorax? describe itNon-inflammatory edema (transudate) in pleural cavity. The accumulated fluid is clear, watery, colorless to light yellow color, odorless, fails to coagulate.
what are two possible causes of plural effusion?(1) Generalized causes of edema. (2) Widespread neoplasia of pleura, impairment of lymphatic drainage.
Exudative pleural effusion--> what causes this? (what is the exudate like?)In certain systemic diseases, like black disease in sheep, mulberry heart disease in pigs, African horse sickness and ANTU poisoning, altering permeability of blood vessels. The exudate may be dirty, thick in appearance with high protein content and inflammatory cells.
What is chylothorax? what is it like, and what are the causes?Chylothorax: Milky (lymph rich in triglycerides) fluid in thorax, due to rupture of thoracic or right lymphatic ducts, due to trauma, surgery or idiopathic causes.
what is hemothorax? what usually causes it? how might the lungs be affected?Blood in the pleural cavity; due to rupture of blood vessels by trauma, malignancy, inflammation or aneurism. Lungs are partially atelectic.
what is the most common condition of inflammation of plura, usually secondary to what?Pleuritis (pleurisy), usually secondary to pneumonia.
what are the two major causes of pleuritis (aka?)(aka pleurisy) (1) Infection-by direct extension from lungs. (2) Trauma through thoracic wall or diaphragm.
what are the lesions of pleuritis (pleurisy?)Typical of serous membrane i.e. serous and becoming later fibrinous or purulent (pyothorax or thoracic empyema).
what are 2 examples of Some specific pleuritis?(1) Pyogranulomatous- Nocardia, actinomyces and FIP virus. (2) tuberculous pleuritis- pearl disease. (looks like pearls on serosa bc granulomatous nodules))
three causes of pyogranulomatous pleuritis?Nocardia, actinomyces and FIP virus
how common are primary tumors of pleura?RARE
Pleural mesothelioma happens in who? etiology?Reported in dog, cat, horse, cow and goat. In calves it is believed congenital. (Cause: in humans related to asbestosis and smoking; in animals such association not reported.)
How does pleural mesothelioma appear grossly? Microscopically? usually benign or malig?Tumor is seen as multiple discrete nodules on pleural surface, microscopically looks carcinoma or fibrosarcoma. Rarely metastasize.
is mesothelioma 1* or 2*?1*