Path- Respiratory 4

untimely's version from 2015-04-21 17:18


Question Answer
*INTERSTITIAL pneumonia is confined to what structures?alveolar walls and alveolar interstitium (THE CT!!)
*what are the two routes of injury which can lead to INTERTITIAL pneumonia?(1) Aerogenous injury to alveolar epithelium (2) hematogenous injury to alveolar capillaries
give some examples of things which can travel through the aerogenous route to cause interstitial penumonia via INJURY TO ALVEOLAR EPITHELIUMgases,fumes, dust, infection with pneumotropic viruses: canine distemper, porcine influenza
give some examples of things which can travel through the hematogenous route to cause intersitital pneumonia via INJURY TO ALVEOLAR CAPILLARIES (5 groups)(1) intermittent bacterimia like E. coli, leptospira, salmonella in calves and pigs, lung worms, toxoplasma and migrating parasites. (2) DIC, infection with endotheliotropic viruses like swine fever virus (3) ingested toxins (moldy sweet potatoes in cattle, kerosene in dogs, variety of plants (genera Senecio, Crotelaria, Trichdesma) in ruminants. (4) Allergic condition type III (AbAg complexes causing inflammation in vessels) (5) Endotoxins (paraquate poisoning, 3-methylindole)
what are some ingested toxins which can cause interstitial penumonia via hematogenous route?moldy sweet potatoes in cattle, kerosene in dogs, variety of plants (genera Senecio, Crotelaria, Trichdesma) in ruminants.
is interstital pneumonia a inflammatory or non-inflammatory process?It is an INFLAMMATORY PROCESS!!
Acute interstitial pneumonia usually begins with injury to what? This leads to what stage first? What is the stage following this?Starts with damage to either the type I pneumoncytes or alveolar capillary endothelium which results in exudation into the the alveolar lumen, dubbed the EXUDATIVE PHASE. The acute exudative phase is followed by the proliferative stage where there is hyperplasia of pneumoncytes II
what are the two stages of ACUTE interstitial pneumonia, and what charaterizes each of them?FIRST there is the EXUDATIVE PHASE where there is injury to pneumoncytes I OR alveolar capillary endothelium resulting in exudation into alveolar lumen (hence exudative). This is usually followed by the PROLIFERATIVE stage where there is hyperplasia of pneumoncytes II (type I are destroyed so type II grow, theyre the healing ones)
what are the gross lesions associated with ACUTE interstitial pneumonia? why are they this way?Because of the proliferative stage where there is hyperplasia of penumocytes II, the alveolar walls become thickened, so the lungs are more rubbery on palpation and dont collapse when you open the thorax
what happens if there is MILD acute interstitial pneumonia? how about severe?in mild they often recovery quickly. in SEVERE, they develop fatal pulmonary edema and die of respiratory failure.
what are the 5 major hallmarks of CHRONIC interstitial pneumonia?(1) Accumulation of mononuclear inflammatory cells in the interstitium and occasionally in the alveoli and bronchi. (2) Alveolar fibrosis (3) Persistence of hyperplastic type II pneumocytes (4) Formation of microscopic granulomas (5) Hyperplasia of smooth muscles in airways or pulmonary vasculature
hyperplasia of smooth mm in airways/pulmonary vasculature is a hallmark sign of what kind of penumonia?CHRONIC INTERSTITIAL pneumonia
what is the Distribution of lesions in interstitial pneumonia like?Lesions are more widely distributed and generally involve the whole lung
which penumonia involves the WHOLE LUNG?INTERSTITIAL PNEUMONIA
if the lungs don't collapse when you open the thoracic cavity, theyre heavy with elastic texture, and there are rib impression on the lungs, which dz do you suspect?interstitial penumonia-- acute OR chronic
if the lungs are meaty in appearance and there is no visible exudate, what dz do you suspect?interstitial penumonia-- acute OR chronic
what is the color of lungs with interstitial pneumonia (chronic OR acute)?Color varies from diffusely red to pale gray.
what are 5 Important features of interstitial pneumonia?(1) Failure of lungs to collapse on opening of thoracic cavity (2) Occasional presence of rib impressions on the lungs (3) Lack of visible exudate in the lung and have meaty appearance (4) Lungs are heavy and texture is elastic or rubbery (5) Color varies from diffusely red to pale gray.
what are 3 possible sequale to interstitial pneumonia?(1) Recovery takes place by complete resolution (2) Death due to pulmonary edema, particularly in cattle (3) Healing by fibrosis marked by thickening of alveolar walls and epithelization of the alveoli. In well advanced cases epithelization of lung tissue look like gland.
Explain the lung locations of bronchopenumonia, interstitial pneumonia, and embolic pneumoniaBRONCHO: Anterio-ventral part. INTERSTITIAL: whole lung. EMBOLIC: whole lung with small abscesses
Bronchointerstitial Pneumonia--> what does this term describe?describes cases in which pulmonary lesions share features of bronchopneumonia and interstitial pneumonia.
when is Bronchointerstitial Pneumonia most often seen? examples?It is frequently seen in many viral infections in which virus causes injury to bronchial and alveolar cells. Examples include uncomplicated cases of respiratory syncytial virus infection in bovine and lambs, Canine distemper and influenza in pigs and horses
Abscesses in lung arise from two causes-- what are they?(1) Bronchopneumonia (2) Metastatic from septic emboli arrested in pulmonary vessels
Abscesses in lung--> describe what the abscesses look like when they are caused by BRONCHOPNEUMONIAabscesses are large, isolated, confined to anterioventral part of the lung and are seen extending from the bronchial tree.
Abscesses in lung--> describe what the abscesses look like when they are Metastatic from septic emboli arrested in pulmonary vessels?abscesses are small, multiple and widely distributed in whole lung, seen spreading from blood vessels. A careful search should be made to locate the source of emboli.
embolic pneumonia is a result of?metastatic abscesses
which two types of pneumonia are MULTIFOCALLY distributed?embolic pneumonia and parasitic pneumonia
**what are 4 main sources of septic emboli?(result in embolic penumonia) (1) Rupture of hepatic abscesses (cattle) (2) Infected jugular catheter (3) Valvular endocarditis (4) Other localized infections
(what does embolic penumonia look like on the histo- pic on slide 143)necrosis in center with neutrophils all around
what are the two kinds of Granulomatous pneumonia?INFECTIOUS granuloma and NON-INFECTIOUS granuloma
what are the main causes of INFECTIOUS GRANULOMAS (leading to granulomatous pneumonia)?****FUNGI***** also can be bacteria or parasites
what causes NON-INFECTIOUS GRANULOMAS (leading to granulomatous pneumonia?)produced by INERT SUBSTANCES (just some junk in there, basically)
is Granulomatous pneumonia single or mult? The distribution of granulomatous pneumonia depends on...can be single OR mult. depends on causative agent
what is the gross appearance of a Granulomatous pneumonia granuloma?Texture may be soft, creamy and yellowish to caseous gray. Encapsulated granuloma may be hard, gritty,and white gray in color.
what is the microscopic appearance of a Granulomatous pneumonia granuloma?DEPENDS on the causative agent
**what are the 3 main FUNGI CAUSES of granulomatous pneumonia?Coccidioides immitis, Blastomyces dermatidis, Histoplasma capsulatum
**what are the 3 main HIGHER BACTERIA CAUSES of granulomatous pneumonia?Mycobacterium species, Rhodococcus equui
**which VIRUS can cause granulomatous pneumonia?FIP
aside from fungal, bacterial, and viral causes, what other two agents can cause granulomatous pneumonia?inhaled foreign material, parasites
predominant inflammatory cell of embolic pneumonia? granulomatous pneumonia?EMBOLIC= neutrophils. GRANULOMATOUS= Mononuclear cells (macrophages)

Pneumonia of cattle

Question Answer
Bovine Respiratory Disease is a clinical term which includes what three diseases?(1) Enzootic pneumonia of calves (2) bacterial pneumonia (mannheimia haemolyica, Histophilus somnus and Patstuerella multocida) (3) Respiratory viral infections
*Enzootic pneumonia of calves (calf pneumonia) is caused by?a VARIETY of etiological agents. Usually starts with a VIRAL infection, but later bacterial contaminants like H. somnus, Actionmyces pyogenus and mycoplasma produce a SUPPURATIVE bronchopneumonia. (lesions depend on stage of th dz!!)
*Enzootic pneumonia of calves (calf pneumonia) is common at what age for what kind of cattle?1-4 month old dairy cattle.
what are the clinical signs, as well as morbidity and mortality rates of enzootic pneumonia of calves?clinical signs include fever, anorexia and dyspnea. Morbidity is high with low mortality rate
*Shipping fever (transit fever, pneumonic pasteurellosis) is a dz important in who, where?Important in feedlot cattle (usually calves/young cattle) in North America.
**what is the etiological agent of shipping fever (aka transit fever aka pneumonic pasteurellosis)?Mannheimia hemolytica serotype 1 is believed to be etiological agent, which colonize the nasopharynx of normal! calves. agent, which colonize the nasopharynx of normal calves. Weaning, transport, crowding, starvation and viral infections predispose for the condition.
**when is shipping fever seen in calves?Disease is seen in calves 3days to 3 weeks after exposure to unfavorable conditions of stress
***what are the clinical signs and lesions of shipping fever?they are of Acute fibrinous bronchopneumonia!!!! (Severe congestion, hemorrhages and exudation of fibrin which accumulates on pleural surfaces, septa, alveoli and thoracic cavity. Remember its the more severe one, as compared to suppurative. Marbled appearance, Foci of coagulative necrosis encapsulated by connective tissue (sequestrum) are common.)
What is the causative agent of Bovine pasteurellosis (hemorrhagic Septicemia)?P.multocida serotype B and E., colonize nasopharynx of healthy claves--- STRESS is what triggers it to become pathological.
where is Bovine pasteurellosis (hemorrhagic Septicemia) enzootic? WHAT ARE THE LESIONS?NOT REPORTED IN N. AMERICA! Lesions are of acute septicemia, hemorrhages and fibrinohemorrhagic interstitial pneumonia.
Respiratory histophilosis is caused by what, and what are the major problems/symptoms of this DISEASE COMPLEX?histophilus somni. The disease complex involves TME(thromboembolic menigioencephalitis), Septicemia, Nervous lesions, arthritis, eye lesions, abortion.
**what are the lesions of respiratory histophilosis?fibrinous bronchopneumonia (he didn't emphasize, but rest of lesions section said: similar to pneumonic pasteurellosis. A mixed infection by H. somnus, M. hemolytica and mycoplasma is common.)
what's another name for histophilus somni?haemophilus
*what is the etiological agent of Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia? where does this dz geographically occur?Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies mycoides (small colony). (Eradicated from North America!!!)
**what are the lesions of Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia?Fibrinous bronchopneumonia, which is usually unilateral restricted to caudal lobes.
*Mycoplasma bovis has what two manifestations???(1) As a component of enzootic pneumonia in young calves. (2) In chronic pneumonia and polyarthritis in feedlot cattle.
how is M. bovis shed?shed in secretions of respiratory tract, genital tract and mammary gland from infected animals.
**what are the lesions M. bovis causes in the resp system?*Suppurative bronchopneumonia.*! (he pointed out that all other mycoplasma causefibrinous bronchopneumonia--except for this one)
Tuberculosis in cattle can be caused by WHICH 3 etiological agents?M. bovis, M.tuberculosis, M. avium-intracellulare.
what is the lesion that tuberculosis (from M. bovis, M. tuberculosis, M. avium-interacellulare) cause?**GRANULOMAS!!!
Acute bovine pulmonary edema (ABPE) is aka? what's the shortened reason for the cause? (more detailed card on cause later)AKA fog fever. Caused by changing the forrage to something really lush
explain the pathogenesis of Acute bovine pulmonary edema (ABPE)There is a forage change to lush grass which is high in L-tryptophane, which is metabolized in the rumen into 3- methylindol, which is absorbed in the blood. The 3-methylindol in the blood gets to the lungs, where it is Metabolized to highly pneumotoxic product by Clara cells (remember, clara cells are cells in bronchioles which cause detox-- oh the irony). The pneumonitoxic product is toxic to Type I pneumocytes, bronchial, and endothelial cells.
what are the lesions of Acute Bovine Pulmonary Edema (ABPE)?Lesions of diffuse interstitial pneumonia and edema (makes sense, it's everywhere bc it's hematogenous toxin)
*Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (extrinsic allergic alveolitis) causes what kind of lesions?**Interstitial pneumonia.**
what is the cause of hypersensitivity pneumonitis?Moldy hay (hypersensitivity type III), and also seen in parasitic infection with lung worms.
Parasitic pneumonia (verminous pneumonia) is caused by which parasite?? where do these parasites like to live?Dictyocaulus viviparus. The parasites live in the intrapulmonary bronchi of caudal lobes of lungs.
what age is parasitic pneumonia most common in? what are the clinical signs like?Disease is common in calves. Clinical signs resemble to that seen in interstitial pneumonia.