Path- Respiratory 2

untimely's version from 2015-04-19 05:31

Specific Diseases of Nasal cavity CONTINUED

Question Answer
explain what the Transitory rhinitis of dogs is associated with (two specific examples)associated with generalized bacterial and viral diseases: (1) Bacterial - B. bronchiseptica, E.coli, P. multocida. (2) Viral- Canine distemper, canine adenovirus 1 and 2, reovirus, canine herpes virus and parainfluenza virus
which parasite can cause a dz of the nasal cavity in dogs? important to know is?Linguatula serrata, adult stage lives in nasal passages of carnivores produce catarrhal inflammation. Herbivores and humans are aberrant host--> ZOONOTIC
Feline virus rhinotracheitis (FVR) is caused by what?Feline herpesvirus-1.
which feline virus is an important resp dz of cats worldwide?FVR (feline rhinotracheitis) (calicivirus is also very important)
what are the clinical signs of feline virus rhinotracheitis?Severe rhinitis, conjuntivitis with oculonasal discharges.(Bacterial contamination produces suppurative rhinits and conjuntivitis). FVR also causes ulcerative keratitis, hepatic necrosis, abortion and stillbirths.
how can you histologically identify FVR (feline viral rhinotracheitis)?Intranuclear inclusions present in early phase of the disease in the epithelium of upper respiratory passage.
which feline virus can also cause ulcerative keratitis, hepatic necrosis, abortion and stillbirths?FVR- feline viral rhinotracheitis- caused by feline herpesvirus 1
which two feline viruses account for 80% of respiratory disease in cats?FVR (feline viral rhinotracheitis ie feline herpesvirus 1) and FCV (feline calicivirus)
how can you differentiate the very similar presenting feline viral rhinotracheitis and calicivirus?in CALICIVIRUS, In addition to conjuntivitis and rhinitis, there will be ulcers of the tongue and hard palate. (SO: FVR which affects upper respiratory tract; FCV causing ulcers on tongue and hard palate)
what is limping kitten syndrome, and what agent is it realted to/caused by?an acute self limiting arthritis caused by infection or vaccination with some FCV (feline calicivirus) strains.
Feline Chlamydiosis is caused by what? what clinical signs does it cause? Chlamydophilla felis. It causes mild conjuntivitis and serous to mucopurulent rhinitis.
*Feline respiratory disease complex: what are the agentS which cause this complex? how do some of the agents contribute to the complex?FCV,FVR, Chlamydia, mycoplasma and FIP. Chlamydia and mycoplasma are less important. FIP may cause signs of upper respiratory tract infection, but produces more generalized disease.
Inclusion body rhinitis: who does this affect? what is the causative agent?PIGS up to 10wk of age (so, YOUNG pigs), Porcine cytomegalovirus (herpes virus).
what is the morbidity of mortality of Inclusion body rhinitis? what are the lesions like?(young pigs, cytomegalovirus aka herpes) there is high mordibity but low mortality with lesions that are necrotizing and non suppurative.
how can you dx inclusion body rhinitis?(young pigs, cytomegalovirus aka herpes) Intra nuclear inclusions (basophilic) in nasal gland epithelium.
Atrophic rhinitis: who does this affect? what is the causative agent?affects OLDER PIGS (bc it takes months to develop). Etiology is not clear, but Believed to be a combined infection of B. bronchiseptica and toxigenic strain of P. multocida.
what are the clinical signs of atrophic rhinitis? (3)(1) Sneezing and nasal discharge (2) Slow progressing disease over months resulting in dyspnea and death (hence, since it takes a while to develop, it affects OLDER pigs) (3) Retarded growth of snout, becoming short and concave; bending on the side most severely affected. Atrophy of conchae, in severe cases even missing conchae.
how can you diagnose atropic rhinitis? (3)(1) clinical signs (IN OLDER PIGS) (2) Rarefaction of turbinates leaving only a dense fibrous band. (3) Condition is best diagnosed by making a transverse section of the snout between 1st and 2nd premolar teeth.
(deemphasized) what's the main ddx for nasal neoplasia?nasal granuloma
(deemphasized) WHO most often gets nasal neoplasia? is it usually malig or benign? which type specifically is more common?dogs usually get them. and they are frequently MALIGNANT. Carcinomas more common than sarcomas. (Squamous cell carcinoma predominate in cat and horse). SO, EPITHELIAL MALIGNANT TUMOR MORE COMMON
General clinical signs of upper respiratory tract infections are.... (3)(1) Sneezing, unilateral or bilateral nasal discharge which may be serous, mucoid or purulent. (2) In case of tumors, foreign body, parasites and fungal infections the exudate in the nasal passage may be blood tinged. (3) Swelling of the sinuses and distortion of the face is usually because of tumors, and in pigs it is because of specific disease (atrophic rhinitis).

Specific diseases of larynx,trachea and bronchi

Question Answer
*what is Bronchiectasis? What causes it? What problems can it lead to?Bronchiectasis is permanent abnormal dilation of bronchi as a result of chronic bronchial obstruction and infection. It is mainly due to destruction of elastic and muscular components of airway walls. Dilation and accumulation of lung secretions perpetuate lung damage, which predisposes for infection and compromise lung functions.
explain sacular versus cylindrical dilation (general)sacular dilation- after wall of bronchi has weakened (looks like preggo bump). cylinidrical dilation- usually due to obstruction (dilated above the blockage) (looks like how cylinder dilated)
which is more common- sacular or cylindrical dilation?cylindrical
who does SACCULAR bronchiectasis happen in most commonly? What causes this?most often in CATTLE, although common in cats and dogs too. Caused by local obstruction by inhaled foreign body, or a tumor, or a granuloma. This is because they cause a defect in the all of the bronchi and it causes it to bulge out in a sac-like dilation
how much of the bronchus is usually affected in cylindrical bronchiectasis? what causes this?mostly entire length of bronchi is affected. It is caused by OBSTRUCTION, and is a frequent sequale of CHRONIC bronchopneumonia
Bronchiectasis is always an ___ conditionunfavorable
Necrotic laryngitis (aka calf diphtheria) happens to who? what is the etiological agent? (CSs?)mostly CALVES, but also occurs in sheep. Caused by Fusobacterium necrophorum. (clinical signs are very non-specific so he didn't emphasize, however they are Fever, anorexia, moist painful cough and dyspnea. Lesions are dry, yellow gray necrotic areas on larynx. Deep ulcers may also develop)
what is the sequale to necrotic laryngitis (calf diptheria)Sequel of calf diphtheria is usually death by toxemia or bronchopneumonia
Laryngeal Paralysis is aka? who does this most often affect, and what causes this problem?aka "roaring". Usually affects horses(can affect older large and giant breed dogs). caused by NERVE DAMAGE!!! leading to paralysis of the recurrent laryngeal nerve (usually left) resulting in ATROPHY of cricoarytenoid muscles
laryngeal paralysis is caused by nerve damage, usually by _________ or _________ of the nerve. Fill in the blanks and then list some things that can cause thiscompression or inflammation of the nerve. Could be caused by mycosis of guttural pouch, retropharyngeal abscess, Neoplasm involving cervical lymph glands, Injury and inflammatory lesions in the neck., Empyema of guttural pouch.
Equine pharyngeal lymphoid hyperplasia is most often seen in what kind of horses? what causes this and what are the lesions?common in 2-3yo race horses. and the etiologiy is NOT CLEAR. Lesions are seen grossly as visible sized white foci on dorsolateral pharynx and on left palate.
Mycosis of guttural pouch is usually caused by what?Aspergillus fumigatus and other Aspergillus sp.
what are the clinical signs of mycosis of the gutteral pouch? explain them.Clinical signs arise from the damage to the cranial nerves and the arteries within the mucosa of guttural pouch. MOST COMMON is epistaxis because of fungal erosion of the wall of the internal carotid or branches of external carotid. (hemorrhage is spontaneous and severe and repeated bouts may precede to fatal hemorrhage.). Dysphagia, Horner’s syndrome, and dorsal displacement of soft palate may develop due to damage to cranial nerves and the sympathetic nerves that traverse the guttural pouch
what's the most common clinical presentation of mycosis of the gutteral pouch?intermittant epistaxis
how does mycosis of the gutteral pouch look grossly?Mucosa of guttural pouch is covered with fibrinonecrotic exudate, located at caudodorsal aspect of the medial pouch.
how do you dx mycosis of the gutteral pouch?Diagnosis is confirmed by endoscopy of guttural pouch
what are the four sequale of mycosis of the gutteral pouch?(1) Erosion of internal and occasionally external carotid artery resulting in epistaxis and repeated bouts may result in fatal bleeding (2) Formation of thrombi & emboli and brain abscess (3) Laryngeal nerve paralysis. (4) Dysphagia and Horner’s syndrome.
Empyema of guttural pouch is aka and caused by?aka strangles, strep equi equi
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease of horses has a million names. what are some of the akas?aka recurrent airway obstruction (RAO) chronic bronchiolitis emphysema complex, heaves, chronic small airway disease, alveolar emphysema, broken wind
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease of horses is what/ caused by what?A clinical syndrome comparable to allergic bronchitis in humans. It is believed to caused by inhalation of fungal spores and dust. Lesions are of chronic bronchitis.
what is a problem which can develop from severe cases of COPD of horses?In severe cases accumulation of mucus leads to incomplete obstruction of bronchioles and alveoli, causing alveolar emphysema (accumulation of air in the lungs)
(he said don't worry about dogs too much) Canine infectious tracheobronchitis etiology?Etiology is complex. The viruses of influenza group, adenoviruses and bacterium B. bronchiseptica have been suggested.
(he said don't worry about dogs too much) Canine infectious tracheobronchitis-- explain CSs and lesionsIt is a highly contagious infection with onset of coughing, between bouts of coughing most animals appear normal, some may show rhinitis, conjuntivitis and pharyngitis. Lesions consist of necrosis and suppuration in trachiobronchi
(he said don't worry about dogs too much) explain how Laryngeal Paralysis in dogs is different from horsesMost common in older, large and giant breeds, males.There will be abnormal barking and exercise intolerance. Laryngeal paralysis may predispose to aspiration pneumonia. cause in dogs is unknown, not proven to be the same as horses with the nerve damage
Feline asthma ( feline allergic bronchitis)--> what causes this? what are the lesions? what is a treatment that this condition responds well to and might help you dx it?believed to be a type I hypersensitivity. Lesions are of chronic bronchitis and in severe cases leads to obstruction of small bronchioles. RESPONDS WELL TO STEROID THERAPY!