Path- Respiratory 1

untimely's version from 2015-04-17 14:10

Respiratory System general

Question Answer
what are the three parts of the resp system?(1) conductive (2) transitional (3) gas exchange and detoxification
what are the parts of the resp system in the CONDUCTIVE portion?Nostrils, Pharynx, Larynx, Trachea and bronchi
what are the parts of the resp system in the TRANSITIONAL portion?ONLY THE BRONCHIOLES! The tissue is between ciliated cells and alveolar cells. (ciliated are reducing and alveolar are inc)
what are the parts of the resp system in the Gas exchange and detoxification portion?GAS EXHANGE: in the alveoli, Pneumocyte I membranous and pneumocyte II granular. DETOXIFICATION: In bronchioles goblet cells replaced by Clara cells – performs detoxification of foreign substances similar to hepatocytes.
whats the function of Pneumocyte I?gas exchange best fxn of these, very membranous
whats the function of Pneumocyte II?secrete surfactant Second secrete surfactant. surfactant= keeps alveoli open. Secreting things is why they are granular in appearance
what are clara cells and where are they?in bronchioles, they perform detox function (kinda like hepatocytes)
explain what anatomical structures there are between the terminal bronchiole and the alveolus? what is this called? (one terminal bronchiole will form one ascinus) terminal bronchiole--> respiratory bronchiole--> alveolar duct--> alveolar sac--> alveolus
explain the relationship between a Lobe, Acinus, lobule and interlobular septum (see slide 4 for a pic)a lobe is made of many lobules, and each lobule is composed of many acinus (8-10). Each lobule is separated by a interlobular septum
explain the relationship of the Alveoli and inter-alveolar septa, and what each is composed ofthe IA-septum is between each alveolus. In the septum are the capllaries, some intra-capillary/vascular macrophages, and some elastin/collagen fibers. The blood vessels in the septum share a basement membrane with the alveolus for better gas exchange. The alveolus is composed of two types of cells- Type I (gas exchange) and Type II (surfactant production)
The Pattern of respiratory disease mostly depends on what?on ROUTE OF ENTRY and etiological agents
what are the three routes of entry into the resp. system? (and what type of etiological agents are usually via this route of entry)(1) Aerogenous (infectious/non-infectious) (2) Hematogenous (infectious/toxins) (3) Direct extension (infectious through trauma)
if there is an inhaled (aerogenuos route) particle (possible etiological agent) what are the three things that can happen it it (he labeled the slide as "defense mechanisms")(1) deposition (2) clearance (3) retention
what is happening if there is "deposition" (defense mechanism) in the lungparticle of various sizes/shapes trapped in the mucosal surface of the respiratory tract.
what is "clearance" (defense mechanism) of the lungit is the process by which deposited particles are destroyed, neutralized or removed from the mucosal surfaces. Sneezing, coughing, muco- ciliary effect and phagocytosis are main mechanisms involved in clearance.
what is retention (defense mechanism) of the lungthe difference between what is deposited and what is cleared from the respiratory tract. (stuff that stays)
what are 4 specific defenses of the lung against airborne (aerogenous route) agents?(1) Sneeze, cough, reflex broncho-constriction. (2) Mucocilliary effect (mucociliary clearance, antibodies, lysosomes inside mucus, mucus itself) (3) BALT ( Bronchial associated lymphoid tissue) (4) Alveolar defense--> Pulmonary alveolar macrophages (phagocytosis)
which parts of the reps system are sterile, and which parts are non-sterile? (why are some areas sterile?)NONsterile: Nasal cavity, pharynx and larynx. STERILE: Thoracic part of trachea, bronchi and lungs are considered sterile due to effective defense mechanism.
if the animal is sick but all you see is normal flora, what should you keep in mind?Normal flora in the respiratory tract can be pathogenic
what are Bacteria that are resistant to killing by macrophageS?:Mycobacterium, Rhodococcus, Listeria sp
what are defenses against blood borne agents? (SPECIES DIFFERENCES)there are PULMONARY INTRAVASCULAR MACROPHAGES in rumi, pig, cat, horse. This is different from in dogs, rodents, and humans, who use their Hepatic macrophages and Splenic macrophages.
does a dog use lung or liver/spleen macrophages as a hematogenous route defense?liver/spleen
does a rat use lung or liver/spleen macrophages as a hematogenous route defense?liver/spleen
does a cat use lung or liver/spleen macrophages as a hematogenous route defense?lung
does a sheep use lung or liver/spleen macrophages as a hematogenous route defense?lung
how are viruses capable of impairing defense mechanisms? (2)(1) Destruction of mucocilliary blanket (2) Impaired alveolar macrophage function
how are bacteria capable of impairing defense mechanisms?Some bact live and replicate within macrophages
there can be Impairment of defense mechanisms by direct damage to cells via...toxins
Uremia, dehydration, endotoxemia, hypoxia, edema, anesthesia and other factors can all lead to....Impairment of defense mechanisms
does immunodeficiency play a role in Impairment of defense mechanisms leading to resp dz?it's not a common cause of respiratory diseases but a definite risk factor (Pneumocystis carinii infection in pigs, Arabian foals, dogs and rodents can make lung moer suseptible)
what is inflammation of the nasal cavity called? what are some common (general) causes of this?rhinitis can be caused by bact, viruses, fungi, chemicals and allergens, and parasites
how is rhinitis characterized? list the 5 typesRhinitis is characterized on the nature of exudate, which vary with the causative agent. The five types are Serous, catarrhal, purulent, hemorrhagic, and granulomatous

Specific Diseases of Nasal cavity

Question Answer
Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis....aka? is caused by?aka rednose, It is caused by bovine herpes virus.
of the various presentations of bovine rhinotracheitis, what is up with the respiratory presentation, and how dangerous is it?THREE presentations. *he only cares about the respiratory one though!! (1) RESPIRATORY form in feedlot cattle in the US. viral infection alone is not life threatening, but predisposes to secondary bacterial pneumonia specially with M. hemolytica, which may be fatal ( (2) causes genital infection in male and female breeding cattle (3) In young calves, a generalized disease)
what are the five clinical signs of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis in (what kind of?) cattle?feedlot cattle. (1) Pyrexia, anorexia and coughing. (2) Nasal discharge, initial serous to mucopurulent. (3) Lacrimation and conjuntivitis with corneal opacity. (4) Inflammed nares, hence the name- ‘red nose’. (5) Dyspnea, if laryngitis develops.
what are the lesions associated with Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis?Here is hyperemia, then necrosis and petechial and ecchymotic hemorrhages, and after sloughing, ulcers develop.
how can you histologically diagnose infectious bovine rhinotracheitis?you can do an impression smear and find intraNUCLEAR inclusion bodies
Nasal Granuloma (granulomatous rhinitis) is MOST OFTEN caused by which type of agent?mycotic agents
Nasal Granuloma (granulomatous rhinitis) which mycotic agents (3) affect which species to cause nasal granulomas?(1) Rhinosporidium seeberi in cattle, dog, horse, cat. (2) Cryptococcus neoformans in cats. (3 ) Aspergillus and penicillium in dogs
Rhinosporidium seeberi causes what in who?nasal granuloma in cattle, dog, horse, cat
Cryptococcus neoformans causes what in who?nasal granuloma in cats
Aspergillus and penicillium causes what in who?nasal granulmoa in dogs
what is something all species can experience which can cause a nasal granuloma?alleriges
How do nasal granulomas grossly appear? (unique attribute?) what is the main problem they cause?Grossly granuloma is seen as polypoid nodules, which are soft, pink and bleed easily (if you touch it and it starts bleeding. it's a granuloma. dff from tumor with bx). Large growths may obstruct the nasal passage, resulting in severe respiratory distress
(whats Myasis?)A condition when larvae of flies invade the living tissue. Larvae of oestrus ovis (nasal bot) is important in sheep. They produce catarrhal to suppurative rhinitis
what agent causes Equine viral rhinopneumonitis?Equine herpes virus *4 and occasionally *1
what is the unique clinical sign of equine viral rhinopneumonitis?edematous swelling of pharyngeal lymph nodes. (this allows you to differentiate it from a bacterial infection). (otherwise, just normal symptoms like Fever, congestion and serous inflammation of nasal mucosa, conjuntivitis, cough)
what are the lesions associated with equine viral rhinopneumonitis?Ulceration and necrosis of respiratory epithelium with intra nuclear inclusions in epithelial cells.
what causes equine influenza?Type A orthomyxovirus
what are the typical lesions of equine influenza?Lesions usually NOT seen in the nasal passages (but if they are, can sometimes product serous nasal discharge which moves to mucopurulent). Usually, the dz leads to interstitial pneumonia and pulmonary edema.
Equine viral arteritis is caused by what?arterivirus
what are the two major lesions of equine virual arteritis?(1) Serous and muco purulent rhinitis, conjunctivitis and palpebral edema. (2) Virus causes fibrinoid degeneration of muscular arteries, cause of hemorrhage in various tissues. (*influenza/Equine viral rhinopneumonitis also cause hemorrhages, but in arteritis lesions of hemorrhages in VARIOUS tissues bc degeneration in various tissues! )
what are the unique clinical signs of equine viral arteritis?edema of limbs and ventral abdomen (and eyelids) <---is how to diff from the other resp viruses of horses. (can also see more common symptoms liek Respiratory distress, fever, diarrhea, colic, abortion)
what is strangles caused by?Streptococcus equi equi.
what are the clinical signs of strangles?(strep equi equi) signs- fever, bilateral mucopurulent nasal discharge, Lymphadenopathy and painful swelling of lymph glands
which horse disease BEGINS with mucopurulent discharge and causes PAINFUL lymph gland swellings?strangles (strep equi)
what are the lesions of strangles?Suppurative rhinitis and lymphadenitits (mandibular and parapharyngeal).
how can you tell, in horses, the difference between a herpes(Equine viral rhinopneumonitis) infection and a streptocoocus (strangles) infection?the step infection will be SUPPURATIVE and the LNs will contain pus. In herpes, they are only edematous.
what are some really crappy sequale to a strangles infection?* extension of infection to paranasal sinuses and guttural pouch,* internal organs,*laryngeal hemiplagia, facial paralysis and Horner’s syndrome, and *purpura hemorrhagica (type III hypersensitibity)
which dz can cause empyema of the gutteral pouch?strangles
which dz in who can lead to laryngeal hemiplagia, facial paralysis and Horner’s syndrome?HORSE- strangles
which dz in who can cause a type III hypersensitivity called purpura hemorrhagica?HORSES, strangles
Which horse dzs are zoonotic? (2)(1) GLANDERS (Burkholderia mallie) (2) Meliodiosis aka pseudoglanders (Burkholderia seudomallie)
(he didn't emphasize)What causes Glanders? who does it affect? where is it(geographically)? What's important about it? what are the lesions?Glanders is caused by Burkholderia mallie. It is a horse disease which is NOT present in the US, but we care because it is ZOONOTIC to man and dogs. It causes suppurative nodules in nasal cavity, lung and skin
(he didn't emphasize) Meliodiosis (pseudoglanders) is caused by what? who does it affect? how is it different from glanders?caused by Burkholderia seudomallie. IT affects horses, cattle, sheep, goats,pigs,dogs,cats, rodents and man! ZOONOTIC! When in horses, disease is similar to glanders (suppurative nodules). (Confined to Australia, Europe and South East Asia.). THE DIFFERENCE between glanders and pseudoglanders is that pseudo is caused by sthing else, and it affects a wider range of hosts
what is a nasal polyp, and how is it different from a granuloma?polyp is a pedunculated mass, and is due to an inflammatory condition. Granulomas usually are due to an etiological agent are they are soft, pink and bleed easily.