Path- Repro- Placentas, abortions, etc 2

untimely's version from 2015-05-03 05:58

CATTLE abortions continued

Question Answer
Infectious cause of abortion--> Hepatic lesions usually caused by what three agents?Campylobacter, Listeria, IBR ((Drinking listerine when camping is a bad for your liver, IBRo
Infectious cause of abortion--> Interstitial pneumonia usually caused by what two agents?Brucella, bacterial septicemia (by BB bruce keeps coughing from his bacterial penuemonia, its bad for his stitches)
Infectious cause of abortion-->Fibrin on serosal surfaces means what caused the abortion?bacterial septicemia!! (bacteria all in the blood making the clotting factors all pissed off)
Infectious cause of abortion-->what's Omphalophlebitis?aka navel ill, this is an infection of the umbilicus which causes a septicemia
Infectious cause of abortion-->if there is a stillborn calf and you see Pale streaky skeletal/cardiac muscles, what do you think killed it?Neospora (streaks of neosporin on the calf won't bring it back to life)
campylobacter leaves what kinda lesions on the dead fetus?hepatic lesions
listeria leaves what kinda lesions on the dead fetus?hepatic lesions
IBR leaves what kinda lesions on the dead fetus?hepatic lesions
brucella leaves what kinda lesions on the dead fetus?interstitial pneumonia
bacterial septicemia leaves what kinda lesions on the dead fetus?interstitial penumonia, fibrin on serosal surfaces
Fetal/Stillborn Calf Lesions--> what are signs they died of Dystocia or shortly after birth? (6)(1) Subcutaneous edema of head/neck (pressure of pushing) (2) Inflated lungs (3) Subdural hemorrhage (pressure from pushing) (4) Ruptured liver (pressure) (5) Staining or aspiration of meconium (prolly means they were in distress- they pooped everywhere) (6) Hemorrhage of amniotic tissues (pressure of pushing)
If there are a bunch of abortions at once, what kinda agent do you suspect?viral
Viral culture/identification---> three things you can look at diagnostically to see if it might be viral?(1) PCR -needs to be checked against gross/microscopic lesions and other tests (2) Cytopathic effect on monolayers (3) EM –observation of viral particles
5 Factors suggesting a viral etiology??(1) Multiple cases of abortion during breeding season (2) Abortion storms (3) Increased congenital defectsBVD (4) Malformations of fetus (5) Increased numbers of fetal resorptions????
malformed fetuses most often point to what etiology?viral
what is the BEST/idea Submission of Samples?Send in the whole fetus/placenta and let the lab do it (best)
Submission of Samples--> if you want to Do necropsy yourself and send in samples, what should you take/do?send in Blood smears from fetus and dam, Impression smears of cotyledons, and get the Abomasal contents for culture and Preparation of stained smears, tissues for bact/viral culture/isolation (more on other cards), Tissues for histopathology
WHAT are tissues for bacterial culture (5)? how do you treat them for transport?Lung, liver, kidney, spleen, cotyledons, others! Place tissues in separate sterile bags and place on ice (do not freeze)
Tissues for viral isolation/PCR? how do you treat them for transport?Lung, liver, spleen. Place tissues in separate sterile bags and place on ice (can be frozen)
what is a big difference in how you can mail tissues for bacterial culture versus viral isolation?you can FREEZE tissues for viral isolation
what are tissues you can send in for histopathology?Lung, liver, kidney, spleen, heart, adrenal, lymph node, thymus, brain, skeletal muscle, placenta. Place tissues in 10% buffered formalin
if you want to take blood samples that aren't from the dead fetus itself, who/when do you take blood samples?Blood samples from dam and some of her friends. Samples at time of abortion and samples 3 to 4 weeks later
(long notes) what is Epizootic bovine abortion (foothill abortion)?The causative agent is believed to be a Deltaproteobacterium and is known as the agent of epizootic bovine abortion. Vector borne (soft tick)Abortions do not occur until 3 or 4 months following exposure to infected ticks so cattle usually don’t abort until the last trimester
(long notes) gross lesions of fetus with epizootic bovine abortion?In an infected fetus with a gestational age of older than 100 days gross lesions include petechial hemorrhages over the conjunctiva and oral mucosa, ascites, enlarged nodular liver, enlarged lymph nodes and enlarged spleen. There is also thymic atrophy.
(long notes) Other bacteria occasionally causing abortion in cattle include... Salmonella sp., Mannheimia sp., Histophilus sp. and Trueperella sp.
(long notes) mycotic abortion in cattle usually caused byFungal agents including Aspergillus spp. and Zygomycotic agents (Absidia, Mortierella, Rhizopus and Mucor)
(long notes) when do mycotic abortions usually occur? how do the fungal agents get to the fetus?Abortions caused by mycotic agents usually occur in the sixth to eighth month of gestation. Spread to the pregnant uterus is through the bloodstream. The organism affects the placentomes first
(long notes) lesions of placenta in mycotic abortion?Lesions include chronic necrotic placentitis with enlarged, brown and friable placentomes and a multifocally thickened, leathery chorioallantois that is covered with a brownish exudate. The placenta is often retained.
(long notes) lesions of fetus in mycotic abortion?may not be present. Gross lesions sometimes observed involve the fetal skin and are manifested as irregular elevated plaques over the body of the aborted fetus. Affected areas are slightly elevated, gray and irregular in outline. They tend to coalesce with adjacent affected areas
(long notes) two viruses which can cause abortions in cattle?BVD (flaviviridae), Bovine herpesvirus 1
(long notes) explain all the horrible stuff BVD abortion doesoophoritis, fertilization failure, embryonic death, absorption or abortion, mummification, stillbirths, birth of small calves, or calves with congenital defects. Abortion storms have been reported with BVDV.
(long notes) Bovine herpesvirus 1 usually causes abortion when, how does it infect the fetus?5 and 8 months of gestation. spread between adults via via respiratory, ocular and vaginal discharges. When the virus enters the mucosa of the respiratory or genital tract in a pregnant animal it multiples at that site and is carried to the rest of the body in infected leukocytes and blood to the pregnant uterus. The virus passes through the placenta into the fetus where it causes necrosis in a variety of organs leading to rapid fetal death. Expulsion of the fetus occurs 3 to 5 days following fetal death and there is advanced fetal autolysis. Placental lesions are rarely observed.
(long notes) advanced fetal autolysis might indicate which viral abortion cause?bovine herpesvirus 1
(long notes) what are two protozoa which cause abortions in cattle?Neospora caninum, Tritrichomonas foetus
(long notes) how does Neospora caninum affect the fetus and cause abortion?Microscopically, there is epicarditis, myocarditis, and endocarditis with intralesional protozoal organisms and hepatitis with hepatocellular necrosis
(long notes) Tritrichomonas foetus how is this dz charaterized?NOT abortion-- usually EARLY so causes RESORPTION

Equine abortion

Question Answer
placentation of horse?diffuse
how do endometrial cups form?Endometrial cups are formed when fetal chorionic girdle cells invade into the endometrium of the mare.
when do endometrial cups start forming, and when do they disappear? Usually begin to see around day 36 to 38 of gestation. (little over a month) Reach max size around days 55 to 70 (About two months) and begin to degenerate. Gone by days 100 to 140 of gestation (3-5mo)
what is the purpose of the endometrial cups?source of equine chorionic gonadotrophin(also called pregnant mares serum gonadotrophin). The product is actually equine luteinizing hormone. (helps maintain preg)
why do the endometrial cups regress? (and when?)(form 36-28d, max 55-70d gone by 100-140d) Destruction of endometrial cups is immunologically based. Immune system of mare destroys “invading” fetal cells.
Equine Rhinopneumonitis--> caused what what virus? how does it affect the mom? fetus?Equine herpevirus I. affects moms Respiratory tract, exposure during midpregnancy. Late term abortion –third trimester –8th to 11th month –95%
what are the placental lesions of Equine Rhinopneumonitis?Placenta mildly edematous and congested
explain the Pathophysiology of Equine RhinopneumonitisVirus infects maternal uterine endothelial cells--> endothelial necrosis--> Thrombosis of placental vessels--> Separation of maternal and fetal portions of placenta--> abortion
what are the lesions on the foal if it was aborted due to equine rhinopneumonitis?Edema in the subcutaneous tissues and in the facial areas, Small amount of amber fluid in body cavities and in the LUNGS you will see Severe edema, Lungs heavy and rubbery, Edema in interlobular septa, Multifocal areas of necrosis –pale to red foci. LIVER you will see Gray to tan to whitish areas of necrosis on capsular and cut surface. SPLEEN will be Moderately enlarged, Petechial hemorrhages on capsular and cut surface
how does equine herpes virus 1 affect the lungs?(equine rhinopneumonitis) Severe edema, Lungs heavy and rubbery, Edema in interlobular septa, Multifocal areas of necrosis –pale to red foci
if you find an aborted foal and you see that in the LUNGS there is Severe edema, Lungs heavy and rubbery, Edema in interlobular septa, Multifocal areas of necrosis –pale to red foci--> what do you think it is?equine rhinopneumonitis
how does equine herpes virus 1 affect the liver?(equine rhinopneumonitis) Gray to tan to whitish areas of necrosis on capsular and cut surface
how does equine herpes virus 1 affect the spleen?(equine rhinopneumonitis) Moderately enlarged, Petechial hemorrhages on capsular and cut surface
what are the microscopic lesions of Equine Rhinopneumonitis?Multifocal necrosis of a variety of tissues, Intranuclear inclusions
where would you sample and how would you ship the sample if you suspected equine rhinopneumonitis?Virus can be isolated from a variety of tissues including the lung, liver and spleen. Take samples and place in individual ziplock bags and ship on ice. Can also be frozen but best if not
Bacterial Abortion in equine is usually caused by what two agents(sp)?Streptococcus sp., Pseudomonas sp. ((usually Streptococcus zooepidemicus), E. coli and other Gram-negative bacteria)
what are the placental lesions like in bacterial abortion?Lesions usually centered around part of placenta in close apposition to the cervix –cervical star (This is because they are usually due to a ASCENDING LESiON and so would reach the cervical area first). include pale to dark discoloration of the placental tissues. Early on the lesions may be thickened and with time and advanced necrosis the placental tissues will be thin and friable.
what are the fetal lesions like in a bacterial abortion?Often few lesions in fetus. May have fibrin over surfaces and multifocal areas of necrosis but this is not often seen
how do you diagnose bacterial abortion?combination of gross lesions, and Culture of fetal organs –septicemia (Liver, kidney, lung)
what are agents which can cause Mycotic Abortions or horses?ASPERGILLUS, Absidia, Mortierella, Mucor, Rhizopus
when does mycotic abortion usually occur?Abortion can occur anytime but usually mid to late term
Placental lesions of mycotic abortion?Lesions usually most severe around cervix, with the Affected placenta thickened and brownish
what are fetal lesions like in mycotic abortion?May have small white to yellow to brown plaques on the foal’s skin. Skin may be normal.
how do you dx mycotic abortion?Gross and microscopic lesions, as well as fungal culture (Collect placental lesions and place on ice and ship to lab)
what usually occurs if a horse has twins?Horses rarely give birth to twins, and the Placenta unable to support both foals. one usually dies, leading to mummification
what is “Red Bag”?Premature Placental Separation! foal cant breathe because this bag is aorund their head and they will suffocate- but if you cut this open the foal will be ok (its the placenta that didn't tear)
( long notes) what are some Abnormalities of the equine umbilical cord? (2)(1) Inadequate or excessive length (A cord that is excessively long can become wrapped around the fetus or can become twisted compromising blood flow between the mare and fetus.) (2) Torsion of the umbilical cord (cord is almost always too long, and is excessively twistedThere must be additional evidence such as an edematous and hemorrhagic/congested cord to warrant a diagnosis of umbilical cord torsion. If the torsion is significant there will be red and swollen segments alternating with pale and constricted twisted segments)
“Red bag” separation is usually associated with what?The condition has been associated with placentitis (chorioallantois is thicker than normal so does not rupture as easily as it should), twinning and sometimes in completely normal conditions.
(long notes) explain the pathogenesis of red bagResults when portion of chorioallantois detaches from the endometrium. cranial portion of the chorioallantois remains attached to the uterus. The chorioallantois tears across the body of the placenta rather than at the cervical star. The chorioallantois remains intact at the cervical star. A “red bag” protrudes through the vulva. The intact chorioallantois must be ruptured or it will suffocate the foal.
(long notes) what is “Brown spot” separation? when does it happen?Occurs any time before partuition. The prematurely separated placenta turns brown and dehydrates. A large area of separation can compromise gestation.

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