Path- Repro- Placentas, Abortions, etc 1

untimely's version from 2015-05-09 22:19

Placental Pathology

Question Answer
Anatomic classification--> DIFFUSE placentas in who?horse, pig
hose has what placenta?diffuse
pig has what placenta?diffuse
how has endometrial cups?horses
explain how the endometrial cups develop/regressThe cells of the cups are fetal in origin. they Drop down around day 37. Visible day 40 to 45. Increase until day 60. Slough between days 60 and 150.
what do endometrial cups do?Produce gonadotrophic hormones (PMSG), also referred to as equine chorionic gonadotrophin. Has FSH-and LH-like activity.
anatomic classification--> Zonary placentas in who?cats, dogs
cat has what placenta?zonary
dog has what placenta?zonary
Anatomic classification--> Cotyledonary placentas in who?cow
cow has what placenta?cotyledonary
what's a cervical star? who do you see it in? what does it mean?it's just part of normal placentations in horse (diffuse). It doesnt indicate anything
how would you describe diffuse placentation?placenta just kinda all over anmiotic sac
how would you describe zonary placentation?it's like a band around the middle of the amniotic sac
how would you describe Cotyledonary Placentation?cotledons are like little suction cups all over the amniotic sac
Histologic classification--> epitheliochorial--> who has this?ruminants, pigs, horses
Histologic classification--> epitheliochorial--> describe what this is likethe nutrients have SIX layers to go though (Abs cant get through, babies absolutely need colostrum)
Histologic classification--> endotheliochorial--> who has this?dog, cat
Histologic classification--> endotheliochorial--> describe thisthe nutrients have FOUR layers to go through
Histologic classification--> hemochorial--> who has this?man, primates
Histologic classification--> hemochorial--> describe thisthe nutrients only have to go through THREE layers
Rumis have which histological placenta?epitheliochorial
pigs have which histological placenta?epitheliochorial
horses have which histological placenta?epitheliochorial
dogs have which histological placenta?endotheliochorial
cats have which histological placenta?endotheliochorial
primates have which histological placenta?hemochorial
excess fluid in amniotic sac is called what, and leads to what?Hydroamnios, leads to fetal malformation (esp of mm and bones of head)
excess fluid in allantoic sac is called what, and leads to what?Hydrallantois, leads to/associated with uterine disease, too few curuncles (poor connection between fetal and materal memebrans not absorbing thigns) (Due to defective placenta; fetus is normal)
which causes fetal maformation- hydroamnios or hydrallantois? which is more common?hydramnios causes fetal malformation, Hydrallantois is much more common and happens much more rapidly and causes the uterus to be tight and for palpation to be difficult.
(long notes) which usually causes abortion/maternal death- hydroamnios or hydrallantois?Hydrallantois
(long notes) what is Adventitial placentation?Seen in ruminants.With endometrial damage (chronic inflammation, fibrosis) numbers of caruncles decrease and the remainder enlarge. There is also formation of additional areas of contact between caruncles. The additional contact areas initially start adjacent to placentomes but can expand over large areas of the placental (chorionic) surface.
(long notes) what's a hippomane?Found in equine allantoic cavity, in bovine allantoic or amniotic cavities. Salts, proteins and acid-insoluble mucopolysaccharides deposit a nidus of cellular debris or some other object. No pathologic significance just know what they are.
(long notes) what are 3 normal structures/occurances which might look pathological if you dont know what they are? (and in who?)(1) Amniotic plaques- common in rumis. (foci of squamous epithelium on the internal surface (calf side) of the amnion) (2) Focal calcification of placenta- normal in rumis and equine (3) hippomane in equine

Determination of fetal age of CATTLE

Question Answer
if the fetus is the size of a mouse, how old is it?about 2mo
if the fetus is the size of a rat, how old is it?about 3mo
if the fetus is the size of a small cat, how old is it?about 4mo
if the fetus is the size of a large cat, how old is it?about 5mo
if the fetus is the size of a small dog (with hair beginning to grow), how old is it?about 6mo
if the fetus has fine hair on its body and legs, how old is it?about 7mo
if the fetushas complete hair coat and incisors have begun to grow, how old is it?about 8mo
if the fetus has complete incisors, how old is it?about 9mo (full term)

Abortion intro and bovine abortions

Question Answer
If it is considered "Early embryonic death" when does it occur, and what is the sequale?Death of the embryo early in gestation (large animals 35 to 45 days after conception). Results in resorption
what are reasons there might be early embryonic death? (in general)Often secondary to genetic defects but also caused by uterine problems (endometritis, etc) that provide a less than adequate environment for successful implantation and pregnancy maintenance.
if it is considered "Fetal death" when does it occur, and what is the sequale?Fetus dies after approximately 45 days in large animals. Less in small animals (20 or so days depending on species). Results in abortion
Main outcomes of embryonic and fetal death (7 possibilities)(1) Embryonic death and return to estrus at the normal interval (2) Embryonic death and delayed return to service (3) Fetal loss with no autolysis (4) Fetal loss with autolysis (5) Mummification (6) Maceration (7) Stillbirth
what does it mean when the fetus is macerated?tissues are autolytic and digested away and only bone skin and hair are left over
what is normal gestation period of cow? what is too early that the fetus will die?Normal gestation period of cow is approximately 9 months (285 days). (260 is too soon and it will die, so be considered an abortion)
what is an abortion? what is the time at which before this it will be an abortion?Abortion= cessation of gestation with expulsion of fetus when it is too immature to survive (around day 260 in cattle).
what is Perinatal death?calf dies immediately prior to or during parturition ("stillborn", common in first time heifers)
if there is an abortion, where do you start?You have to get a good detailed history before you do anything else-- Information about herd (numbers of cows, addition of new animals, have you purchased new bulls, vaccination history, nutrition, disease conditions in herd, dewormingprograms, other abortions in herd [when, number of cows aborting]
what would be some abnormalities of the placenta which would explain an abortion?Examine entire placenta looking for any abnormalities (necrosis, edema, hemorrhage, etc)
what are three NORMAL placental "lesions" that you should be aware of?Amniotic plaques, Placental mineralization, Hippomane
4 examples of Lesions in non-infectious abortions?(1) Umbilical torsions, strangulations (2) Adventitial placentation (3) Heat stress (4) Poisonous plants
how common are umbilical torsions/stranguations in cattle?rare in cattle because of shorter umbilicus than in some other species (common in horse though)
although rare, how might you tell that it was an ulbilical torsion/strangulation and not just the normal natural twists that an umbilical cord has?gotta see hemorrhage/congestion and edema
what's Adventitial Placentation?With endometrial damage (chronic inflammation, fibrosis) numbers of caruncles decrease and the remainder enlarge. There is also formation of additional areas of contact between caruncles. The additional contact areas initially start adjacent to placentomes but can expand over large areas of the placental (chorionic) surface. (so basically, not good connection-- attempt to get better connection between dam and fetus with this weird placentation)
how does heat stress appear if it was a cause of abortion?minimal to no gross lesions
if the abortion was caused by poisonous plants, what do the lesions usually look like?lesions usually nonspecific
Ponderosa pine needles--> these cause what kinda problems?(isocupressic acid) immature to weak calves if not dead, often retained placenta. usually occur in the third trimester of pregnancy. The abortions have been characterized by a mucous discharge from the vagina, weak uterine contractions, incomplete cervical and vaginal dilation, dystocia and retained placenta. After aborting, the cattle often have severe metritis which requires treatment.
Locoweed--> these cause what kinda problems?hydrops amnii
Broomweed--> these cause what kinda problems? immature to weak calves, often retained placenta
Necrotic cotyledons--> what are 4 agents/types of agents that can cause this?Brucella, Campylobacter, Lepto, fungal, others...(Bruce was found necrotic while camping because a mountain lion lept on him)
Hemorrhage of placenta is usually caused by what two agents?Listeria, Coxiella (a cock of listerine would make me bleed too!)
Intercotyledonary edema is usually caused by what two agents?Brucella, Lepto (bruce lept too high and now his ankle is swollen)
Purulent inflammation of the placenta is caused by what?Trueperella pyogenes
how does brucella affect the placenta?necrotic cotyledons (pregnant cow ingests the bacterium after licking an aborted fetus/placenta or ingesting fluids from an aborted fetus/placenta--> bact localizes in preg uterus, mammary gland, and testes--->necrotic placentomes--> enter fetus-->fetal septicemia-->Abortion from B. abortus is usually after the 5th month of gestation.)
how does campylobacter afffect the placenta?necrotic cotyledons (a sporadic event in cattle herds and affects only small numbers of cattle unless the bacterium is introduced into a naive population of animals. long-term inhabitant of the preputial cavity of bulls and is transmitted to the female at coitus--> establishes in preg uterus. causes early embryonic death causing irregular cycles)
how does lepto affect the placenta?necrotic cotyledons and/or Intercotyledonary edema (enter via oral mucosa-->bacteremia-->localize in the placenta also and abortion often occurs several weeks later usually in the last trimester of gestation) (Gross lesions of the fetus are mild and often difficult to observe because of autolytic change in the fetus. Microscopic lesions in the fetus include interstitial nephritis and necrotizing hepatitis.)
how do fungi usually affect the placenta?necrotic cotyledons
how does listeria usually affect the placenta?hemorrhage
how does coxiella usually affect the placenta?hemorrhage
how does Trueperella pyogenes affect the placenta?Purulent inflammation
what's a parasite that can cause placentitis?toxoplasma
mycotic abortion is a what?placentitis
Determination of Time of Death--> understanding Prenatal death (before parturition) often depends on looking at what?the degree of autolysis- Tells you How long was the dead fetus retained in the uterus following death.
what are some signs you can look for which would indicate that the death of the fetus was before parturition (prenatally?) (3)(1) Fetal tissues stained with hemoglobin (imbibition of hemoglobin) (2) Moderate to severe renal cortical autolysis (3) No thrombosis or hemorrhage of umbilicus
what are some general signs that the death of the fetus was a Natal death (time during parturition)?(1) tissues are NOT stained with Hb (that's prenatal if it is) (2) No thrombus or hemorrhage of umbilical artery
explain how early natal vs late natal (time during parturition) death differEARLY: Variable renal cortical autolysis and No subcutaneous edema. LATE: No renal cortical autolysis, Localized subcutaneous edema of head, forelegs, perineum (gonna think about it like if it was late, it was getting all squeezed, so there is edema..but if early, the kidney has had time to rot and it didn't get squeezed)
what are two major signs that the death as a Neonatal death (after parturition)?(1) Thrombus in umbilical artery! (2) Lungs contain air –float in formalin
how can you differentiate early neonatal death from late? (after birth) (3)EARLY: (1) Soft to firm umbilical thrombus/hemorrhagic stump (2) No milk in digestive tract, no absorption of milk (3) No wear on slippers (eponychium). LATE: (1) Firm umbilicus/umbilicus dried up (2) Milk in digestive tract w/ evidence of absorption (3) Some wear on slippers
what are three major general reasons for Non-infectious cause of abortion?(1) Congenital malformations (2) Weak, term calves (3) Immature calves (appearance of calf depends upon just how immature it is. Hair, teeth, overall size.)
Infectious cause of abortion--> Degree of fetal maturation--> if EARLY in term, what are two possible causes?(1) BVD (2) Trichomonas
Infectious cause of abortion--> Degree of fetal maturation--> if MID-term, what are three possible causes?(1) IBR (2) Campylobacter (3) Neospora
Infectious cause of abortion--> Degree of fetal maturation--> if LATE-term, what are three possible causes?(1) Brucella (2) A. pyogenes (3) Lepto
does BVD usually cause early, mid or late abortion?EARLY (BVD quick evacuee)
does trichomonas usually cause early, mid or late abortion?EARLY (they trickin' em early these days)
does IBR usually cause early, mid or late abortion?MID (three letters matches three letters)
does campylobacter usually cause early, mid or late abortion?MID (i want to camp for not too long, but not too short either)
does neospora usually cause early, mid or late abortion?MID (Neo was in the MIDdle of an epic battle)
does brucella usually cause early, mid or late abortion?LATE (bruce is a late asshole that kills babies)
does A. pyogenes usually cause early, mid or late abortion?LATE (takes a while for puss (pyo) to form)
does lepto usually cause early, mid or late abortion?LATE (lepto, late)
Cerebellar hypoplasia/skeletal abnormalities in cattle is usually caused by...BVD!!!!!

Recent badges