Path- Repro- Male genital 1

untimely's version from 2015-05-09 18:28


Question Answer
what is Cryptorchidism? how can it present?Testicle that does not descend into the scrotum. May be abdominal or may be beneath the skin between the inguinal ring and the scrotum. Unilateral or bilateral. Epididymis also small and poorly developed. (long notes: most common in dogs. Usually near the inguinal ring.) (Long notes: in horses are bulls, L testicle more likely to be retained, in dogs it doesnt seem to have a trend)
what problems can cryptidorchidism predispose to?Sertoli cell tumors and Seminomas more common in cryptorchid testicles than in scrotal testicles (long notes: abdominal crypt. more likely to have sertoli, and inguinal crypt. more likely to have seminoma.)
(long notes) in the dog, what additional problem might be a result of a cryptorchid testicle?In the dog a cryptorchid testicle is more prone to torsion especially if the retained testicle is enlarged by the presence of a neoplasm.
how common is testicular Hypoplasia? who might get it? how does it present and WHEN does it present?sporatic and low incidence. Can happen in Bulls, rams, horses, boars. Testicles/epididymissmall but movable in the scrotum. Not apparent until puberty.
Why does testicular hypoplasia occur? (4) Reason usually unknown, but sometimes: (1) nutritional (2) zinc deficiency (3) endocrine (4) chromosomal--> Inherited as a autosomal recessive gene in Swedish Highland cattle. OR Klinefelter’s syndrome –XXY, XX/XY, XX/XXY, XY/XXY
(long notes) how does zinc relate to testicular hypoplasia?results in abnormal development of interstitial cells within the testicle resulting in lack of testosterone production. The overall effect is testicular hypoplasia (zinc is metal-- need METAL FOR MANY T for inTersTiTial cells to make it)
what is Klinefelter’s Syndrome? when does this most commonly occur?(XXY, other more rare dysjunction events) most common example is tricolor male cat. Gene for black and gene for orange reside on different X chromosomes, so a female can have both but if a male had both, then he had two X chromosomes. (calico boy named kleinfelter when to kleinheins)
what is a Mosaic/chimera animal? what's the diff?mosaics and chimeras are animals that have more than one cytogenetically-distinct population of cells. Mosaic= different cell types arise from the same fertilized egg. (Disjunction events during meiosis, etc.) XXY
what's a mosaic?Mosaic –different cell types arise from the same fertilized egg. (Disjunction events during meiosis, etc.) XXY
what's Testicular Atrophy?Testicle developed normally but is now smaller than normal. Secondary to a variety of insults including trauma, partial loss of blood flow, degeneration, thermal, etc.
Hypoplasia vs atrophy presentationHypoplasia= testicle small and freely movable within scrotum. Epididymis also small and poorly developed. Atrophy= testicle small, firm and MAY be attached to scrotal wall. Epididymis more normal in size or even enlarged.
easy way at a glance to tell the difference between testicular hypoplasia and atrophy?in atrophy, the testicle was a normal size and then it shrunk, so the epididiymus will be normal to enlarged. In hypoplasia, it never developed, so the epididymus will be small
Most common cause of infertility is?testicular degeneration
does Testicular Degeneration involve one or both testes? is it reversible or irreversible? causes?can be 1 or both, can be either reversible or irreversible, and causes are many and often unknown
Testicular Degeneration--> what are some THERMAL reasons the testicle might degenerate?cryptorchid, increased scrotal fat, scrotal lesions, to close to body, environmental temperature, adhesions, scrotal lesions, fever/adhesions to make to too close to body from infection
Testicular Degeneration--> some reasons that are Nutritional deficiencies (3)Vitamin A, zinc deficiency, malnutrition
Testicular Degeneration--> Vascular lesions that can cause this (4)Torsion, lesions secondary to chronic inflammation and fibrosis, trauma, compression
Testicular Degeneration can occur from obstructive lesions. explain what this does and what it results ininterfers with outflow of sperm, malformations, epididymitis
what are some toxins which can cause testicular degeneration?various chemotherapeutic drugs. Usually toxic to developing spermatogonia. Some are toxic to Sertoli cells.
what are some Hormonal factors which can lead to testicular degeneration? (what they might specifically affect?) (4)GNRH, LH (Leydig cells), FSH (Sertoli cells) -Pituitary/hypothalamic problems
lack of GNRH causes degeneration of what cells?leydig cells (intertitial cells-- ones that make T) (G= gonadotropin...think T...and inTersTitial has 2 T's in it so that's the one that needs it)
lack of LH causes degeneration of what cells?leydig cells (intertitial cells-- ones that make T)
lack of FSH causes degeneration to what cells?sertoli cells("nurse cells" for sperm)
chemotherapy agents usually affect what cells?Usually toxic to developing spermatogonia (chemo kills rapidly growing cells) . Some are toxic to Sertoli cells (SS)
what are the gross lesions of testicular degeneration?Initially may be slightly swollen and edematous and bulge on cut surface. As time goes on the degenerating testicle becomes smaller and firmer. Calcification.
what are the microscopic lesions of testicular degeneration?Small seminiferous tubules containing small numbers of spermatogonia, spermatocytes, few to no mature sperm depending on severity and duration of insult.
what does testicular regeneration depend on? how long does it take if the proper factors are there/what is the time limit?Depends upon the persistence of spermatogonia and Sertoli cells. IT will usually take three to six months to recover. (if it goes for too long, it can't regenerate (like over 6mo-1yr))
what is Testicular Inflammation called? how common/what is is usually associated with?Orchitis–True orchitisis is rare. Usually associated with epididymitis
(long notes) primary orchitis is usually caused via the ___ route, and The best examples of primary orchitis in domestic animals include what two agents?hematogenous route. Most often brucellosis (bulls, boars, dogs) and mycobacteriosis
(long notes) ___ can cause a primary orchitis in ramsCorynebacterium pseudotuberculosis
what is often the cause of orchitis (testicular inflamation)?Often infectious agents -bacteria, viruses, fungi, rarely parasites
what are 3 ways agents can get to the testes to cause orchitis? which is the most common route? (secondary not primary)(1) Retrograde -genito-urinary tract most common (you'd see agents usually associated with cystitis or sthing) (2) Extension (penatrating wound into testicle ) (3) Hematogenousroute
what are the two major causes of orchitis in BULLS?trueperella pyogenes("always think this one in cattle" he said), brucella abortis
what are 5 major causes of orchitis in DOGS?B. canis(through bloodstream), Distemper virus(viremic stage, early in distemper, can disseminate into testicle), Blastomycosis, E. coli, Proteus sp.
what are 2 major causes of orchitis in the ram?B. ovis, C. ovis (Corynebacterium ovis i think)
what are 3 major causes of orchitis in the boar?B. suis, A. pyogenes(Arcanobacterium pyogenes), Staph/Strep.
what are 4 major causes of orchitis in the stallion?Equine viral arteritisvirus, EIA, Salmonella sp., Strep. spp.
what are some way that sperm are protected from the immune system?Blood testis barrier. Sperm sequestered from general circulation by Sertoli cells. (sertoli noodles create a barrier) (sertoli soldiers protecting-- noodle wall)
WHY does there need to be a blood-testes barrier, are the cells from the male's body?During sperm production and maturation sperm antigens change which can initiate autoimmune reactions. Sequestration thought to be important in preventing this
testicular tumors are most commonly seen in who?dogs (next common, older stallions) (dirty dog balls)
are testicular tumors usually malig or benign?Almost all testicular neoplasms are benign
what are the PRIMARY testicular tumors?(1) Interstitial cell (Leydig cell) tumor (2) Sertoli cell tumor (3) Seminoma
what does a Seminoma arise from? what other tumor is kinda related to this one?Arise from germ cells of seminiferous tubules. Teratomas (rare) can also arise from germ cells.
what is the Most common testicular tumor in dog and bull?Interstitial (leydig) Cell Tumor (dogs dig)
most common testicular tumor in old stallions?seminoma (horses love the semen)
how does an interstitial(leydig) cell tumor appear grossly? who is it most common in?most common test. tumor in dog/bull. Tan to orange, Spherical and well demarcated, Noninvasive, encapsulated, compress adjacent testicular tissue. (of course the T-charged one wants to be #1 but stays in the testicle so it can be top DOG)
what problems can an interstitial cell tumor cause? what wont it usually cause?(noninvasive, encapsulated, compressive) can cause Hemorrhage, necrosis, cyst formation. However, Don’t usually cause testicular enlargement (interstitial on the down-low)
most common testicular tumor in aged stallions?Seminoma (second most common tumor in dog, first is interstitial)
when do you most commonly see seminomas?in ages stallions, esp in CRYPTORCHIDS
how does a seminoma grossly appear? is it usually benign or malig?(germ cell tumor of the testicle) Multicentric within testicle and may be locally invasive. Seldom malignant (just like teratoma which is also a germ cell tumor, benign). Whitish to pink-gray, firm and bulge on cut surface. Painful
If a horse or dog keeps licking their scrotum and acting as if is painful, what might you suspect?seminoma, because those tumors are painful (semen is painful, yo.) (long notes said interstitial can be painful too)
Sertoli Cell Tumor are most common in who, in what situatuons?3rd most common tumor in dogs. RARE in other species. In dog over half are in cryptorchid testicle. (lady and the tramp eating sertoli spaghetti)
how does a Sertoli Cell Tumor grossly appear? Is it usually benign or malig?Firm (fibrous connective tissue), whitish and may be round to lobulated. Metastasis can occur but is rare beyond regional nodes
which tumor is associated with possible feminization?sertoli cell tumor (sertoli is "nurse" cell of the testicles)
what side affects can there be to a sertoli cell tumor?Approximately 30% produce estrogens, which leads to Testicular feminization
what are some symptoms you'd see of testicular feminization? what usually causes this?(usually due to sertoli cell tumor) you will see Alopecia in the genital region, thigh, abdomen, Hyperpigmentation, Gynectomastia, penile and testicular atrophy, loss of libido, they may be attracted to male dogs, there will be Bone marrow suppression, and Prostatic disease-->squamous metaplasia (should be cuboidal to low columnar-- for some reason epithelium will change to squamous with estrogen. then they produce keratin and plug up the ducts)
what kinda tumor is a Testicular Teratoma? when/who is it most often seen?it is a Germ cell tumor, Uncommon but seen most often in OLD stallions, cryptorchid testicle
are teratomas usually malig or benign? describe their gross appearanceusually benign. Tumors can be large, solid to cystic, and contain recognizable hair, bone, mucus and teeth.
If there is a dog with a lump in it's testicle and has bleeding problems, what is most likely the lump?SERTOLI CELL tumor (nurse cells, but get pissed off they don't make T so they make ESTROGEN instead, so then there is BONE MARROW suppression from the estrogen--> bleeding disorders)

Epididymis/Spermatic Cord

Question Answer
Segmental Aplasia/Hypoplasia of the epididymus--> most common in who? which parts of the epididymus are usually affected? Is it usually uni or bilateral?BULLS, involves body and tail. Usually unilateral
what are common sequale of Segmental Aplasia/Hypoplasia of the epididymus? (pathogenesis, three/four things)Sperm impaction secondary to obstruction-->Can lead to back pressure and secondary testicular degeneration-->Can lead to dilatation (spermatocele) and/or rupture (Sperm granuloma)
what is a spermatocele?cystic dilation of epididymal ducts with sperm
what is a Sperm granuloma?(epididymus) Following rupture of the spermatocele free sperm are released into the surrounding tissues where they cause a granulomatous inflammatory response. The granulomatous response is primarily to poorly degradable lipids in the sperm heads. With time there is secondary fibrosis
( long notes) Epididymitis is most common in who?ram and dog
what are 4 non-infectious causes of epididymitis, and what happens secondairly?trauma, retrograde flow of urine, congenital and acquired obstructions with secondary sperm granuloma
what are the two main infectious routes to cause epididymitis?(1) ******Secondary to invasion of bacteria from urinary tract. (2) Hematogenous
what are two common pathogens which can cause epididymitis which are SECONDARY to invasion of bacteria from URINARY TRACT?E. coli, Proteus, etc.
Rams can get what two pathogens from a heamtogenous route to cause epididymitis?B. ovis and A. seminis in rams.
which agent can cause epididymitis from a hematogenous route in multiple species?brucella
what is a Varicocele? who does this usually happen in? what usually causes this problem?Dilation of vessels of spermatic cord (pampiniform plexus, cremaster veins). Happens in RAMS. Usually because of Deficiency of valves in veins
what are problems a Varicocele can lead to?(dilation of vessels in sperm cord) can cause Thrombosis in dilated vessels, which can result in testicular degeneration secondary to blood flow problems and thermoregulation problems
Torsion of spermatic cord often happens in what two situations?(1) Cryptorchid testicles (3) Testicles with neoplasms
what is Inflammation of spermatic cord called?funiculitis
when does funiculitis most often occur?(inflammation of spermatic cord) Most often follows contamination of castration wounds
ACUTE funiculitis is aka, and what usually causes it? possible sequale?(inflammation of spermatic cord) AKA necrotizing. Usually due to tetanus (clostridium) after castration. can lead to peritonitis. (long notes: this one occurs in pigs mostly)
CHRONIC (granulomatous) funiculitis is aka, and what usually causes it?aka scirrhous cord. Usually due to Staphlococcus sp. (long notes: actinomycetes), Trueperella sp., fungi, parasites. ( long notes: usually in horse and bull.