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Path- Mammary gland (mastitis) 2

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untimely's version from 2015-05-02 20:48

mastitis in not-cows/ other boob stuff

Question Answer
how common is clinical/subclinical mastitis in sheep/goats as compared to cows?Clinical: not as common (around 5%). Subclinical: Subclinical mastitis in sheep and goats has been estimated to be between 5% and 30% depending upon who you read
SUBclinical bacterial mastitis in SMALL RUMIS is usually caused what what kinda bact? examples? (3)Coagulase-negative staphylococci--> Staphylococcus epidermidis, S. capraeand S. simulans
what IS "blue bag"?ischemic necrosis, ie CLINICAL mastitis in small rumis
what is clinical mastitis often called in small rumis?blue bag
what agents often cause blue bag in small rumis? (4)(1) Staphylococcus aureus (2) Mannheimia haemolytica (3) Coliforms (E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae) (4) Mycoplasma agalactiae
Ewes are most likely to get blue bag/clinical mastitis from WHAT two agents?Mycoplasma agalactiae, Mannheimia haemolytica
goats are most likely to get blue bag/clinical mastitis from WHAT two agents?Mycoplasma agalactiae and Mycoplasma mycoides ssp, mycoides
swine are most likely to get mastitis from what kind of agents?coliforms! (enviro contamination). However, Staphylococcus aureus infections in the swine mammary gland can cause a chronic granulomatous mastitis (botryomycosis), also
what's up with Postpartum dysgalactia syndrome (PDS) aka mastitis-metritis-agalactia (MMA) syndromehappens in swine, inadequate colostrum and milk production during the first days after farrowing. pathophysiology of PDS is not completely known but is believed to multifactorial
how common is mastitis in cats/dogs, when does it usually occur, and what are the most common offenders?rare, usually if it happens it is in lactating bitches. Streptococcus sp. and Staphylococcus sp. are usually to blame
Mammary Fibroadenomatous Hyperplasia usually occurs in who, and how many glands are affected? usually in cats, rarely in bitches. It Occurs in young intact females, in one or several glands (believed to result from overstimulation of the mammary tissue by high levels of progesterone or progesterone-like products.)
how is Mammary Fibroadenomatous Hyperplasia usually dealt with?(young intact female cats, one or several glands) Spontaneous regression or may require spay
mammary neoplasia of the bitch can be reduced if..Bitches spayed early (before second heat) have a much lower chance of developing mammary neoplasia than bitches spayed later in life.
Mammary Lobular Hyperplasia occurs in who? when/where is it most common?occurs in the Bitch, rarely in cats. Bitch can be Intact, lactating or non-lactating. It is Most numerous in caudal two glands (MAY be paraneoplastic??)
Mammary Adenomas/Carcinomas happen most often in who??DOG
how do mammary carcinomas affect dogs and cats differently?IN DOGS: Carcinomas are behaviorally benign at least 80% of the time ((in both invasion, and in size/histological pattern). IN CATS: Carcinomas are behaviorally malignant at least 90% of the time
the most commonly isolated bacterium from cases of clinical mastitis in sheep and goats...?Staphylococcus aureus
in a small rumi, if Usually only one side of the udder is affected, it's probably...Staphylococcus aureus
in a small Rumi, When present it is usually observed in the post-parturient period and often causes severe systemic disease (endotoxic shock, etc).coliforms-- E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae
Viral mastitis in sheep-- main virus? how does it present?Visna-maedi (ovine lentivirus). main clinical manifestations of this virus in sheep are chronic progressive pneumonia and weight loss but the virus can cause encephalitis and indurative mastitis (hard bag) as well.
Viral mastitis in goats-- main virus? how does it present?Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV, caprine lentivirus). most commonly causes arthritis but can also cause encephalitis and indurative mastitis (hard bag).
for viral mastitis in sheep AND goats (visna-maedi/CAEV), how is the agent spread?virus is shed in respiratory secretions rather than in milk! they then invade macrophages to get into udder
Pathogens responsible for causing equine mastitis include... (which is most common?)Streptococcus zooepidemicus (most common), Streptococcus equi, Streptococcus equisimilis, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus viridians and coliforms (E. coli, Klebsiella sp. etc; second most common pathogen).
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the agent game!

Question Answer
whats up with Staphylococcus epidermidis?it's a coagulase neg staph which is a common cause of SUBCLINICAL mastitis in SMALL RUMIS
whats up with Staph caprae?it's a coagulase neg staph which is a common cause of SUBCLINICAL mastitis in SMALL RUMIS
what's up witth Staph simulans?it's a coagulase neg staph which is a common cause of SUBCLINICAL mastitis in SMALL RUMIS
whats up with Streptococcus agalactiae?cause of Contagious Bovine Mastitis (more severe than dysgalactiae)
whats up with Streptococcus dysgalactiae?cause of Contagious Bovine Mastitis (less severe than agalactiae)
whats up with Staphylococcus aureus?cause of Contagious Bovine Mastitis-- virulence can change based on factors. If severe can be gangrenous. (ALSO Can be causative agent of bluebag, aka clinical mastitis, in small rumis)
whats up with Mycoplasma bovis?cause of Contagious Bovine Mastitis-- abscesses/nodules
whats up with Escherichia coli?cause of ENVIRONMENTAL coliform mastitis in bovine (also can cause blue bag aka clinical mastitis in small rumis)
whats up with Klebsiella pneumonia?cause of ENVIRONMENTAL coliform mastitis in bovine (also can cause clinical mastitis in SMALL rumis)
whats up with Enterobacter aerogenes and Citrobacter sp?cause of ENVIRONMENTAL coliform mastitis in bovine
whats up with Streptococcus uberis?cause of bovine ENVIRONMENTAL mastitis
whats up with staph xyloris?type of Coagulase-negative staphylococci causing bovine ENVIRONMENTAL mastitis (usually subclinical) (normal flora, damage causes probs)
whats up with staph warneri?type of Coagulase-negative staphylococci causing bovine ENVIRONMENTAL mastitis (usually subclinical) (normal flora, damage causes probs)
whats up with staph simulans?type of Coagulase-negative staphylococci causing bovine ENVIRONMENTAL mastitis (usually subclinical) (normal flora, damage causes probs)
what's up with Trueperella pyogenes?cause of bovine ENVIRONMENTAL mastitis, AKA summer mastitis, dry cow mastitis
what's up with Mannheimia haemolytica?cause of blue bag, aka CLINICAL mastitis in SMALL rumis
what's up with pseudomonas aeruginosa?cause of blue bag, aka CLINICAL mastitis in SMALL rumis (it's a coliform)
what's up with Mycoplasma agalactiae?cause of blue bag, aka CLINICAL mastitis, in SMALL rumis
whats up with Mycoplasma mycoides ssp, mycoides?usually causes clinical mastitis in GOATS
whats up with Streptococcus zooepidemicus?most common cause of mastitis in horses
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