Path- Female repro 3

kelseyfmeyer's version from 2015-04-16 18:51

Uterus continued

Question Answer
Post coital endometritis(persistent mating-induced endometritis) happens in who? What exactly is happening?This occurs in MARES. Normally, mating will induce some inflammation in the uterus. most of the time this resolves without treatment. However, about 15% of mares still have fluid present in the uterus 24 hours after mating. If the inflammation has not cleared by the time the fertilized egg reaches the uterus (4 to 6 days) the embryo is unlikely to implant.
3 Factors that affect the ability of the uterus to remove inflammatory fluid, leading to post-coital endometritis are?(1) poor conformation –increased likelihood of bacterial invasion (2) uterine damage –poor lymphatic function. Fluids remain. (3) abnormalities of uterine contractility
how long would be considered a "prolonged" amount of time to have inflammatory fluid in the uterus? How long must it remain in order to prevent implantation of the fertilized egg?>24-36 hours is considered prolonged. 4-6 days until the fertilized egg reaches the uterus, that is the no turning back point.
what are some things that help clear the uterus of fluids after mating?uterine contractions, lymphatic drainage
(picture from slide 138) describe what endometritis looks likelike lots of inflamed bumps, red, irritated
what are some reasons there would be atrophy of the endometrium?inadequate hormonal stimulation of endometrium such as caused by ovarian, pituitary problem, seasonal anestrus
what are some reasons there would be hyperplasia of the endometrium?over stimulation of endometrium such as caused by high estrogens (ovarian tumors, estrogenic pastures, hormone injections) and/or high progesterones (ovarian tumors, pseudopregnancy, hormone injections)
what are some things that cause high levels of estrogen?ovarian tumors (granulosa cell tumor) , estrogenic pastures (such as clover, they have Phytoestrogens and isoflavones), hormone injections
what are some things that cause high levels of progesterone?ovarian tumorns (granulosa cell tumor), pseudopregnancy, hormone injections
large animals usually have high _________(hormone)_________, leading to endometrial hyperplasia, whereas small animals usually have high ___Large=estrogen. Small=progesterone
Main reason a EWE would have hyperestrogenism?estrogenic pastures (phytoestrogens/isoflavones)
main reasons a COW would have hyperstrogenism? (3)cystic follicles, granulosa cell tumor, estrogenic pastures
main reason a SOW would have hyperestrogenism? (1)zearalenone (estrogenic mycotoxin)
3 main reasons a DOG would have hyperprogesteronism?retained CL, pseudopregnancy, iatrogenic
main reason a CAT would have hyperprogesteronism?retained CL
Hyperestrogenism causes what to happen to the uterus? what is the frequency of infections?Hyperestrogenism causes chronic stimulation of endometrium with proliferation of glandular epithelium. Causes swelling/edema of the vulva. Secondary infections not as common as in the small animal disease. (Uterus under the influence of estrogen is resistant to infection)
Cystic Endometrial Hyperplasia happens when?when there is prolonged stim of the endometrium by hormones- estrogen or progesterone (takes a while for all those cysts to form)
Estrogenic Mycotoxins--> name three, what they are usually growing on, and who does this usually affect?Gibberella ear rot(corn), Fusarium head scab, and Zearalenone (both affect wheat)...usually affect swine
Cystic Endometrial Hyperplasia in SMALL animals... what is the pathophysiology which leads to the formation of cysts in the endometrium?Endometrium primed with estrogen which induces the production of progesterone receptors. Hyperprogesteronism from persistent CL causes hyperplasia of lining of uterus. Formation of cysts.
what are common secondary lesions to cystic endometrial hyperplasia in small animals? Why does this happen?Small animals usually have the cystic endometrial hyperplasia because of too much progesterone. Progesterone causes the endometrium to be more suseptible to infections, which means Endometritis and pyometra are common secondary lesions.
One of the common causes of pyometria is? what happens? Which agent(s) are usually to blame?high levels of progesterone dec the uterine immune defenses, as well as close off the cervix. There is then Suppurative inflammation of the uterus, which leads to an accumulation of pus within the uterine lumen. E. coli is often isolated, but there are many others
how does pyometra affect the CBC? What are some clinical signs you'd see? what other organ system is affected by this, and what kinda problems does it cause?you will see a marked leukocytosis (infection is taking place), there will be polydipsia/polyuria, toxemia/shock may develop, and you will also see Glomerulonephritis because there will be immune complex deposition with secondary damage to the glomerular tufts
"Adenomyosis" what is this, and when does it usually happen?this is when there is endometrial glands in myometrium, which usually occurs during cystic endometrial hyperplasia
what are Endometrial polyps?pedunculated mass composed of hyperplasic endometrial glands and stroma (dogs and cats)
Endometriosis--> what is this, and how does the problem often present? who does this often affect?This is when small explants of endometrium become implanted in peritoneal cavity. Lesions wax and wane with stages of menstrual cycle. This occurs in primates
Subinvolutionof Placental Sites (SIPS)--> who does this happen in? What happens, and why does it happen?This happens in the bitch, when Placental sites do not involute as quickly as they should after whelping. Lochial discharge (vaginal discharge after giving birth, including blood, mucus, and uterine tissue) will also be prolonged. This happens because of the Retention of placental trophoblasts
Subinvolutionof Placental Sites (SIPS)--> how long is NORMAL involution? How long is NORMAL lochial discharge, and how long does it last in SIPS?NORMAL involution is usually a 12-15 WEEK process. In SIPS involution will persist. NORMAL lochial discharge can be as long as 6 WEEKS under normal conditions, but in SIPS it can occur as long as 8-16 WEEKS.
what would SIPS (Subinvolutionof Placental Sites) look like on necropsy?Grossly, the retained placental sites appear as ring-like uterine enlargements, 1.5 to 3 times the diameter of the uninvolved portions of the endometrium. The retained sites are roughened and covered with a thick, reddish-brown pseudomembrane containing fibrin, cellular debris and blood
What is happening in pseudopregnancy physiologically/pathologically? who is prone to this? which hormones are involved?NORMALLY, dogs have a prolonged luteal phase of estrus. This is called physiologic pseudopregnancy. Toy breeds especially (pseudo toys-- we all know you can't play with those toys), but any dog, can have an exaggerated prolongation of the luteal phase and pseudopregancy can result. The complete pathophysiology is unknown but prolactin and/or prolactin receptors are believed to play a role, because the dogs will either have an increased concentration of prolactin or an increased sensitivity to prolactin. In addition, increased progesterone levels play a permissive role in the development of pseudopregnancy. If puppies are in the vicinity of the bitch with pseudopregnancy there can be mammary development, lactation, and maternal behavior
what are some clinical signs of pseudopregnancy? mammary development, lactation, and maternal behavior such as making a “nest” for the puppies, may be aggressive, may mother stuffed animals,etc
what are the gross lesions of pseudopregnancy, and how long does pseudopregnancy usually last?Gross lesions may include the development of placental sites in the uterus and mucometra in the absence of fetuses. IT usually resolves on its own in 2 to 3 weeks and treatment is not necessary. A few cases are prolonged and treatment may be necessary.
Endometrial Biopsy in Mare--> why is this done?It is Used to evaluate uterine morphology. Usually, to determine the stage of the cycle she is in (anestrus, proestrus, estrus, metestrus, diestrus) or looking for pathological changes
what part of the endometrial biopsy is looked at in the mare to determine what stage of the cycle she is in?looking at epithelial, glandular and stromal changes
what are some pathological conditions which an endometrial biopsy of the mare can detect?inflammation, atrophy, cystic glands, fibrosis, lymphatic lacunae
for looking at the pathological changes in the endometrium of mares looks at what things, in order to determine what?looks at incidence and extensiveness of lesions to estimate the chance of a successful pregnancy
what are the 4 categories of the endometrial biopsy in mares?I, IIa, IIb, III
category I of the endometrial biopsy has what level of endometrial lesions, and what is the expected foal rate?no lesions(or inflammation or fibrosis slight and sparsely scattered), 80-90%
category IIa of the endometrial biopsy has what level of endometrial lesions, and what is the expected foal rate?mild lesions(scattered inflammation*, mild fibrosis*; endometrial atrophy* in late breeding), 50-80%
category IIB of the endometrial biopsy has what level of endometrial lesions, and what is the expected foal rate?moderate lesions(scattered inflammation*: moderate fibrosis*), 10-50%
category III of the endometrial biopsy has what level of endometrial lesions, and what is the expected foal rate?severe lesions(irreversible changes including fibrosis* and inflammation*), 0-10% ( 3 strikes you're out)
Uterine Leiomyoma/leiomyosarcoma--> what does this tumor arise from, and who is most affected?tumor arising from smooth muscle of wall, most commonly in the bitch (Leia the bitch was a smooth talker)
Uterine Adenocarcinoma--> what does this tumor arise from, and who is most affected?tumor arising from endometrium, cow (adeno=endo of the cow-o)
Uterine Lymphosarcoma--> what does this tumor arise from, and who is most affected?lymphoid tissue of the uterus, cow

Cervix/ Vulva/ Vagina

Question Answer
what are 5 things which are abnormalities of development of the cervix?(1) Hypoplasia/hyperplasia (2) Double cervix (3) Aplasia of rugae/increased number of rugae (4) Tortuosity/dilation of canal (5) diverticula
cervicitis is usually secondary to?endometritis or vaginitis
if there is going to be a neoplasia of the cervix, what is it prolly going to be?SCC
Imperforate hymen--> where/why does this happen, and what can result?This is due to a non-patent connection of Mullerian duct (cranial vagina) with urogenital sinus (caudal vagina) (it can cause problems like a mucometra, because secretions can't get out)
Persistent mesonephric(wolffian) ducts (Gartner's ducts)(need a gardener to take after the canal if your flower)--> where are they? what is happening, and what triggers this?Normally the mesonephric ducts do not open into the vagina. Rarely the mesonephric ducts persist and become cystic, inflamed or enlarged. When this occurs they form single to multiple cysts or a tortuous tube in the lateral floor of the vagina between the cervix and urethral opening. Causes of cyst formation include inflammation (infection) of the lining of the duct or gland, and hyperestrogenism (leads to vaginal/vulvular edema).
Vaginitis, vulvitis, vulvovaginitis--> which virus can cause this?IPV -infectious pustular vulvovaginitis-Bovine herpes virus I (Usually nonspecific, catarrhal)
Cystic Bartholin’s gland--> what is happening here?(Bartholin's glands are glands which open up near the opening of the vagina) These glands can can become cystic when its openings into the lateral wall of the vaginal vestibule become obstructed (such as in edema, inflammation or scar tissue)
Neoplasia of Vagina and Vulva--> Leiomyoma (fibroid)--> arise from where?arise from smooth muscle of uterus, vagina, cervix
Transmissible venereal tumor (TVT) arise from where/how does this happen? tx?actually is "transplanted" from one sexually active dog to another during intercourse. The cells have 59 chromosomes (Normal is 78). Usually the tumor will spontaneously regress
melanomas usually occur on who, where?perineum of mares (esp. grey mares)
list 5 neoplasms which can occur on the vagina/vulvaLeiomyoma (fibroid), TVT, Fibropapilloma (warts), Squamous cell carcinoma, melanoma (perineum of mares)
when/who do you usually see SCC? how does it usually behave?light skinned cows like herford, charlois. Usually locally very agressive, but if it metastasized, it usually stays in the LNs of the pelvis
who is vaginal prolapse usually seen in? (breeds)Hereford, shorthorn and Brahma and Brahma influenced breeds (sheep and bitches too) (it's BS to have a vaginal prolapse)
equine coital exanthema (ECE) is caused by what? how is it transmitted? signs of infection/past infection?equine ALPHAHERPES virus THREE!!!! xmitted via mating. painful papules (within 2-10 days of infection)--> pustules--> vesicles--> ulcers. depigmented spots remain at site of initial lesion following healing
fibropapilloma usually in who caused by what?cattle, BPV 1

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