Path- Female repro 2

kelseyfmeyer's version from 2015-04-16 18:50

Ovarian pathology continued


Question Answer
pathological cysts of cattle--> lutenized cysts. What is happening with this type of cyst? how many and where?This is also a Mature follicle that does not rupture...there are no ovulation papilla. However, there is luteal tissue (unlike the folicular/graffian cyst). This usually occurs as a single cyst on one ovary. (luteal is lonley)
Cystic Ovarian Disease of Cattle-->(folicular and lutenized cysts) What is the theory on why these cysts develop?The formation of the cysts is Possibly hypothalamic/pituitary feedback dysfunction, which leads to an Inadequate or inappropriate GnRH secretion, resulting in an absent, inadequate or mistimed luteinizing hormone surge (not completely understood)
what are some presdisposing factors for cystic ovarian degeneration?Genetics, high milk yields, and negative energy balance (NEB) in the early postpartum period. Also ACTH/corticol release can suppress the LH surge
Cystic Ovarian Disease of Cattle--> Predisposing factors--> Negative energy balance in the early postpartum period: there are a variety of hormonal derangements associated with this, on top of the derangement of improper LH surge. List some of these derangementReduced blood levels of IGF-1/insulin (makes sense with NEB), Increased levels of non-esterified fatty acids and beta-hydroxybutyric acid (also makes sense with NEB bc using other things for energy with no insulin), Inappropriate release of ACTH/cortisol(postpartum stress, endotoxin, increased prostaglandins) (stress because of not getting enough energy)
explain how a follicle develops and ovulates, in terms of the hormones involvedFSH starts the follicle off, the LH pulses keep it going along, and then need LH surge to ovulate. so if she doesnt ovulate she wont come back into heat
explain the differences in LH between follicular and luteal cystsin follicular cysts, there is little to no LH. In luteal cysts, the LH is released slowly
Cystic Ovarian Disease of Cattle--> clinical signs. What determines the clinical signs of the follicular/luteal cysts of cattle? what are the resulting clinical signs?the CSs depend on the type of hormone produced from the cyst (estrogen, progesterone), as well as the AMOUNT produced and the persistence of the production. The MOST COMMON clinical sign is anestrus (progesterone), which causes a prolongation of time between parturition and first heat. However, the cyst might also cause hyperestrogenism, leading to nymphomania, edema of reproductive tract, cystic glands/ducts, clitoral enlargement, endometrial hyperplasia
Cystic Ovarian Disease in Cattle--> Cystic Corpora Lutea: what is happening with this cyst? what are the results of this?This is a cyst that follows ovulation. it is NOT indicative of ovarian dysfunction, and the Length of the estrus cycle is not affected. What happens is that the Ruptured follicle is not completely filled in by luteal tissue, so a Cyst remains. If the cow is successfully bred, the cavity will slowly fill in.
Cystic Ovarian Disease of Swine--> if there is a single large cyst, what kinda follicle did it come from, and what problem can happen?this is an anovulatory follicle, and usually causes NO problems.
Cystic Ovarian Disease of Swine--> if there are multiple large cysts, what kinda follicle did it come from, and what problem can happen?It is occuring from lutenized follicles, they secrete PROGESTERONE, and they result in irregular cycles (multiple is bad, and LARGE=PROGESTERONE bc thats the hormone when you're preg and large)
Cystic Ovarian Disease of Swine--> If there are multiple small cysts, what kinda follicle did it come from, and what problem can happen?It is occuring from cystic follicles (no lutenized tissue), they secrete estrogen, and result in irregular cycles
Tumors arising from Germ Cells in the ovary? (2)Dysgerminomas, teratomas
Tumors arising from Stromal Cells in the ovary?Granulosa cell tumor
Tumors arising from Surface Epithelium of the ovary? (2)Cystadenoma, Cystadenocarcinoma
Dysgerminoma--> occurs in who? what cells does this form from? What does it look like? How does it affect the ovary? Is metastasis rare or common?primarily in DOGS (disgerminoma, dogs), can also occur in cattle/swine/horses. This is a tumor made of primitive germ cells (Analogous to testicular seminoma). And is a solid, lobulated mass with areas of tumor cell necrosis and hemorrhage. It is DESTRUCTIVE TO OVARY (dys destructive). Metastasis is rare however (if it does it's prolly in the dog)
Ovarian Teratoma--> occurs in who? what cells does this come from? is metastasis rare or common?rare tumor in dogs, cats, horses, and cattle. (DHCC- get the tt) They arise from primordial germ cells and are composed of tissue types from 2-3 embryonic germ layers. Can contain skin, hair, bone, fat, etc. They tumors RARELY metastasize, if they do it's prolly in the dog
what is the most common ovarian tumor in large animals?Granulosa Cell Tumor
Granulosa Cell Tumor--> who does this affect? Is this benign or malignant? where does it occur and what does it look like? what are the clinical signs?It is the Most common ovarian tumors in large animals.They are usually benign (GRANd that it isnt malig)(except in cats when it is usually malignant, and in dogs where it is sometimes malignant). They usually involve one ovary have a smooth surface, are are solid to highly cystic. the clinical signs depend on IF the tumor secretes hormones, and how much hormone. Some possible hormones produced are inhibin(inhibits FSH), estrogen, or androgens. Possible clinical signs are anestrus, nymphomania, or male (stallion/bull) like behavior
what are the usual clinical signs of a DOG with a GRANULOSA CELL TUMOR? (stromal cell tumor)dog will have a prolonged cycle secondary to increased and prolonged progesterone secretion. Cystic endometrial hyperplasia and pyometra can occur (dogs have a GRANd time PPeeing, being HYPER, and will PYO up on you lovingly)
Cystadenoma/adenocarcinoma arise from where in the ovary, and usually affect who?Arise from the epithelium covering the ovary. It is primarily a tumor of dogs. ( adenoma... dogs and their epithelium dont get along)
where do ovarian Cystadenoma/adenocarcinoma usually occur? what do they look like? what is their behavior like? what is a common clinical sign associated with these tumors?(from epithelium, dogs usually) Usually bilateral and have a roughened surface. If it is malignant, it will spread to mesentaries via lymphatics---> ASCITES secondary to lymphatic obstruction
ovarian tumor usually associated with ascites due to lymphatic blockage?Cystadenoma/adenocarcinoma (think about how the outside layer uusally makes fluid, and now associated with ascites which is more fluid)
Fetal ovaries of foal--> explain what is happening in this situation. is it a problem?enlargement of the fetal ovary secondary to proliferation and enlargement of interstitial endocrine cells stimulated by equine chorionic gonadotropin(formally PMSG) from the mare. The interstitial endocrine cells atrophy and disappear before birth. Not a problem.

Oviducts (salpinx) and Uterus

Question Answer
how does freemartin cause an abnormality of oviduct development?Remember that the freemartin has cells shared with her brother through the placenta. Therefore there are sertoli cells inside her ovary, which produce MIS (mullerian inhibitory substance) which suppress her mullerian ducts, which means that the oviducts (and uterus/cervix/anterior vagina) do not develop properly
3 conditions where there is Abnormalities of Oviduct Development?Freemartins, ovarian hypoplasia, Segmental hypoplasia/aplasia (sows)
how does ovarian hypoplasia cause abnormal oviduct development?Ovarian hypoplasia causes oviducts to remain juvenile.
segmental hypoplasia or agenesis of the oviduct usually happens in who, and can cause what problem?SOWS, usually leads to hydrosalpinx ( segmental of the oviduct in sows)
what is Salpingitis? what usually causes this? possible sequale?inflammation of the oviducts. Usually secondary to uterine infections which are ascending. Can be acute or chronic. Can lead to infertility (inflammation leads to blockage= infertility)
what is Pyosalpinx? When does this usually occur?pus within oviduct following obstruction. Uncommon. Follows acute salpingitis.
what is Hydrosalpinx? When does this usually occur?fluid within oviduct following obstruction. Uncommon. Follows chronic salpingitis.
Perisalpingeal adhesions --> where do these adhesions usually occur, and what is it usually secondary to?adhesions between oviducts and ovary, uterus, bursa. Secondary to peritonitis, salpingitis.
(uterus) Segmental aplasia is aka?white heifer dz
(uterus) Segmental aplasia happens why? the why causes what which causes this?aplasia of the UTERUS. (aka white heifer dz) happens because of a Genetic defect of white shorthorn cattle (Recessive gene linked to the gene that leads to white coat color (roan locus; mast cell growth factor gene) ). It causes causes defects in Mullerian duct development which results in various manifestations.
what is Uterus unicornis?aplasia of one uterine horn. (The defect is caused by agenesis of one Mullerian duct during embryonic development)
When does torsion of the uterus occur? Where do the twists usually occur?need weight within uterus. Can happen during Pregnancy, pyometra, hydrometra, mucometra. Twists occur at ovaries and cervix. Transverse axis.
Uterine torsion--> explain how this usually occurs/looks in CATTLE vs in CATS/DOGSIn cattle, usually BOTH horns of the uterus are involved in the torsion due to their IC (intercorneal) ligament between the two horns of the uterus. However, CATS/DOG do NOT have a IC ligament, so usually only one horn of the uterus is in torsion
Uterine Prolapse is common in who, and usually happens because?common in ruminants. Often follows dystocia, retained placenta, hypocalcemia. (Results in edema, hemorrhage, ischemia, necrosis, infection of uterus. The exteriorized uterus is exposed to a variety of traumas and the mucosa begins to dry out.)
caruncles vs cotyledons?caruncles= on uterus (mom drives the CAR). Cotyledons= baby placenta (baby lays in the cot)
what is one way to try to prevent a uterine prolapse from re-occuring, once you have fixed it?(SEW IT BACK IN) brooders stich- heavy suture or umbilical tape. cut around edge of vulva. thread string through. tie vulva shut. then a while later cut it out. (it's kinda like a purse-string). Also there was a corset-looking method
Rupture of the uterus is usually associated with what? Where does it usually occur?Associated with pregnancy/parturition, obstetrical manipulations, prolonged dystocia and uterine torsion. Most commonly occurs in the uterine body adjacent to the pelvic brim. Peritonitis will follow uterine rupture
Uterine Defense Against Infections--> what are three major things (basics) which help the uterus stay resistant to infections?(1) Strong local immunity (2) Endometrial leukocytosis during estrus (3) hormonal factors
describe the strong local immunity which is in the uterusThere is IgA and IgG in the secretions of the uterus.
during estrus, how does the WBC population change in the endometrium?there will be a leukocytosis
explain how estrogen/progesterone affect the uterus's defense against infections?ESTROGEN: the estrogenic uterus is RESISTANT to infections (estrus also promotes leukocytosis of the endometrium). PROGESTERONE: the Progesteronal uterus is susceptible to infection
is the Postpartum uterus MORE or LESS likely to be infected? explain.more likely- infections are common but self-limiting. It will often lead to delayed involution
Endometritis is inflammation of the?endometrium
Metritis is inflammation of?the uterine wall
Perimetritis is inflammation of?uterine serosa (peri, serosa)
Parametritis is inflammation of?suspensory ligament (para chuting is suspending you in the air)
Pyometra is?pus within uterine lumen
Uterine abscess-- define localized area of suppurative inflammation
Mucometra is?when the lumen of the uterus is filled with mucous secretions
endometritis--> Usually this is a mild inflammation, however, certain situations can cause a severe inflammation, such asPOSTPARTUM. There is an open cervix and left over stuff in uterus (lochia), which allows for bacterial invasion and proliferation, or in the case of dirty mares. (From long notes: the uterus is enlarged, loses muscle tone (delayed involution) and contains a brown to gray, foul smelling mucoid exudate. There is inflammation (ulceration and suppuration) of the endometrium and bits of necrotic placental tissue are often present. There may or may not be a uterine discharge (depends upon uterine muscle tone) and patency/non-patency of the cervix.)
what is a dirty mare/ wind sucker mare?These are older mare who have usually had multiple foals. They begin to get poor conformation, where the floor of vagina is below lower lip of vulva, and the top of the vulva sags inward becoming more horizontal. This Poor conformation causes sucking of air and acts as funnel for collecting feces and other contaminants. Urine pools in vagina. This vaginitis can lead to cervicitis and endometritis ---> uterine infections
what is Caslick’s Procedure? what is it used for?This is when you sew the vulva shut except for a small portion at the bottom for the mare to urinate out of. This is to help prevent uterine/vaginal infections which would result from dirty/windsucking mares (mares with poor conformation) (can't lick the pussy if the vulva is sewn shut)

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