Usually you can't tell what went wrong when there is a hemaphrodite (intersex) animal. How do they usually present?
Poorly differentiated ext. genitalia with part or all of the int. genital organs of both sexes
what constitutes a "true" hemaphrodite (intersex)?
They have ovatestes (which means they possesses gonadal tissue of BOTH sexes)
what consitituted a "pseudohemaphrodite"?
then they only have the gonadal tissue of one of the sexes (male pseudohemaphrodite has male tissue, for instance.) still has ambiguous genitalia
Intersex---> FREEMARTIN. what causes freemartins to occur?
a Female calf is born co-twin with a male calf. When in mom, Stem cells from male and female calf mix via large bore anastomoses in the placenta. Both calves are XX/XY chimeras because of the cells they shared. This means that some sertoli cells are produced in the female ovary, so MIS/AMH/MIF is produced in varying amounts in female calf. Her mullerian ducts will be inhibited to varying degrees so oviducts/uterus/cervix/anterior vagina do not develop properly. There might also be some development of wolffian duct structures in female (rudimentary seminal vesicles)
how will a freemartin present?
there will be Variable development of tubular genitalia, and no communication of cranial and caudal portions of the vagina (vagina usually ends blindly). External genitalia, however, will be normal to hypoplastic, there might be some clitoral enlargement. Male is usually minimally affected
which two species+breeds of those species are most likely to have XX sex reversal?
(1) Dogs, esp. cockers (XX with a cock, harhar) (2) Goats, esp. Saanan/Toggenburg(polled intersex syndrome [PIS])
what is the basic jist of what's happening in XX sex reversal?
Gonadal sex does not follow chromosomal sex. there can be XX true hermaphrodites(has both types of gonadal tissue) and XX males
explain what is happening with XX sex reversal in cockers? what are the two kinds?
The Exact pathogenesis unknown, but it is an Autosomal trait where the sex determining region (SRY) is missing in affected females(XX), and they think activation of testes differentiation without the SRY gene in this case is due to a mutant autosomal gene (sox9 or something). XY individuals (males) will be normal, but there can be 2 kinds of presentations of XX individuals: XX true hemaphrodites or XX males (male pseudohemaphrodite).
XX sex reversal--> how do the XX true hermaphrodites present? how common is this form?
90% (90% true) of cases present like this. They will present as partially masculinized females (enlarged clitoris, etc) with ovatestes
XX sex reversal--> how do the XX Male pseudohermaphrodites present? how common is this form?
10% of the cases present like this. In this case, there is testicular tissue, leading to malformed male external genitalia and cryptorchid aspermatogenic testes
XX sex reversal--> polled intersex syndrome (PIS) in GOATS (mentioned in class, this is for clarification) which breeds of goats do you see this in? what is the condition related with/how does this happen?
happens in Saanan and Toggenburg goats and is associated with hornlessness. If they are heterzygous for the hornless gene, they are hornless and normal. If they are homozygous for the hornless gene, though, they will have varying degrees of sex reversal. Could be XX males who are just sterile, hermaphrodites with a female phenotype, or XY males that are infertile. The condition is caused by a gene deletion on chromosome 1 of the goat and is linked with the poll gene, which causes reduced inhibition of testicular development with Sertoli cell differentiation, leading to to production of SOX9 and anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) and variable inhibition of the Mullerian duct system and variable development of the Wolffian duct system
Androgen insensitivity: aka? affects what sp? what happens here and what is the resulting animal like?
aka testicular feminization in HORSES. This condition results in a Equine male pseudohermaphrodite (XY genotype with undifferentiated testes). What happens is that there is an XY genotype, and SRY is produced, so the undifferentiated gonad becomes a testes. This means there are sertoli cells, and MIS is formed, so the mullerian ducts regress. Then the interstitial cells in the testicle produce testosterone,BUT!!! either there is a lack of enzyme to convert T to DHT, or there IS production of DHT but there is a lack of a receptor for DHT and because of this, the wolffian ducts ALSO regress. What you are left with is external genitalia that appear female, but the horse is XY with some male tissue inside.
Persistent Mullerian Duct Syndrome--> who does this happen in most? what is the genotype and phenotype of affected animals?
miniature schnausers!!! (and basset hounds in the UK). they have XY genotype, Approx 50% have intra-abdominal testes (one or both) and the remaining 50% scrotal testes. Affected dogs will have male external genitalia (except cryptorchid) and oviducts, uterus, cervix and anterior vagina. (mini schanusers persistently love to be around mules)
explain what is happening in persistant mullerian duct syndrome
XY dog gets as far as that the undifferentiated gonad becomes a testicle, and can produce MIS, BUT there are no functional MIS II receptor cells on the mullerian duct cells to detect the MIS, so they continue to develop. Because of this, the XY dogs will have male external genetalia (except cryptorchid) as WELL as oviducts, cervix, and anterior vagina (from the mullerian ducts not being inhibited) (see pic slide 32 for what it looks like) (persistent lack of receptors leads to persistent female junk in a male dog)
ovarian abnormalities are common in intersex conditions
just study the above set, yo.
agenesis (absence, it never grew) of the ovary..who is this usually seen in? how might it affect the rest of the tract?
Rare, but most often seen in ruminants, dogs, and swine. If both ovaries are absent, the genital tract will also be juvenile. (really dumb swine dont know how to grow an ovary)
ovarian hypoplasia usually occurs in who? cause?
Usually in cattle. The cause is usually unknown, but it can sometimes be genetic, like in Swedish Highland cattle, where it is an autosomal recessive condition where the ovary is small and flattened (a cow ovary is underwhelming (hypo) when I think about eating a cow)
ovarian duplication- what usually happens and what does it look like?
Rare, but probably happens when there is a split in ovarian tissue during embryonic developement resulting in TWO OVARIES ON ONE SIDE.
Spay fragments (ovarian remnant syndrome)-- explain what is going on here
If you perform a spay but leave behind any ovarian tissue on accident, animal can continue to have cycles/heats. Fragments can be difficult to find and histopathology is usually required to conclusively identify the remnant ovarian tissue in the mesenteric fat. So do it right the first time
what are some causes of ovarian atrophy?
loss/reduction of hormonal stimulation, partial loss of blood flow, starvation/chronic illness/debilitation (if theyre sick/thin, dont need baby, body shuts the ovaries down)
Intrafollicular hemorrhage- during normal ovulation, a small amount of hemorrhage is common in the ovary adjacent of ovulated follicles. However, in which animal are these hemorrhages more severe, and what can result?
in the mare, the hemorrhage can be severe enough to result in exsanguination into the peritoneal cavity (hemoperitoneum). (normal process killing horses....surprise!)
what used to be the iatrogenic cause for intrafollicular hemorrhage, and how is it avoided now?
They used to do Manual enucleation of the corpora lutea which could lead to secondary ovarian hemorrhage. Now, however, we just use prostaglandins
Acute(PYOGENIC) oophoritis(ovaritis)--> who does this occur in most of the time? What causes this?
Usually observed in cattle (RARE in cats/dogs). It is usually secondary to an ascending infection from the uterus (pyogenic). (VIRAL oohoritis: Also can be caused experimentally in cow with IBR virus (bovine herpesvirus1) ) (a CUTE ovary in the cow can mean puss for dinner)
chronic(GRANULOMATOUS) oophoritis(ovaritis)--> what three agents can cause this?
BVD virus, Mycobact bovis, B. suis (Brucella suis)
adhesions can lead to what problem?
Paraovarian (periovarian) cysts-- what causes these cysts to form? what problems can these cause?
they develop from remnants of the embryonic paramesonephric (mullerian) or mesonephric (wolffian) tubules. Rarely cause problems unless large or in the wrong location (incidental)
Cystic reteovarii--> what does the cyst develop from? Where is it? Who does this affect?
reteovarii are tubules formed from mesonephric (wolffian-male) duct remnants in the medulla of the ovary. These tubules persist in cats, dogs and cows. The tubules become cystic and if large enough can lead to secondary ovarian dysfunction or be confused with cystic follicles (long notes also said it tends to be in the hilus, aka the dented in area, of the ovary) (Cat and dog have a medusa in their medulla)
Epithelial inclusion cyst--> what situation occurs to make this cyst form, and who is prone to getting them?
normal surface epithelium of ovary becomes entrapped in ovarian stroma at ovulation. Cyst can form from trapped epithelium as it continues to produce fluid. Usually around the ovarian fossa (hilus) Most common intraovarian cyst in the mare. With enough size or number they might block ovulation in the mare leading to infertility (what, a normal physiological process like ovulating causing problems in a horse? surprise!)
Cystic ovarian disease in domestic animals--> Anovulatory follicular cyst is aka?
cystic Graafian follicle
Cystic Ovarian Disease of Cattle--> which cows, when and why does this cystic dz occur?
usually occurs in dairy cattle around winter, about 60 days postpartum. There might be a genetic predisposition involved, but increased incidence has also been associated with Increased stress secondary to retained placenta, metritis and hypocalcemia
what are the two pathological ovarian cysts which can develop in cattle?
(1) Anovulatory follicular cysts (cystic graafian follicles) (graafian has two As because its other name is anovulatory) (2) luteal cysts ( (3) cystic corpora lutea also happen but are not pathological)
pathological cysts of cattle--> follicular cysts (cystic graafian follicles). what is the criteria needed to label a cyst as one of these? how many? what physiological impact does this type of cyst have?
The follicle is considered a folicular (graffian) cyst when it is greater than 25 mm and persists for more than 10 days without luteal tissue-- and it never ovulates. These can occur as single or multiple on one or both ovaries. This type of cyst will cause Prolongation of postpartum interval to first estrus. This increases time the cow is open. (which means no milk, which is bad news)