Path-Ew-Logy Exam 2 L1 going on L2

lunalovegood's version from 2015-10-13 02:53


Tumors of Infancy and Childhood
Question Answer
Excessive accumulation of cells that are normally found IN THAT TISSUE, but they are arranged in an abnormal manner.hamartoma
Usually have blood vessels in the face and skin, but too much formed.vascular birthmark (hamartoma)
T/F - Vascular birthmark - lots of very dilated blood vessels surrounded by endothelial cells. Only 10% are neoplastic.T (most will go away with age)
Compressible fluid filled accumulation in lymphatics.cystic lymphangioma (hamartoma)
Cysts in the neck area - can compress the airway - no blood cells only lymph.cystic hygroma coli (hamartoma)
Vascular birthmarks, cystic lymphangioma, and cystic hygroma coli are all examples of...harmartoma
Aggregates of normal tissue components in aberrant locations.choristoma or heteotopias
Formation of bone nodules in tongue or skin.osteoma mucosa (choristomas / heteotopia)
Brain cells forming in tongue.glial choristoma (choristoma / heteotopias)
Tumor derived from more than one or from all embryonic layers.teratoma
Name a teratoma we learned about.SC teratoma (sacrococcygeal teratoma)
T/F - The 8 most common tumors of early childhood are 1) Lymphoblastic leukemia 2) Neuroblastoma 3) Nephroblastoma 4) Hepatoblastoma 5) Retinoblastoma 6) Rhabdomyosarcome 7)Teratoma-benign and malignant 8) EpendymomaT


Question Answer
Do endocrine glands have ducts? Do they secrete hormones, peptides and amines into the blood?no, yes
T/F - Pituitary gland - two pouches develop between the 4th and 6th week.T
The anterior lobe of pituitary comes from...Rathke's Pouch (outpouch of buccopharyngeal membrane)
TSH - causes thyroid gland to ___ and release T3 and T4.grow
FSH and LH both stimulate ovulation in women. In men, FSH stimulates ___ production and LH stimulates _________.sperm, testosterone
____ makes you produce breast milk and ____ makes you release it.prolactin, oxytocin
If you want to bake a cake, but you don't have any eggs.impaired synthesis
Mass/tumors - ____ is overproduction of hormones. ___ is SOL.functional, non-functional (SOL = space occupying lesion or shit outta luck. Depends on context.)
Ablative therapy, ischemia, and SOL can all cause _________ synthesis.impaired (causes underproduction. Abnormal interactions and responses cause overproduction)
The pituitary gland is JUST below the...optic chiasm (SOL causes bitemporal hemianopia)
Due to optic chiasm location, pituitary SOL causes...bitemporal hemianopia (other symptoms --> headaches, nausea, vomiting)
Pituitary SOL - mass is evident on _________ and ____. Expansion of sella tursica and resorption of clinoid process.CT and MRI


I'm a little hormone, short and stout! Add a little GH and I will sprout!
Question Answer
Lack of ACTH causes...Addison's disease
Lack of ADH causes...diabetes INSIPIDUS
____ is a tumor that develops from the remnants of Rathke's pouch.craniopharyngioma
What is the MOST COMMON type of PAN-HYPOPITUITARISM?craniopharyngioma (comes from Rathke's Pouch - from buccopharyngeal membrane - resembles ameloblastoma of jaw)
Name 3 ways of causing HYPOpituitarism via ISCHEMIC INJURY.injury, radiation, inflammatory process
Explain Sheehan syndrome.pregnant woman - lots prolactin - congestion of portal system - birth - loss of blood - drop in BP - less blood to congested pituitary - postpartum necrosis - hypopituitarism via ischemic injury
T/F - Hypopituitarism can be caused by a non-functional neoplasm that presses on the gland, destroying part of it or all.T
Hyperpituitarism is MOST OFTEN caused by...adenoma (hyperplasia and carcinoma also listed)
A ___ tumor produces hormones, is a ___adenoma, and causes ___pituitarism. A ____ tumor, i.e. silent adenoma, is a ____ adenoma and causes ___pituitarism.functional, microadenoma, hyper, non-functional, macroadenoma, hypo
Most frequently, pituitary ____ are ISOLATED lesions.adenomas (rarely occur in association w/ MEN syndrome type 1)
What is the MOST COMMON type of FUNCTIONAL pituitary adenoma?prolactinoma
When is prolactin produced?stress, suckling, pregnancy
Amenorrhea, galactorrhea, loss of libido and infertility...prolactinoma (galactorrhea means breast discharge)
Hyperprolactinemia physiologically occurs during pregnancy and breast feeding. When is it pathologic?If it's with high dose ESTROGEN thereapy - with a dopamine-inhibiting drug - with renal failure - or hypothyroidism with hypothalamic lesions.
Too much GH BEFORE closure of epiphyses.Gigantism
Too much GH AFTER closure of epiphyses.Acromegaly
Name bone things in order from epi to dia.epiphysis, growth plate, metaphysis, diaphysis
Generalized increase of body size with extra extra long limbs.gigantism
Gigantism can have _____ problems.cardiovascular (heart failure)
Acromegaly - growth is most conspicuous in the (becomes very coarse)
T/F - Acromegaly causes enlargement of visceral organs, thyroid, liver, hearts and adrenals.T
Name 4 places acromegaly sees bone enlargement.face, jaw, hands, feet
Name 2 things increased jaw size causes in acromegaly.mandibular prognathism and flaring/spacing of teeth
T/F - Acromegaly can cause cardiovascular problems, diabetes, HTN, and arthritis.T
How do you diagnosis acromegaly?elevated GH levels + failure to suppress GH through oral overload of glucose
The thyroid gland produces T3, T4, and ___.calcitonin
Physiologic thyroid goiter occurs during _________ and ___.puberty and pregnancy
A destructive autoimmune disease to thyroid gland - causes goiter.Hashimoto's thyroiditis
T/F - certain foods and drugs suppress synthesis of thyroid hormones - goitrogens - cause goiter.T
Graves disease, multinodular goiter, thyroid functional adenoma, and anterior pituitary adenoma all cause...hyperthyroidism
Hyperthyroidism occurs in _________ females for every 1 male.5 (but my Uncle has Graves disease! Exception!)
Hyperthyroidism - do they get their teeth faster or slower?faster (early loss of primaries and early eruption of permanents)
Primary hyperthyroidism TSH is ___. Secondary TSH is ___.low, high
What is the most common cause of endogenous hyperthyroidism?graves disease
What is characterized by thyrotoxicosis, infiltrative ophthalmopthy and localized dermopathy?graves disease
Graves disease occurs in ___ females for every 1 male.7 (oh no Uncle Leif!)
HLA-B8 and HLA-DR3 are related to...graves disease
Thyroid stimulating immunoglobulins are related to...graves disease
Infection, sepsis, trauma, stress, thyroid manipulation, surgery and graves disease can all cause a ...thyroid storm
Thyroid storm mortality rate is _________-_________%.20-40%
Hypothyroidism during infancy is ____. During juvenile/adulthood is ___.cretinism, myxedema
Surgery, radiation, radioiodine therapy, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, iodine deficiency, lithium and iodide drugs, and developmental thyroid abnormalities can all cause...primary hypothyroidism
Coarse dry skin, large puffy pale lips, impaired development of skeletal and CNS systems - dwarfism and mental retardation.cretinism
Macroglossia, mouth breathing, flaring and spacing of teeth, underdeveloped mandible, overdeveloped maxilla, late eruption of all teeth, enamel hypoplasia.cretinism
What is the most common cause of hypothyroidism in US?Hashitmoto's thyroiditis (autoimmune)


Question Answer
Maintains BP, blood volume, blood sugar, and appetite & feeling of well being.cortisol
From outside going in, name the zones of the adrenal cortex.zona glomerulosa, zona fasciculata, zona reticularis (then the medulla)
Name 2 diseases of HYPERadrenalism.Cushing's syndrome, hyperaldosteronism
Name 2 disease of HYPOadrenalism.Addison's disease, Waterhouse-Friderichsen
Addison's disease is ___ adrencortical insufficiency, Waterhouse-F is ___. (chronic/acute)chronic, acute
ACTH producing pituitary adenoma causes Cushing's syndrome _________% of the time.60
Cushing's syndrome occurs in _________ females for every 1 male.10
Weight gain, trunk obesity, HTN, DM features, thin skin, excess hairr, flushed face, impaired healing, easy bruising, purple striae, acne, osteopororsis, buffalo hump of neck, moon face, muscle weakness...cushing's syndrome
Tired, weight loss, GI disturbances, hypoglycemia, depression, bronzing of skin and mucosa, susceptibility to infection.addison's disease
Hypotension, weakness & collapse, nausea, vomiting, headache, fever...symptoms of adrenal crisis (even though this just sounds like every illness I've ever had)
What do you give in the case of adrenal crisis?100mg of hydrocortisone IM or IV
Overwhelming sepsis y Neisseria meningitidis bacteria can lead to what type of hypoadrenalism?Waterhouse-Friderichsen Syndrome (uncommon)
Rapidly progressive hypotension leading to shoc, disseminated IV coagulopathy, wide spread purpura on skin, acute rapidly developing adrenocortical insufficiency, massive bilateral adrenal hemorrhage?Waterhouse-Friderichsen Syndrome (acute)
Tumors of the adrenal medulla aka...pheochromocytoma
MEN 2A and 2B, neurofibromatosis type 1, and von Hippel-Lindau syndrome cause 10% of ...pheochromocytomas (tumors of adrenal medulla)

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