What is osteoporosis and when should prevention begin?
A disease characterized by porous bone that is abnormally fragile and susceptible to fracture, 80% affected are women. Prevention should begin early in life and continue through adulthood. Adults need about 1,200 mg of calcium each day.
Adults need about 1,200 mg of calcium a day, this can be obtained by eating a variety of what food?
Dairy products, Dark green leafy vegetables, Calcium-fortified foods, almonds.
How do weight-bearing exercises promote strong, dense bones?
Stimulates the development of dense and strong bone and slows progression of the disease.
Weight bearing exercise also builds bone density. What are some daily activities you should take part in?
Walking, jogging, or running - Tennis or racquetball - Field hockey - Stair climbing - Jumping rope - Basketball - Dancing - Hiking - Soccer - Weightlifting.
Why do women have a higher risk for osteoporosis than men?
More than half of caucasian women over age 50 have low bone density, which elevates their risk for developing the disease.
How is osteoporosis diagnosed?
Using patient history and bone density tests.
There is no cure for Osteoporosis, so what prevention is strongly recommended?
A lifelong diet rich in calcium and vitamin D along with weightbearing exercise which stimulates the development of dense and strong bone and slows progression of the disease. Don't smoke and limit alcohol and caffeine consumption. Treatment may require medication that promotes calcium uptake in bone.
Most fractures in older adults result from what?
Falls, and most fall-related deaths occur among older adults.
Older adults can take action to reduce their risk of falling. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends that older adults do what to help prevent falls:
Exercise regularly to maintain strength and balance - Review all medicines with doctor to determine if any cause side effects or interactions such as dizziness or drowsiness - Check vision annually - Reduce tripping hazards on floors and stairs at home - Install hand rails on stairs, in bathtubs and showers, and near toilets.
The amount of what in bones declines steadily with age, partly becuase of _______ activity declines with age.
density, and strength - osteoblast activity
When does bone loss accelerate for women, and what does it make them more susceptible to?
Menopause - Osteoporosis and its effects.
More than ____ of those with osteoporosis are women, and a majority of women over age ___ have low bone density or osteoporosis.
Because cartilage becomes stiff, ligaments lose flexibility and elasticity, and synovial membranes become fibrous, stiff, and produce less synovial fluid.
At what age do changes in joint mobility begin to decrease?
At age 20 and become significant by age 30, especially if the joints and muscles are not regularly exercised and stretched.
The incidence of arthritis increases with age: What percentage of young adults have arthritis, and what percentage of adults over age 60 have some form of arthritis. Most of these cases are what type of arthritis?
20% of young adults - 60% of adults over age 60 - Osteoarthritis.
What happens to muscles with age?
The number of muscle fibers decreases, and they become shorter and thinner, reducting muscle strength and range of motion. Muscles become less sensitive to stimulation. (They take longer to contract when stimulated). Exercise reduces the rate of these changes and helps maintain muscle mass, strength, and flexibility.
Acne is an ancient skin problem. How did the ancient Egyptians treat acne? Egyptians living in the 3rd century a.d., believed acne was caused how?
Spells and charms were used on the pharaohs. - From telling lies
During the Roman Empire acne what was thought about acne?
Pores could be unclogged and cleansed by mixing sulfur in mineral baths. Because this type of cleansing reduced the amount of bacteria that caused acne and dried out the oils that clogged the skin, it was fairly effective.
In the 1920's what was a popular treatment for acne. In the 1950's what was an effective treatment for acne. In the 1960's what was discovered to fight acne?
Benzoyl peroxide was found to kill acne bacteria. - antibiotics were found to be effective - Topical vitamin A derivatives could fight acne blemishes.
What foods seem to have a protective effect for the skin?
Antioxidant-rich foods. - Carrots, apricots, and other yellow and orange fruites and vegetables - Spinach and other green leafy vegetables - Tomatoes, Blueberries, Beans, Peads, and Lentils - Salmon, Mackerel, and other fatty fish, Nuts.
What is Urticaria and what is its etiology?
Also known as hives, results form a vascular reaction of the skin to an allergen. - At lease half of the time, the etiology cannot be determined. The most common triggers are Allergies to food, medications, cosmetics, soap and detergent, viral infections, insect stings and bites, transfusion of blood or blood products, emotional and physical stress, Physical agents such as sunlight, heat, cold, water, and pressure.
What are the signs and symptoms of Uticaria, and how is it diagnosed?
Wheals with rounded elevations and pale centers usually appear first on the covered areas of the skin such as the trunk and upper parts of the arms and legs and appear in batches. Each wheel may last from a few minutes up to 6 hours. It is also accompanied by intense pruritus. - Virual examination, complete medical history.
What is the treatment for Urticaria and what is the prevention for Urticaria?
What is a burn and what type of burns are the most common?
Damage to the body's tissues caused by heat, chemicals, electricity, sunlight, or radiation. - Thermal (heat-caused)
The American Burn Association estimates each year in the U.S. ______ seek medical attention for burns, and burns lead to ______ hospitalizations and _____ deaths.
450,000 - 45,000 - 3,500
What are some risk factors for burns?
Careless smoking, absent or nonfunctioning smoke detectors, age (children under 4), gender (males are twice as likely to suffer burn injuries), use of wood stoves, water heaters set above 120F, and exposed heating sources or electrical cords.
What is the etiology of burns and how are burns diagnosed?
Heat, radiation, sunlight, chemicals, electricity. - Visual examination. To determine the severity of a burn, doctors estimate the percentage of the body's surface that has been burned. For adults, doctor use the rule of nines. This method divides almost all of the body into sections of 9% or 18%. Burns that involve more than 90% of the body surface, or more than 60% in an older person, usually are fatal.
What are the signs and symptoms of a First-degree burn and what is the treatment?
Also known as superficial burns and affect the epidermis; Red, swollen, painful - Heals in approximately 1 week and do not scar.
What are the signs and symptoms of a Second-degree burn and what is the treatment?
Affect the epidermis and portions of the dermis; Extremely red, blistered, painful. - Heal in a few weeks; some scarring and depigmentation may occur. Treatment includes antibiotic cream and pain relievers.
What are the signs and symptoms of a Third-degree burn and what is the treatment?
Affect the epidermis, dermis, and subcutaneous tissue. White or brown skin with a dry, leathery appearance, no pain in the burned area (Nerve endings are destroyed). fluid loss may cause shock. - Treatment includes antibiotics, IV fluids, pain relievers, surgical debridement, and grafting. Severe may cause extensive scarring.
What are the signs and symptoms of a Fourth-degree burn and what is the treatment?
Affect epidermis, dermis, subcutaneous tissue, and structures below the skin (tendons, bone, ligaments, muscles). They are black and charred with eschar. Nerve endings are destroyed so burned area itself will not be painful. - Always require surgery or grafting to close the wounds or amputation, often result in permanent disability, and may require lengthy rehabilitation.
What are the composition and function of the skin changes with age?
Loses elasticity, becomes wrinkled and saggy, touch sensation of the skin decreases making burns and frostbite more likely. Stem cell production declines, causing slower epidermal cell reproduction and thinner, more translucent skin that is more prone to injury and infection and retains less water.
Migration of cells to the top of the epidermis slows, what happens as a result? Vascular and gland changes occur in the skin with age what occurs due to this?
Skin heals much more slowly in older adults compared to younger people. It increases the risk of secondary infections. - Vascularity and circulation decrease in the subcutaneous tissue, causing drugs that are administered in this manner to be absorbed slowly. Vascular supply to the nails and hair decreses, resulting in slowed growth. Nails become dull, brittle, hard, and thick and become difficult to trim.
A decrease in the blood supply to the dermis and a decrease in sweat production what does this lead to?
Thermoregulation, placing older adults at an increased risk for hypothermia or overheating. Sebacceous gland activity decreases as does sebum production. The skin becomes dry and flaky, hair brittle, thin and may be lost. Skin becomes less resistant to infection and other diseases. Skin becomes paler and hair turns gray or white. Increased susceptiblity to sunburn and skin cancer.
A number of skin changes are caused by by ultraviolet radiation. These include?
Skin cancer, actinic deratosis, and liver spots (lentigenes). Also damages the skin in other ways, altering its elasticity and compostion. With time, sun exposed skin becomes wrinkled, hardened, and dry. To reduce sun-induced damage and disease reduce sunlight exposure by wearing suncreen, sunglasses, hats, long-sleeved shirts, and long pants and by staying out of the sun in the middle of the day when the sun's rays are the most direct.
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