How many older Americans are affected by depression? People of what age are the fastest-growing segment of the population in the U.S.?
More than 6.5 million of the 35 million Americans age 65 years or older. - age 65
It is a ____ that depression is part of the aging process. It is ___ normal for people of any age to suffer from depression.
myth - not
Many senior citizens think that depression is a character flaw.
They may blame themselves for their depression and are too ashamed to get help.
Depression has a _________ of successful treatment.
What is one of the most important ways to prevent mental disorders?
Maintain strong ties with family, friends, and coworkers. The prognosis fo people with a mental disorder is much worse for people who are socially isolated. Friends and family provide support, help with treatment, and alleviate the sense of isolation.
It is estimated the the number of older adults with what type of problems will almost quadruple, from _____ in 1970 to _____ in 2030.
Mental and behavioral health problems - 4 million to 15 million.
Approximately how many adults over age 55 suffer from a mental disorder?
What are the most common mental disorders for those age 55 and older?
Anxiety diorders (e.g., generalized anxiety and panic disorders), severe cognitive impairment (e.g., Alzheimer's disease), and mood disorders (e.g., depression and bipolar disorder).
What are some late-life problems that may play a role in the development of a mental disorder?
Coping with physical health problems, caring for a spouse with dementia or a physical disability, grieving the death of loved ones, and managing conflict with family members.
Unfortunately, many older people still believe that mental health disorders result from a stigma and keeps many older people from admitting a mental disorder exists and do not seek help. What is the stigma?
Personal failure or weakness.
Who has the highest rate of suicide in the U.S., and the second highest rate of suicide in the U.S.?
Those age 85 and over - Those age 75 - 84.
What is one of the most important ways to prevent mental disorders?
to maintain strong ties with family, friends, and coworkers. The prognosis for people who are socially isolated is much worse. Friends and family provide support, help with treatment, and alleviate the sense of isolation.
Diagnosing mental disorders begins with what and continues with what other types of testing?
A complete medical history. - a physical examination and laboratory testing rule out an underlying medical condition as the etiological agent of the signs and symptoms. If no organic cause is found the patient is referred to a mental health professional that is specifically trained to diagnose and treat mental disorders.
What is CSE?
Comprehensive psychiatric evaluation used in diagnosing mental disorders.
Each CSE (Comprehensive psychiatric evaluation) is different; the most common components of a CSE are what?
The mental health professional will interview the patient and will cover a wide range of topics. A DSM will be used to diagnose the mental disorder, and will include a set of diagnostic criteria to indicate what signs and symptoms must be present and for how long for each disorder included in the DSM.
The DSM (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders),should only be used by mental health professionals who have received specialized training, including ?
Reviewing the signs and symptoms that brought the patient in for evaluation, the patient's past psychiatric history, family history of medical and mental health problems, substance abuse, developmental history, medical history, and mental status.
What is a MSE?
A mental status examination is an assessment tool used by mental health professionals.
How can MSE (Mental Status Examination) data be obtained?
Informally during the patient interview and from questioning the patient.
The MSE (Mental Status Examination) provides what to the Mental health professional?
Insight as to what additional assessment is needed. Additional assessment may include personality, reasoning, aptitude, and intelligence quotient testing.
What is ADHD and how is it characterized?
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. - By a persistent pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity.
How many people are estimated to have ADHD (Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder) in the U.S.?
5% of school-age children and 2.4% of adults.
When does ADHD usually become evident?
In the preschool or early elementary years. The median age of onset of ADHD is 7, although the disorder can persist into adolescence and occasionally into adulthood.
What do the signs and symptoms of ADHD include?
Inattention (has trouble staying focused, has difficulty remembering things and following instructions, makes careless mistakes), hyperactivity (constantly fidgets and squirms, moves around constantly, talks excessively), and impulsivity (frequently interrupts others, acts without thinking, does not wait his or her turn).
What is the etiology of ADHD and what is included in diagnosing ADHD?
Idiopathic - A complete medical history, physical examination, laboratory testing, educational testing, and comprehensive psychiatric evaluation. In July of 2013 the FDA approved a brain-wave test to help diagnose. The test uses electroencephalogram to measure theta and beta brain waves. Certain combinations of these brain waves tend to be more prevalend in children with ADHD.
No cure - Most successful when a team approach is used, with teachers, parents, and therapists or physicians working together. May include stiumlant medication that increases the levels of the neurotransmitters dopamine and norepinephrine to help control hyperactivity and impulsive behavior and increase attention span. They benefit from special education that includes a structured environment and use of routines. Behavior modification may be used, social skills training and counseling may also benefit. Parenting skills training and family psychotherapy may also be part of the treatment. It is not preventable.
What produced unusual prescriptions in American traditional and folk medicine?
The lack of medical science, coupled with a desperate search for relief.
What were some of the unusual prescriptions in American traditional and folk medicine?
Treating gout by cutting a hole in a tree, holding the affected body part to it, and then sealing the hole with sand to trap the disease. Also with an earthworm whose curled shape resembles gnarled gout-afflicted appendages. Another 19th-century prescription required the sufferer to carry a potato in the hip pocket. A home remedy from Texas called for ingestion of wintergreen oil. Citing bad blood as the cause, some people were subjected to regular bleedings. in the 1950's, predatory entrepreneurs recommended baths in uranium pools or ingestion of uranium-laced water.
Trauma is the leading cause of bone fractures, several diseases and disorders raise the risk for fractures. What are the chief signs and syptoms of a fracture?
visibly out-of-place limb or joint - Swelling, bruising, or bleeding - Intense pain - Numbness and tingling - Broken skin with bone protruding - Limited mobility or inability to move a limb.
Describe an open fracture. what may an open fracture result in and what is another name for an open fracture?
Broken ends of bone protrude through soft tissues and skin. It is serious, and may result in osteomyelitis. Also called a compound fracture.
Describe a comminuted fracture what common conditions cause this type of fracture?
Bone fragments into many peices. Common in those with brittle bones, such as osteogenesis imperfecta.
Describe a compression fracture and who is it common in?
Bone is crushed - Clients with osteoporosis.
Describe an impacted fracture and commonly results from what?
Broken ends of bone are forced into each other. From falls, also common in hip fracture.
Describe a depressed fracture and commonly results from what?
Broken bone is pressed inward. Common in skull fractures.
Describe a spiral fracture and how does it commonly occur?
Jagged break due to twisting force applied to bone. Commonly due to sports injuries.
Describe a greenstick fracture and who is it common in?
Bone breaks incompletely, much in the way a green twig breaks. Common in children, whose bones have proportionally more organic matrix and are more flexible than those of adults.
Describe a closed fracture and what is another name for a closed fracture.
Bone breaks cleanly but does not penetrate skin. Also called a simple fracture.
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