Path-Chap-14 cont. & part of 15

creativity's version from 2015-05-05 12:52

Section 1

Question Answer
What is the leading cause of blindness among adults in the U.S.?Diabetic retinopathy (DR)
What is the chief risk factor for Diabetic retinopathy (DR)?Diabetes mellitus type I and II, which damages blood vessels, including the vessels that nourish the retinas of the eyes.
What are the signs and symptoms of Diabetic Retinopathy (DR)?Vascular changes in the retina, loss of visual acuity, and diminished night vision.
How is diabetic retinopathy (DR) diagnosed?With an eye exam using an ophthalmoscope to examine the retina.
What is the treatment for diabetic retinopathy (DR) and how can it be prevented?Limited, but vessel hemorrhages can be stemmed using laser surgery. Regular eye exams to monitor progression and to plan for assistive measures.
About what percentage of diabetes type 1 patients will be diagnosed with DR within 3 years of diabetes diagnosis? About what percentage of people with diabetes type 2 have some degree of retinopathy at the time of diagnosis?40% - 20%
Pregnant women are also at risk for Diabetic retinopathy (DR) if they develop what?Gestational diabetes
What is etiology of Glaucoma?The cause is unknown, but it is related to fluid pressure building within the eyeball.
What are the signs and symptoms of Glaucoma?They are not noticed until vision loss occurs. A painless condition that damages the optic nerve and is a leading cause of blindness in the U.S.
How is Glaucoma diagnosed?Includes tonometry (measures intraocular pressure), Visual field testing (measures the field peripheral vision), Exam with ophthalmoscope.
What are the treatments for glaucoma?Aimed at decreasing intraocular pressure and include medications (medicated eye drops that decrease the production of fluid or enhance drainage of fluid in the eye), and laser surgery.
Glaucoma is not preventable, but what can be done to prevent serious damage.Regular eye exams to identify increases in intraocular pressure; control risk factors such as blood glucose in diabetes, blood pressure.

Section 2

Question Answer
What are some age-related changes in hearing?Hearing loss is especially pronounced at high freqencies. Alterations in sound receptors, neurons, and blood supply to the inner ear are among the associated changes.
What increases the risk for glaucoma and what is the cause?Family history - unknown, but it is related to fluid pressure building within the eyeball.
How many Americans have glaucoma?More than 2 million
What should be a part of an aging person's eye health care?Examination by an eye doctor regularly, especially if macular degeneration has affected close family members.
What can cause high-pressure readings in people who do not have glaucoma and what test can be done to prevent this type of misdiagnosis?Corneal thickness - Pachymetry, which measures the thickness of the cornea.
The risk for glaucoma is highest among people over what age, especially Mexican Americans.? The risk for glaucoma in African Americans is greatest over what age?60 - 40
Why should examination by an eye doctor be a regular part of an aging person's health care?Macular degeneration can be devastating, but its progress can be slowed and managed. Early detection is key to effective intervention.
What can loud noises do to your ears and what can be done if you must be around loud noises?Each exposure can damage your ears. - Hearing protectors can help reduce dangerous noise in areas where noise cannot be controlled or eliminated.
What are some age-related changes in vision?Loss of visual acuity and decreased sensitivity to light. The curvature of the cornea decreases, impairing refraction and its ability to focus light. The lens increases in thickness and decreases in elasticity, making it more difficult to accommodate and focus on objects at a close distance. A thickened lens becomes less transparent and admits less light into the eye.
How can changes in vision and hearing be managed?With surgical procedures, eyeglasses, and hearing aids.
What are some things that contribute to falls among aging adults?Vision and hearing impairment, balance problems, and reduced muscle strength and coordination.
What is a leading cause of injury in older adults and what can help prevent these injuries?Falls - Keeping sight and hearing as acute as possible can help.

Section 3

Question Answer
Disease chronicle chap. 14 - Who was Helen Keller?An American author, activist, and lecturer, the first deaf/blind person to graduate from college.
Disease chronicle chap. 14 - When was Helen Keller born?June 27, 1880
Disease chronicle chap. 14 - When did Helen Keller die?June 1, 1968.
Disease chronicle chap. 14 - At what age did Helen Keller lose her sight and hearing?At about 2
Disease chronicle chap. 14 - How did Helen Keller lose her sight and hearing?Following an illness where she contracted an infection with a high fever.
Disease chronicle chap. 14- What teacher helped Helen after she went deaf and blind?Anne Sullivan.
Disease chronicle chap. 14 - What methods of communication did Anne Sullivan teach Helen?Touch-lip reading, Braille, speech, and typing.
What schools did Helen Keller attend?Horrance Mann School for the Deaf, Wright-Humason School for the Deaf, Cambridge School for Young Ladies, and Radcliffe College.
Disease chronicle chap. 14 - When Helen graduated from college what was she determined to do?Improve the lives of others.
Disease chronicle chap. 14 - What were some of Helen's accomplishments?Published 12 books, was a founding member of the American Civil Liberties Union, and was a tireless advocate for people with disabilities.

Section 4

Question Answer
Disease chronicle chap. 15 - In the year and where did a clinical trial on a new antituberculosis drug begin? What was that drug called?1951 - Sea View Hospital in Staten Island, New York - Iproniazid.
Disease chronicle chap. 15 - What was noted about iproniazid?Terminally ill patients who were given this drug became cheerful, more optimistic, and more physically active.
Disease chronicle chap. 15 - In what year were several patients given a drug called _____ to control high blood pressure but complained of what?1954 - raudixin - crying spells, lethargy, hopelessness, and suicidal thoughts.
Disease chronicle chap. 15 - How did the drugs iproniazid and raudixin produce such profound and opposite effects on mood?Scientists were learning about neurotransmitters and the brain. Raudixin drastically lowered while iproniazid increased the concentration of the neurotransmitter serotonin.
Disease chronicle chap. 15 - Who was the first person to create a drug that specially elevated serotonin concentrations and what was the drug called?A swedish researcher named Arvid Carlsson - zimelidine
Disease chronicle chap. 15 - Who followed Arvid Carlsson's lead to find serotonin-enhancing drugs and when?Pharmaceutical companies - in the 1970s serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressants were born.
Disease chronicle chap. 15 - Prescribing antidepressants has risen nearly _____ since ______ in the U.S. 400% - 1988
Disease chronicle chap. 15 - How many Americans over what age now take an antidepressant?More than 1 in 10 - Age 12
Disease chronicle chap. 15 - What famous quote is notated in chapter 15 and who was it by?Happiness depends more on the inward dispostion of mind than on outward circumstances. - Benjamin Franklin
List 2 of the 6 actions you can take to increase your mental health found in chapter 15.Develop and maintain strong relationships with people who will support and enrich your life. - A diet that is good for your physical health is also good for your mental health.
List 2 of the 6 actions you can take to increase your mental health found in chapter 15.Helping someone can put your problems into perspective and make you feel valued. - Set aside time for activities and hobbies you enjoy.
List 2 of the 6 actions you can take to increase your mental health found in chapter 15.Try to manage your stress; consider yoga or meditation - Ask for help