Path- Cardio 4

untimely's version from 2015-04-14 01:25

Thrombosis/Embolism, Inflammation (vasculitis/Lymphangitis)

Question Answer
what is the Virchow triad and what is it about?it is the 3 General predisposing conditions to a thrombosis/embolism: (1) Endothelial injury (2) Alterations in blood flow (3) Hypercoagulability
who most commonly gets a pulmonary thromboembolism?dogs and cats
Aortic thromboemboli aka "saddle" emboli usually occur in who, in what condition?cats and dogs with cardiomyopathy
Aorto-iliac thrombosis usually happens in who, and can happen in what two situations?HORSES, (1) idiopathic (2) verminous!! strongylosis (Strongylus vulgaris)
what causes Verminous arteritis in horses?strongylosis (Strongylus vulgaris)
Septic embolisms can come from lesions of..?vegetative endocarditis (Endocarditis associated with the presence of fibrinous clots forming on the ulcerated surfaces of the valves- usually due to hematogenous bacterial infection but could be from strongylosis, uremia and trauma also)
what is FCEM? who gets this?Fibrocartilaginous emboli –dog
thrombosis and embolism--> what are 4 Conditions accompanied by DIC?hog cholera, ICH, FIP, gram-negative endotoxemia
who usually gets a Thrombosis of caudal vena cava?cattle
(thrombus vs embolism?)A thrombus is an abnormal clot that is formed in a vessel. An embolus, on the other hand, is a floating clot that lodges somewhere
(what's good to know about an embolus?)not just a clot- could be hair, fibrin (DIC), septic, fibrocartilaginous (CNS)
4 portals of entry for arteries?(1) hematogenous dissemination (2) local extension of suppurative and necrotizing inflammatory processes (3) immune-mediated arterial injury (4) parasitic migration
2 defense mechanisms of arteries?(1) constant blood flow through arteries (2) immunologic responses –humoral and innate (same for veins, also same for lymph vessels but with constant flow of lymph, obviously)
“canine pain syndrome” can cause what?Arteritis
three viral causes of arteritis?MCF, EVA, FIP
three bacterial causes of arteritis?salmonellosis, erysipelas, E. coli (hemolytic)
what fungus can cause arteritis?phycomycosis
what clinical syndrome can cause arteritis?uremia
what are two parasites which can cause arteritis?strongylosis (horse), dirofilariasis (dog), (Parelaphostrongylus tenuis (meningealworm) was mentioned in a pic)
what is periarteritis nodosa/ what does it CAUSE? aka?AKA Beagle pain syndrome. CAUSES arteritis. The small and medium-sized arteries become swollen and damaged when immune cells attack them (IMMUNE MEDIATED arteritis)
what are the gross lesions of arteritis? histo?GROSS: hemorrhage, edema, infarction. HISTO: endothelial necrosis, PMN infiltration of vessel wall, thrombi.
what problem can Histophilus somnus cause?TME-- thrombotic meningoencephalitis
5 portals of entry for veins?(1) hematogenous dissemination (2) local extension of severe inflammatory processes (3) intravenous injections and indwelling catheters (4) parasitic migration (5) immune-mediated venous injury
three main causes of phlebitis?neonatal umbilical infection, faulty IV injection of irritant material, local extension from site of inflammation
what are the two main lesions in Phlebitis?thrombosis, embolism
omphalophlebitis is aka? what things usually cause it? (3). What else might be going on in the body with this dz?aka NAVAL ILL. ( a condition characterized by or resulting from inflammation and infection of the umbilical vein). Usually caused by coliforms (like enterobacter or escheria), Streptococcus sp, or T. pyogenes. The animal might have suppurative polyarthritis (“joint ill”), septicemia, umbilical abscess, or hepatic abscessation
3 portals of entry for lymph vessels?(1) hematogenous dissemination (2) local extension of severe inflammatory processes (3) parasitic migration
what do the lesions of Lymphangitis look like?edema of limbs, cord-like or nodular masses in subcutis, may ulcerate
( look at Vascular alterations on slide 266 )fibrinoid necrosis, arteritis, atherosclerosis, medial calcification(arteriosclerosis), intimal prolif, medial hypertrophy, atrophy, medial hemorrhage and necrosis, dissecting anurysm +/- rupture
what is a congenital anomaly of the lymphatic system?Lymphatic hypoplasia
Lymphatic hypoplasia can be a congenital condition which leads to what problems? what's the presentation?will lead to LYMPHEDEMA. symptoms and signs are brawny, fibrous, nonpitting edema in one or more limbs.
who does the thoracic duct usually rupture in? what happens because of this?CATS AND DOGS, usually get chylothorax (cause usually not determined)
what is Lymphangiectasia? where does this usually happen, and in who?this is a problem where there is a DILATION of lacteals (lymphatic vessels) in the intestines of dogs. (can be elsewhere in other animals tho). The lacteal dilation can be caused by congenital malformations in the lymphatic system or the dilation can be secondary to acquired diseases caused by neoplastic or granulomatous intestinal or mesenteric disease.