Path 2 - Resp Quick 1

drraythe's version from 2016-04-11 10:19

Quick & Dirty Resp Path

Cross referenced with Muzzy's Review!

Intro & Nasal Dzs

Question Answer
**What are the parts of the resp system in the gas exchange & detoxification portion?GAS EXHANGE: In the alveoli, Pneumocyte I (membranous) & Pneumocyte II (granular, secrete surfactant)
**DETOXIFICATION: In bronchioles, goblet cells replaced by Clara cells – performs detoxification of foreign substances similar to hepatocytes
**What are Bacteria that are resistant to killing by macrophages?Mycobacterium

(My Little Rhonda is Resistant)
**What are defenses against blood borne agents? (SPECIES DIFFERENCES)There are PULMONARY INTRAVASCULAR MACROPHAGES in rumi, pig, cat, horse. This is different from dogs, rodents & humans, who use their hepatic & splenic macrophages
**Of the various presentations of Bovine Rhinotracheitis, what is the respiratory presentation & how dangerous is it?3 presentations. (He only cares about the respiratory 1 tho!!)
(1) RESPIRATORY form in feedlot cattle in the US. Viral infxn alone is not life threatening, but predisposes to **2° bacterial pneumonia especially w/ M. hemolytica, which may be fatal**
(2) Czs genital infxn in male & female breeding cattle
(3) In young calves, a generalized dz)
**What are the 5 CS of Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis in (what kind of?) cattle?Feedlot cattle
(1) Pyrexia, anorexia & coughing
(2) Nasal discharge, initial **serous to mucopurulent**
(3) Lacrimation & conjunctivitis w/ corneal opacity
(4) Inflamed nares, hence the name-‘red nose’
(5) Dyspnea, if laryngitis develops
*Nasal Granuloma (Granulomatous Rhinitis) is MOST OFTEN czd by which type of agent?Mycotic agents
*What agent czs Equine Viral Rhinopneumonitis?Equine Herpes Virus 4 & occasionally 1
**What is the unique clinical sign of Equine Viral Rhinopneumonitis?Edematous swelling of pharyngeal lymph nodes (this allows you to differentiate it from Strangles (pus in LN)).
Otherwise, just normal symptoms like Fever, congestion & serous inflammation of nasal mucosa, conjunctivitis, cough
**What are the typical lesions of Equine Influenza?Lesions usually NOT seen in the nasal passages (but if they are, can sometimes produce serous nasal discharge which moves to mucopurulent). Usually, the dz leads to interstitial pneumonia & pulmonary edema
**What are the unique CS of Equine Viral Arteritis?Edema of palpebra, limbs & ventral abdomen
Palpebra edema is how to diff from the other resp viruses of horses
(Can also see more common symptoms like respiratory distress, fever, diarrhea, colic, abortion)
**What are the CS of Strangles?(Czd by Strep equi equi)
Bilateral mucopurulent nasal discharge
Lymphadenopathy - Painful swelling of & pus in lymph glands
***How can you tell, in horses, the difference btwn a Herpes (Equine Viral Rhinopneumonitis) infxn & a Streptococcus (Strangles) infxn?Strep: SUPPURATIVE, the LNs will contain pus
Herpes: Only edema in the LN (& there will be intraNUCLEAR inclusion bodies)
**What are some really crappy sequale to a Strangles infxn?Extension of infxn into paranasal sinuses & guttural pouch & internal organs
Laryngeal hemiplegia
Purpura hemorrhagica (Type III hypersensitivity)

Facial paralysis
Horner’s syndrome
**Which parasite can cz a dz of the nasal cavity in dogs? Important to know is?Linguatula serrata, adult stage lives in nasal passages of carnivores produce mucoid discharge as a result of catarrhal inflammation. Herbivores & humans are aberrant host → ZOONOTIC
***Feline Viral Rhinotracheitis (FVR) is czd by what?Feline Herpesvirus-1
***Which feline virus is an important resp dz of cats worldwide?FVR (Feline Viral Rhinotracheitis) czd by Feline Herpesvirus-1
(Calicivirus is also very important)
***What are the CS of Feline Viral Rhinotracheitis?Severe rhinitis, conjunctivitis w/ oculonasal discharges. (Bacterial contamination produces suppurative rhinitis & conjunctivitis). FVR also czs ulcerative keratitis, hepatic necrosis, abortion & stillbirths
**Which 2 feline viruses account for 80% of respiratory dz in cats?FVR (Feline Viral Rhinotracheitis czd by Feline Herpesvirus 1)
FCV (Feline Calicivirus)
***How can you differentiate the very similar presenting Feline Viral Rhinotracheitis & Calicivirus?FCV: In addition to conjunctivitis & rhinitis, there will be ulcers of the tongue & hard palate (C is for ulCer)
FVR: Affects upper respiratory tract (R is for Resp tract only)
*Feline Chlamydiosis is czd by what? What CS does it cz?Chlamydophilla felis. It czs mild conjunctivitis & serous to mucopurulent Rhinitis
**Feline Respiratory Dz Complex: What are the agents which cz this complex? How do some of the agents contribute to the complex?FCV
FVR (Feline Herpesvirus-1)

Chlamydia & Mycoplasma are less important. FIP may cz signs of upper respiratory tract infxn, but produces more generalized dz
**Inclusion Body Rhinitis: Who does this affect? What is the causative agent?PIGS up to 10wk of age (YOUNG pigs), Porcine Cytomegalovirus (Herpes virus)
***What is the morbidity of mortality of Inclusion Body Rhinitis? What are the lesions like?There is ↑ morbidity but ↓ mortality w/ lesions that are necrotizing & non-suppurative (Young pigs, cytomegalovirus aka Herpes)
**How can you dx Inclusion Body Rhinitis?Intranuclear Inclusions (basophilic) in nasal gland epithelium
(Young pigs, cytomegalovirus aka Herpes)
**Atrophic Rhinitis: Who does this affect? What is the causative agent?Affects OLDER PIGS (bc it takes ~4 mos to develop). Etiology is not clear, but believed to be a combined infxn of B. bronchiseptica & toxigenic strain of P. multocida
**What are the CS of Atrophic Rhinitis? (3)(1) Sneezing & nasal discharge
(2) Slow progressing dz over months resulting in dyspnea & death (Hence why it affects OLDER pigs)
(3) Retarded growth of snout, becoming short & concave; bending towards the side most severely affected. Atrophy of conchae, in severe cases even missing conchae
**How can you Dx Atrophic Rhinitis? (3)(1) CS (IN OLDER PIGS)
(2) Rarefaction (decrease in density of tissue) of turbinates leaving only a dense fibrous band
(3) Condition is best dx by making a transverse section of the snout btwn 1st & 2nd premolar teeth
*What's the main ddx for nasal neoplasia?Nasal granuloma
*What is Bronchiectasis? What czs it? What problems can it lead to?Bronchiectasis is permanent abnormal dilation of bronchi as a result of chronic bronchial obstruction & infxn. It is mainly due to destruction of elastic & muscular components of airway walls. Dilation & accumulation of lung secretions perpetuate lung damage, which predisposes for infxn & compromise lung fxns
**Explain saccular vs cylindrical dilation (general)Saccular dilation - Sac-like out pouching of bronchi wall, after it has weakened (FB, tumor, fungus)
Cylindrical dilation - usually due to obstruction (dilated above the blockage) (bronchopneumonia, parasites)
*Which is more common - sacular or cylindrical dilation?Cylindrical
**Necrotic Laryngitis (aka Calf Diphtheria) happens to who? What is the etiological agent? (CSs?)Mostly CALVES, but also occurs in sheep. Czd by Fusobacterium necrophorum. (CS are very non-specific so he didn't emphasize, however they are: fever, anorexia, moist painful cough & dyspnea. Lesions are dry, yellow gray necrotic areas on larynx. Deep ulcers may also develop) (remember this bacteria also czs nasal granulomas in cats)
**What is the sequale to Necrotic Laryngitis (Calf Diphtheria)Sequelae of Calf Diphtheria is usually death by toxemia or bronchopneumonia
**Laryngeal paralysis is czd by nerve damage, usually by _________ or _________ of the nerve. List some things that can cz thisCompression or inflammation of the nerve. Could be czd by mycosis of guttural pouch, retropharyngeal abscess, Neoplasm involving cervical lymph glands, Injury & inflammatory lesions in the neck. Empyema of guttural pouch
**Equine Pharyngeal Lymphoid Hyperplasia! is most often seen in what kind of horses? What czs this & what are the lesions?Common in 2-3yo race horses. The etiology is NOT CLEAR. Lesions are seen grossly as visible white foci on dorsolateral pharynx & on left palate
***What are the CS of mycosis of the guttural pouch? Explain them.CS arise from the dmg to the cranial nerves 9-12 & the arteries w/in the mucosa of guttural pouch.
MOST COMMON is epistaxis bc of fungal erosion of the wall of the internal carotid or branches of external carotid. (Hemorrhage is spontaneous, severe & repeated bouts may precede to fatal hemorrhage)
Others are: Dysphagia, Horner’s syndrome & dorsal displacement of soft palate may develop due to dmg to cranial & the sympathetic nerves that traverse the guttural pouch
*What’s the most common clinical presentation of mycosis of the guttural pouch?Intermittent epistaxis
*What are the 4 sequale of mycosis of the guttural pouch?(1) Erosion of internal & occasionally external carotid artery resulting in epistaxis & repeated bouts may result in fatal hemorrhage
(2) Formation of thrombi & emboli & brain abscess
(3) Laryngeal nerve paralysis
(4) Dysphagia & Horner’s syndrome
**Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Dz (COPD) of horses has a million names. What are some of the akas?Aka: Alveolar Emphysema
Recurrent Airway Obstruction (RAO)
Chronic Bronchiolitis Emphysema Complex (CBEC)
Heaves (most owners are going to call it this, ley-person term)
Chronic Small Airway Dz
Broken Wind
*Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Dz (COPD) of horses is what/ czd by what? ***What is the main lesion?A clinical syndrome comparable to allergic bronchitis in humans. It is believed to be czd by inhalation of fungal spores & dust
Lesions are of chronic bronchitis
*Explain how Laryngeal Paralysis in dogs is different from horsesMost common in older, large & giant breeds, males. There will be abnormal barking & exercise intolerance. Laryngeal paralysis may predispose to aspiration pneumonia. Cz in dogs is unknown, not proven to be the same as horses w/ the nerve dmg