Path 2 - Resp 6

drraythe's version from 2016-04-11 02:35

Pneumonia of Dogs

Question Answer
Canine Distemper is czd by what etiological agent? What age is most affected?Morbilivirus. 12-16 weeks of age. (YOUNG)
What are the gross lesions of Canine Distemper? Microscopic?GROSS: Interstitial pneumonia. There can be 2° bacterial infxn
MICROSCOPIC: Inclusion bodies in cytoplasm & nuc
Canine Adenovirus Type 2 infxn czs what kind of lesions?Bronchointerstitial pneumonia (Adenovirus pneumonia is rare in dogs, usually a consequence of immunosuppression. also intranuc inclusion bodies)
Canine Herpes Virus 1 → what problems does this virus cz? What age does it affect?If mom is infected, abortion & stillbirths. If puppy, ‘fading puppy syndrome’ (failure to thrive, resp & GI probs). In older dogs, necrotizing Rhinotracheitis → Bronchopneumonia
Which pneumonia can Canine Herpes Virus 1 cz?In adult dogs, can cz Bronchopneumonia
Canine Influenza → etiological agent?Influenza A virus, believed mutated strain of Equine Influenza virus H3N8 strain
Canine Influenza → what are the CS & lesions?CS: mainly a cough. Virus makes dogs susceptible to Bacterial Bronchopneumonia
What are the lesions of bacterial pneumonia in a dog?Suppurative Bronchopneumonia (NOTE: usually only bacterial pneumonia when dog's defenses are lowered, such as in a viral infxn)
What are the bacteria most commonly involved in bacterial pneumonia of the dog?(Remember usually after virus/defenses lowered)
P. multocida
E. coli
Streptococcus sp.
Klebsiella pneumoniae
B. Bronchiseptica
Which bacteria is the cz of Fatal Hemorrhagic Pleuropneumonia w/ hemorrhages on pleura in dogs?Streptococcus zooepidemicus
**Mycotic Pneumonia is usually czd by what in dogs? (3-4)Usually OPPORTUNISTIC (Aspergillus) fungi or SYSTEMIC fungi (Blastomycosis, Coccidioidomycosis, Histoplasmosis) outdoor dogs are at highest risk
Blastomycosis → etiological agent? What are the lesions in the lungs? (Other organs?)B. dermatitidis
Lesions in the lungs:
Multifocal pyogranulomas
(Disseminates hematogenously to other organs)
Coccidioidomycosis → etiological agent? Pulmonary lesions?Coccidioides immitis
Pyogranulomas lesions in lungs. (Mostly in western USA)
**Histoplasmosis → etiological agent? Pulmonary lesions?Histoplasma capsulatum
Diffuse FIRM Granulomas (w/ extensive fibrosis, he said)
*What are 2 toxic agents which can cz toxic pneumonias in dogs?(1) Paraquat (a herbicide)
(2) Uremic Pneumonopathy (excess urea in the blood czs dmg to the blood-air barrier)
**What does Paraquat do to the lungs & how?Following ingestion or inhalation, czs necrosis of alveolar type I pneumocytes & injury to blood-air barrier, through release of free-radicals
Czs **Acute Interstitial Pneumonia**, edema & hemmorhage
Uremic Pneumonopathy → how does this process work to cz toxic pneumonias? What are the lesions?Associated non-renal lesions (ulcers, hemorrhages) w/ chronic uremia
Pulmonary edema
Calcification of smooth muscles & alveolar walls in the lung (giving lungs a gritty texture)
- Lungs do not collapse (interstitial type of pneumonia) on opening the thorax
If you see Ca++ depositions in the lungs, what are you thinking it is?Uremic Pneumonopathy (from non-renal lesions w/ chronic uremia)
What are the Parasites of lungs & pulmonary vessels in dogs/cats? (4)(1) Dirofilaria immitis & Angiostrongylus vasorum
(2) Paragonimus kellikoti
(3) Filaroides hirthi
(4) Toxoplasma gondii
Dirofilaria immitis & Angiostrongylus vasorum → what kinda damage do these parasites do to the heart & what is a big sequale?Parasitize right ventricle & pulmonary vessels, cz chronic arteritis → pulmonary hypertension & congestive heart failure (→ R VENT HYPERTROPHY)
Paragonimus kellikoti → how does this parasite affect the lungs?(Lung fluke) Adult parasite live in cysts on pleura
Filaroides hirthi → how does this parasite affect the lungs?Parasitize alveoli & bronchioles. Mild rxn w/ adults, but dead worms produce granulomatous nodules in sub pleural region
Toxoplasma gondii → how does this parasite affect the lungs?Necrotizing Interstitial Pneumonia

Pneumonia of Cats

Question Answer
What’s important to know about the incidence of pneumonia of cats?Pneumonia are not common in cats. They suffer mainly from pleural effusion
Feline Pneumonitis → etiological agent? How does it affect the lungs?Chlamydophila felis → TRICK QUESTION! Most important cz of persistent conjunctivitis. Altho name is Pneumonitis it does not cz pulmonary infxn
Bacterial Pneumonias in cats → which 2 bact agents cz this & what are the lesions?P. multocida & B. Bronchiseptica which are present in nasal cavity of cats may cz Bronchopneumonia. Pyothorax is main lesion in Pasteurella infxn in cats
How does Tuberculosis affect cats?Involves mainly intestines, skin & lungs. Lung lesions in the form of nodules, resemble lymphosarcoma (needs Ddx)
Mycotic Pneumonia → which fungal agent affects the lungs of cats & what lesions does it cz?Cryptococcosis: (Cryptococcus neoformans) This is the ONLY FUNGI WHICH IS NATURALLY present in the nasal cavity of dogs & cats. When there is STRESS, the fungus will cz granulomatous lesions in many tissues & the lungs specifically will consist of multiple granuloma
What is Lipid pneumonia? What are the lesions? Microscopic appearance?This is a special form of aspiration pneumonia where oil is aspirated into the lungs. This can occur in all sp. lesions are mult. Yellowish white nodules. Microscopically, lipid laden microphages fill the alveoli. Lipid is both (intracellular in macrophages) an extracellular (macs cant digest lipid)
Endogenous Lipid Pneumonia-what czs this?More often in lab rodents but can happen in cats/dogs rarely. Usually idiopathic, some can happen as sequale to obstruction of airway & can also be seen in the vicinity of cancerous lung lesions. Lesions are like aspiration lipid pneumonia
How can you differentiate lipid (aspiration) pneumonia from endogenous lipid pneumonia?ENDOGENOUS is in MACS, the exogenous lipids occur in the ASPIRATION
What are the 3 parasites that cz Parasitic Pneumonias in cats?(1) Aelurostrongylus abstrusus
(2) Capillaria aerophila
(3) Dirofilaria immitis
Aelurostrongylus abstrusus is aka? Where does it live & what kinda lesions does it cz to the lungs? Sequale?Aka feline lung worm. Adults live in bronchi, produce catarrhal inflammation. Nodules produced by larvae are1cm, multifocal & sub pleural-*Pyothorax is usual sequelae~
Capillaria aerophila cz what lung problems?Chronic tracheitis & bronchitis
How does Dirofilaria immitis affect lungs?Heart worm in cats which extends to pulmonary vessels in lungs

Fetal Pneumonia, Tumors

Question Answer
What are the 3 main lesions a fetus could get pneumonia?(1) Pneumonia due to contaminated meconium
(2) Pneumonia due to organisms reaching lungs through amniotic fluid
(3) Pneumonia due to organisms reaching lungs through blood
Fetal Pneumonia most often occurs in who?In fetus of foals & food producing animals
**Pneumonia due to contaminated meconium occurs when? What are the lesions?Intrauterine hypoxia & acidosis czs release of meconium into the amniotic fluid, czing pneumonia
Lesions are:
Bronchopneumonia, but diffusely distributed, not confined to cranioventral parts of the lungs
Meconium stains light yellow bc of bile content
**Pneumonia due to organisms reaching lungs through amniotic fluid: which organisms? What are the lesions?B. abortus, A. pyogenes, occasionally fungi & Ureaplasma. Amniotic fluid gets contaminated w/ organisms from lesions of placenta
Suppurative Bronchopneumonia - cranioventral lung!
**Pneumonia due to organisms reaching lungs through blood: what are some of the organisms which do this? What are the lesions?Listeria, Salmonella & Chlamydia & viruses (PI-3 in cattle & EVR in horses): leads to INTERSTITIAL PNEUMONIA
(Ddx: In Listeriosis additional lesions may be in brain & liver; in Chlamydiosis in liver & spleen)
Primary tumors of lungs originate in what tissues? Benign or malig?Origin from epithelium-bronchiolar or bronchioalveolar. Benign or malignant
Which is more common: 1° or 2° lung tumors?2° tumors or metastatic tumors: High incidence compared to 1° tumors
*What syndrome can accompany a 2° (metastatic) lung tumor & who does it happen in most commonly?Specially in dogs - *Paraneoplastic syndromes like hypercalcemia, endocrinopathies & osteoarthropathy may accompany the tumors
Are Metastatic or 2° tumors of lung benign of malig? Are they usually single or mult?ALL ARE MALIG!!!!!!! Usually mult foci
Metastatic or 2° tumors of lung in DOGS are usually...(which tumors?)Mammary
Metastatic or 2° tumors of lung in CATS are usually...(which tumors?)Mammary
VAFS (Vx Associated Fibrosarcoma)
Metastatic or 2° tumors of lung in COWS are usually...(which tumors?)Uterine Adenocarcinoma
Metastatic or 2° tumors of lung in HORSES are usually...(which tumors?)Melanoma
Squamous Cell Carcinomas
What are the 3 tumor Metastasis seen in multiple species?Hemangiosarcoma
**Pulmonary Adenomatosis affects WHO specifically & what cells does it arise from?Specific tumor of sheep. It is a neoplastic dz arising from the cells of alveoli & bronchioles (Pneumocyte II & Clara cells)
**Pulmonary Adenomatosis of sheep is czd by what? How is this xmitted?Etiology - Type B & D Retrovirus. Respiratory exudates from affected sheep are infectious. Natural xmission seems to occur by respiratory route
**What are the CS for Pulmonary Adenomatosis? What age is it seen in?(SHEEP!) Takes a long time to develop, so seen in ADULT sheep. Serous thin fluid produced by neoplastic cells discharges from nostrils when head is lowered
**Gross appearance of Pulmonary Adenomatosis?Small 1mm to 1cm sized nodules, soft, gray projecting from the lung surface, diffusely in both lungs
**What is the microscopic appearance of Pulmonary Adenomatosis?Microscopically: tumor cells composed of columnar or cuboidal cells lining the alveoli & bronchioles, occasionally form papillary ingrowths (gland like)
**Can Pulmonary Adenomatosis metastasize?Metastasis to bronchial & mediastinal lymph nodes & other tissues like muscle, pleura, liver & kidney have been reported

Pathology of pleura & mediastinum

Question Answer
What are 3 NON-inflammatory conditions which can affect the plura/mediastinum?Pleural calcification, Pneumothorax, Pleural Effusion
Pleural calcification usually happens in WHO & WHY?Usually in dogs in chronic uremia & Vit. D toxicity
What are the LESIONS of pleural calcification?Linear white streaks in parietal pleura, mainly over the inter-costal muscles
What is Pneumothorax & what is the main cz of it?Air in the pleural cavity; mainly traumatic
What is pleural effusion?Accumulation of any fluid (transudate, exudate, blood & lymph in the thoracic cavity)
What is Hydrothorax? Describe itNon-inflammatory edema (transudate) in pleural cavity. The accumulated fluid is clear, watery, colorless to light yellow color, odorless, fails to coagulate
What are 2 possible czs of plural effusion?(1) Generalized czs of edema
(2) Widespread neoplasia of pleura, impairment of lymphatic drainage
Exudative pleural effusion → what czs this? (What is the exudate like?)In certain systemic dzs, like black dz in sheep, mulberry heart dz in pigs, African horse sickness & ANTU poisoning, altering permeability of blood vessels. The exudate may be dirty, thick in appearance w/ high protein content & inflammatory cells
What is Chylothorax? What is it like & what are the czs?Chylothorax: Milky (lymph rich in triglycerides) fluid in thorax, due to rupture of thoracic or right lymphatic ducts, due to trauma, Sx or idiopathic czs
What is Hemothorax? What usually czs it? How might the lungs be affected?Blood in the pleural cavity; due to rupture of blood vessels by trauma, malignancy, inflammation or aneurism. Lungs are partially atelectic.
What is the most common condition of inflammation of plura, usually 2° to what?Pleuritis (pleurisy), usually 2° to pneumonia
What are the 2 major czs of pleuritis (aka?)(Aka Pleurisy)
(1) Infxn-by direct extension from lungs
(2) Trauma through thoracic wall or diaphragm
What are the lesions of pleuritis (pleurisy?)Typical of serous membrane i.e. serous & becoming later fibrinous or purulent (Pyothorax or Thoracic Empyema)
What are 2 examples of Some specific pleuritis?(1) Pyogranulomatous-Nocardia, Actinomyces & FIP virus
(2) Tuberculous pleuritis-pearl dz. (looks like pearls on serosa bc granulomatous nodules)
3 czs of Pyogranulomatous Pleuritis?Nocardia
FIP virus
How common are 1° tumors of pleura?RARE
Pleural Mesothelioma happens in who? Etiology?Reported in dog, cat, horse, cow & goat. In calves it is believed congenital. (Cz: in humans related to asbestosis & smoking; in animals such association not reported)
How does Pleural Mesothelioma appear grossly? Microscopically? Usually benign or malig?Tumor is seen as multiple discrete nodules on pleural surface, microscopically looks carcinoma or fibrosarcoma. Rarely metastasize
Is Mesothelioma 1° or 2°?