Path 2 - Resp 5

drraythe's version from 2016-04-11 01:54

Cattle Pneumonia continued

Question Answer
What are the 3 viral dzs which can cz pneumonia in cattle?Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR)
Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus (BRSV)
Bovine Parainfluenza Virus-3 (BPIV-3)
VIRAL pneumonia → Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis → what is the etiological agent?Bovine Herpes Virus 1 (BoHV-1)
*VIRAL pneumonia → Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis → (how is it usually xmitted?) WHERE are the lesions & WHAT are the lesions?(Usually aerosol) Gross lesions are usually restricted to nasal cavity, larynx & trachea. It is rare to have pulmonary lesions from this virus, however young calves may develop bronchointerstitial pneumonia!!
*VIRAL pneumonia → Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus (BRSV) → what is the kind of pneumonia this czs??Fatal Bronchointerstitial Pneumonia
VIRAL pneumonia → Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus (BRSV) → what are the lesions like & where are the lesions?There are CRANIOVENTRAL & CAUDODORSAL lesions & they are different!!
CRANIOVENTRAL is atelectic, collapsed, deep red or mottled & rubbery in texture
CAUDODORSAL is edematous, heavy & firmer
VIRAL pneumonia → Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus (BRSV) → how does this dz appear histologically?Histologically lesions of necrotizing bronchiolitis w/ syncytial cells in the alveoli (highly suggestive of bovine resp syncytial virus)
VIRAL pneumonia → Bovine Parainfluenza Virus-3 (BPIV-3) → what are the gross lesions of this dz?The gross changes in BPIV-3 pneumonia are usually mild & consist of a cranioventral or generalized lobular pattern of gray-red discoloration, firm or rubbery texture. Bronchiolitis & mild bronchitis are major histological lesions
All 3 virial czs of bovine pneumonia affect which age & result in which type of pneumonia?Bronchointerstitial pneumonia & young calves for all 3

Porcine Pneumonia

Question Answer
Porcine Enzootic Pneumonia is czd by what? Aka?Czd by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, hence why it is aka Mycoplasma Pneumonia of Swine
Which dz is considered to be Worldwide the most economically important dz of pigs when feed conversion are taken into account?Porcine Enzootic Pneumonia
(Etiology: Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae)
Which age does Porcine Enzootic Pneumonia affect pigs?Pigs become infected in 1st few weeks of life (so, YOUNG)
(Etiology: Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae)
What are the lesions of Porcine Enzootic Pneumonia like? Where?Lesions are of bronchointerstitial pneumonia affecting cranial, middle & cranioventral part of caudal lobes. Which usually becomes suppurative Bronchopneumonia once there is bacterial contamination (Etiology: Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae)
How does M. hemolytica affect pigs?M. hemolytica has no role in respiratory dzs of swine, it can cz abortion in swine
Porcine Pneumonic Pasteurellosis is czd by what etiological agents?P. multocida serotype *A & *D, are normal flora in the nasal cavity & when defense mechanisms are impaired THEN fatal pneumonia develops
What are the gross lesions of Porcine Pneumonic Pasturellosis? Where?Gross lesions are of Suppurative Bronchopneumonia, involving cranioventral areas of lungs. Fibrinous Pleuritis may be present
Porcine Pleuropneumonia etiological agent???Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae
What age group does Porcine Pleuropneumonia affect?YOUNG! Cz of severe, often fatal pneumonia in 6wk-6mo old pigs
What are the CS of Porcine Pleuropneumonia?(Basically ACUTE DZ)
Blood discharge from nose & mouth
Occasional vomiting/diarrhea
In chronic stage they show exercise intolerance & cough
(Etiology: Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae)
What are the LESIONS of Porcine Pleuropneumonia? (Once again, etiology?)Fibrinous Bronchopneumonia!! (Etiology: Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae)
*Haemophilus pneumonia → what is the ETIOLOGICAL agent?Haemophilus parasuis. Usually carried in the nasopharynx of normal pigs & following *******stress develops pneumonic lesions. (NOTE: (Cz of Glasser`s dz - Pericarditis, Pleuritis, Peritonitis, Polyarthritis & Meningitis in pigs)
*Haemophilus pneumonia → what are the LESIONS czd by this dz (& what's the agent again?)(Haemophilus parasuis) Czs ****Suppurative Bronchopneumonia
Streptococcal pneumonia → etiological agent? What are the lesions?Streptococcus suis type II. Lesions: Suppurative Bronchopneumonia (****NOTE: dz is of increasing concern in North America)
**Which porcine dz is a serious zoonosis czing meningitis, deafness & death in butchers & pig farmers?Streptococcal pneumonia (Streptococcus suis type II)
Swine Influenza → how is this xmitted?Aerosol or oral route
What are the CS for Swine Influenza? What’s the mortality like?Clinically sudden onset of:
Painful coughing
High fever
Nasal discharge
Prostration in all age groups w/ low mortality
What are the lesions like in Swine Influenza? Where?Cranioventral, red, firm & collapsed. Enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes
Histologic lesions: bronchiolar necrosis & in severe cases interstitial pneumonia
Porcine Reproductive & Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS) affects what age?MOTHERS & PIGLETS!! (Mom = repro problems. Piglets = interstitial pneumonia)
How is Porcine Reproductive & Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS) xmitted?(BASICALLY, secretions & excretions) Direct thru nasal, oral or coital contact w/ saliva, mucus, urine, semen, mammary secretions & perhaps feces from infected pigs
What kind of lesions does Porcine Reproductive & Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS) cz in the mothers? piglets?MOMS: Reproductive failure characterized by late term abortion, stillbirth, mummified fetus & weak born piglets
PIGLETS: Interstitial pneumonia czing dyspnea
What are the lesions in postnatal form of PRRS? (Etiology?)Interstitial pneumonia (etiology: Arterivirus)
Post Weaning Multi-systemic Wasting Syndrome (PWMS) affects what age?PIGLETS, NOT MOMS (hence post-weaning), so in 5-12 week-old pigs
CS of Post Weaning Multi-systemic Wasting Syndrome (PMWS)?Gain poorly
Respiratory distress
Jaundice (altho uncommon, jaundice in pigs indicates PMWS)
Etiological agent of Post Weaning Multi-systemic Wasting Syndrome (PMWS)?Porcine Circovirus type 2 (PCV2)
LESIONS of Post Weaning Multi-systemic Wasting Syndrome?Interstitial pneumonia
How does Post Weaning Multi-systemic Wasting Syndrome present histologically?Histologically patchy granulomatous interstitial pneumonia & lymphadenitis
2° infxn w/ Pneumocystis carinii is common in pigs w/ which 2 dzs?PRRS & PMWS
PRRS & PMWS can both lead to a 2° infxn w/ which agent?Pneumocystis carinii
Parasitic Pneumonia of pigs can be czd by what 3 parasites? Where do they like to live? What problem do they cz?Metastrongylus apri
M. salmi
M. pudendotectus
Worms live in bronchi/bronchioles & they cz catarrhal bronchitis. Parasitic Pneumonia is VERY SERIOUS in pigs

Pneumonia of Sheep/Goat & Horse

Question Answer
Ovine Pneumonic Pasteurellosis/Shipping Fever/ Ovine Pneumonic Mannheimiosis → what is the etiology? Lesions?M. hemolytica biotype A
Fibrinous Bronchopneumonia similar to cattle
*What is the etiology of Chronic Enzootic Pneumonia? Which age does it affect?MULTIFACTORIAL!!
Affects YOUNGER SHEEP <1yr
What are the lesions of Chronic Enzootic Pneumonia?Peribronchial lymphoid hyperplasia
Alveolar fibrosis
Septicemic Pasteurellosis → etiological agent? Age affected?Czd by P. trehalosi
Usually affects lambs >5mo (6-9mo), but can affect other age groups
What are the lesions czd by Septicemic Pasturellosis?(Basically septicemic type lesions) Postmortem lesions consist of hemorrhages in subcutaneous tissue of the:
Hemorrhagic ulcers in tongue, pharynx, larynx, esophagus, abomasum, intestines
Contagious Caprine Pleuropneumonia → who does this affect & where?This is exclusively in goats, wide spread in N. America
What are the 2 etiological agents of Contagious Caprine Pleuropneumonia?(Diff sp of mycoplasma)
(1) Mycoplasma mycoides sp. mycoides (large colony)
(2) Mycoplasma mycoides sp. capri
What is the etiological agent of Contagious Caprine Pleuropneumonia NOT IN N. AMERICA & what lesions does it cz?*Mycoplasma capricolum sp. Capripneumoniae; Fibrinous Pleuropneumonia
Maedi (Maedi-Visna) is aka? Affects WHO?Aka Ovine Progressive Pneumonia (USA), recently called, “Lymphoid Interstitial Pneumonia”. AFFECTS SHEEP
What is the etiological agent of Maedi? What is the xmission?Czd by a LENTIVIRUS. Xmission is believed to be through colostrum
WHERE are lesions of Maedi usually found?Lesions of Maedi are confined to lungs & associated lymph nodes
WHAT are the lesions of Maedi?Severe interstitial pneumonia (lungs heavy, Color of lungs is uniform grayish yellow to grayish blue)
Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis → affects who? What is the etiological agent? Xmission?Affects GOATS. Etiology-Retrovirus (lentivirus). Xmission is thought to be thru colostrum, like Maedi
**Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis presents in what 3 forms?(1) Non-Suppurative Encephalitis in young goats
(2) Arthritis & Synovitis in adult goats
(3) ******Chronic Interstitial Pneumonia**** & mastitis
Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis czs which type of pneumonia?Chronic Interstitial
Parasitic Pneumonia of sheep/goats → what is the main etiological agent he emphasized & how does it grossly appear in the lung?Muellerius capillaris - (Nodular lung worm) which are in nodules in lung tissue - the nodules will be hard & gritty in later stages due to calcification
Parasitic Pneumonia of sheep/goats → what are the 3 (1 is emphasized & on another card) parasites which can cz pneumonia?Muellerius capillaris
Dictyocaulus filaria
Protostrongylus rufescens
*Rhodococcosis affects who, at what age & what is the etiological agent?HORSES specifically 2-4mo old foals, czd by Rhodococcus equi
NOTE: czs cervical lymphadenitis in cattle, goats, cats, dogs, pigs & immunocompromised humans
**Which horse dz can be zoonotic?Rhodosocciosis (Rhodococcus equi) can affect immunocompromised ppl
*Rhodococcosis (horses) czs what kinda pneumonia? What are other hallmark CS?*Bronchopneumonia (Pyogranulomatous Pneumonia) & acute death!
Also seen is weight loss, arthritis, diarrhea & subcutaneous abscess
What are the lesions of Rhodococcosis? Where?Pyogranulomatous Pneumonia in CRANIOVENTRAL lung. May (50-50 chance) also see Ulcerative Enterocolitis (bc bact is coughed up & swallowed)
Equine Viral Rhinopneumonitis is czd by what? How is the animal affected?Equine Herpes Virus (EHV-1, EHV-4). Mild respiratory dz in upper respiratory tract. Bacterial complications may lead to Bronchopneumonia
Equine Influenza → what is the major clinical sign? What kind of pneumonia can develop?Serous to mucopurulent nasal discharge & Bronchointerstial Pneumonia
Parasitic infxn of lungs in horses → what is the main parasitic agent & how does it affect the lungs?Parascaris equorum: migrating larval stages produce granulomas in lungs