Path 2 - Resp 4

drraythe's version from 2016-04-11 00:42


Question Answer
*INTERSTITIAL Pneumonia is confined to what structures?Alveolar walls & alveolar interstitium
(THE CT!!)

(Note the marked thickening of the CT)
**What are the 2 routes of injury which can lead to INTERTITIAL Pneumonia?(1) Aerogenous injury to alveolar epithelium
(2) Hematogenous injury to alveolar capillaries
Give some examples of things which can travel thru the aerogenous route to cz Interstitial Pneumonia via INJURY TO ALVEOLAR EPITHELIUMGases
Fumes (I'm guessing this is trying to specifically pertain to off-gasing of liquids or solids)
Infxn w/ pneumotropic viruses: Canine Distemper, Porcine Influenza
Give some examples of things which can travel thru the hematogenous route to cz Interstitial Pneumonia via INJURY TO ALVEOLAR CAPILLARIES (5 groups)(1) Intermittent bacteremia & Parasites. Like E. coli, Leptospira, Salmonella in calves & pigs, lung worms, Toxoplasma & migrating parasites
(2) DIC, infxn w/ endotheliotropic viruses like Swine Fever Virus
(3) Ingested toxins (moldy sweet potatoes in cattle, kerosene in dogs, variety of plants (genera Senecio, Crotalaria, Trichdesma) in rumis)
(4) Allergic Condition (Type III Hypersenstivity) (AbAg complexes czing inflammation in vessels)
(5) Endotoxins (paraquat poisoning, 3-methylindole)
What are some ingested toxins which can cz Interstitial Pneumonia via hematogenous route?Moldy sweet potatoes in cattle
Kerosene in dogs
Variety of plants (genera Senecio, Crotalaria, Trichdesma) in ruminants
(all of these can go either or both routes!)
Is Interstitial Pneumonia an inflammatory or non-inflammatory process?It is an INFLAMMATORY PROCESS!!
**Acute Interstitial Pneumonia usually begins w/ injury to what? This leads to what stage 1st? What is the stage following this?Starts w/ damage to either the Type I Pneumocyte (alveolar capillary endothelium) which results in exudation into the alveolar lumen, dubbed the EXUDATIVE Stage. The acute exudative stage is followed by the Proliferative stage where there is hyperplasia of Pneumocyte II
What are the 2 stages of ACUTE Interstitial Pneumonia & what characterizes each of them?1st there is the EXUDATIVE stage where there is injury to Pneumocyte I (alveolar capillary endothelium) resulting in exudation into alveolar lumen (hence exudative). This is usually followed by the PROLIFERATIVE stage where there is hyperplasia of Pneumocyte II (type I are destroyed so type II grow, theyre the healing ones)
What are the gross lesions associated w/ ACUTE Interstitial Pneumonia? Why are they this way?Bc of the proliferative stage where there is hyperplasia of penumocyte II, the alveolar walls become thickened, so the lungs are more rubbery on palpation & dont collapse when you open the thorax
What happens if there is MILD acute Interstitial Pneumonia? How about severe?In mild they often recovery quickly. In SEVERE, they develop fatal pulmonary edema & die of respiratory failure
*What are the 5 major hallmarks of Chronic Interstitial Pneumonia?(1) Accumulation of mononuclear inflammatory cells in the interstitium & occasionally in the alveoli & bronchi
(2) Alveolar fibrosis
(3) Persistence of hyperplastic type II Pneumocyte
(4) Formation of microscopic granulomas
(5) Hyperplasia of smooth muscles in airways or pulmonary vasculature
Hyperplasia of smooth mm in airways/pulmonary vasculature is a hallmark sign of what kind of pneumonia?CHRONIC INTERSTITIAL Pneumonia
What is the distribution of lesions in Interstitial Pneumonia like?Lesions are more widely distributed & generally involve the whole lung
Which pneumonia involves the WHOLE LUNG?INTERSTITIAL PNEUMONIA
If the lungs don't collapse when you open the thoracic cavity, theyre heavy w/ elastic texture & there are rib impression on the lungs, which dz do you suspect?Interstitial Pneumonia - acute OR chronic
If the lungs are meaty in appearance & there is no visible exudate, what dz do you suspect?Interstitial Pneumonia - acute OR chronic
What is the color of lungs w/ Interstitial Pneumonia?Color varies from diffusely red to pale gray
***What are 5 important features of interstitial pneumonia?(1) Failure of lungs to collapse on opening of thoracic cavity
(2) Occasional presence of rib impressions on the lungs
(3) Lack of visible exudate in the lung & have meaty appearance
(4) Lungs are heavy & texture is elastic or rubbery
(5) Color varies from diffusely red to pale gray
What are 3 possible sequale to Interstitial Pneumonia?(1) Recovery takes place by complete resolution
(2) Death due to pulmonary edema, particularly in cattle
(3) Healing by fibrosis marked by thickening of alveolar walls & epithelization of the alveoli. In well advanced cases epithelization of lung tissue look like glands
Explain the lung locations of Bronchopneumonia, Interstitial Pneumonia & Embolic PneumoniaBRONCHO: Cranio-ventral part
INTERSTITIAL: Whole lung, diffuse
EMBOLIC: Whole lung w/ small abscesses
Bronchointerstitial Pneumonia → what does this term describe?Describes cases in which pulmonary lesions share features of Bronchopneumonia & Interstitial Pneumonia
When is Bronchointerstitial Pneumonia most often seen? Examples?It is frequently seen in many viral infxns in which virus czs injury to bronchial & alveolar cells. Examples incld uncomplicated cases of respiratory syncytial virus infxn in bovine & lambs, Canine Distemper & Influenza in pigs & horses
Abscesses in lung arise from 2 czs - what are they?(1) Bronchopneumonia
(2) Metastatic from septic emboli arrested in pulmonary vessels
Abscesses in lung → describe what the abscesses look like when they are czd by BRONCHOPNEUMONIA(Suppurative Bronchopneumonia)
Abscesses are large, isolated, confined to anterioventral part of the lung & are seen extending from the bronchial tree
***Abscesses in lung → describe what the abscesses look like when they are metastatic from septic emboli arrested in pulmonary vessels?Abscesses are small, multiple & widely distributed in whole lung, seen spreading from blood vessels. A careful search should be made to locate the source of emboli
Embolic Pneumonia is a result of?Metastatic abscesses (focal or mulifocal)
Which 2 types of pneumonia are MULTIFOCALLY distributed?Embolic Pneumonia & Parasitic Pneumonia
**What are 4 main sources of septic emboli?(Result in embolic pneumonia)
(1) Rupture of hepatic abscesses (cattle)
(2) Infected jugular catheter
(3) Valvular endocarditis
(4) Other localized infxns
What does Embolic Pneumonia look like on the histoNecrosis in center w/ neutrophils all around
*What are the 2 kinds of Granulomatous Pneumonia?INFECTIOUS granuloma & NON-INFECTIOUS granuloma
(caseous necrosis)
What are the main czs of INFECTIOUS GRANULOMAS (leading to Granulomatous Pneumonia)?*****FUNGI***** also can be bacteria or parasites
What czs NON-INFECTIOUS GRANULOMAS (leading to Granulomatous Pneumonia?)Produced by INERT SUBSTANCES (just some junk in there, basically)
Is Granulomatous Pneumonia single or mult? The distribution of Granulomatous Pneumonia depends on...Can be single OR mult. Depends on causative agent
What is the gross appearance of a Granulomatous Pneumonia granuloma?Texture may be soft, creamy & yellowish to caseous & gray. Encapsulated granuloma may be hard, gritty, & white/gray in color
What is the microscopic appearance of a Granulomatous Pneumonia granuloma?DEPENDS on the causative agent
**What are the 3 main FUNGI CZS of Granulomatous Pneumonia?Coccidioides immitis
Blastomyces dermatidis
Histoplasma capsulatum
**What are the 2 main HIGHER BACTERIA CZS of Granulomatous Pneumonia?Mycobacterium spp.
Rhodococcus equui
**Which VIRUS can cz Granulomatous Pneumonia?FIP
Aside from fungal, bacterial & viral czs, what other 2 agents can cz Granulomatous Pneumonia?Inhaled foreign material, parasites
Predominant inflammatory cell of embolic pneumonia? Granulomatous Pneumonia?EMBOLIC = Neutrophils

Pneumonia of Cattle

Question Answer
Bovine Respiratory dz is a clinical term which inclds what 3 dzs?(1) Enzootic Pneumonia of calves
(2) Bacterial Pneumonia (Mannheimia haemolyica, Histophilus somnus & Pasteurella multocida)
(3) Respiratory viral infxns
*Enzootic Pneumonia of calves (Calf Pneumonia) is czd by?A VARIETY of etiological agents. Usually starts w/ a VIRAL infxn, but later bacterial contaminants like:
H. somnus
Actinomyces pyogenus
- produce a SUPPURATIVE Bronchopneumonia. (Lesions depend on stage of the dz!!)
*Enzootic Pneumonia of calves (calf pneumonia) is common at what age for what kind of cattle?1-4 month old dairy cattle
What are the CS, as well as morbidity & mortality rates of enzootic pneumonia of calves?CS incld:
Morbidity is ↑ w/ ↓ mortality rate
*Shipping Fever (transit fever, pneumonic Pasteurellosis) is a dz important in who, where?Important in feedlot cattle (usually calves/young cattle) in North America
**What is the etiological agent of Shipping Fever (aka transit fever aka Pneumonic Pasteurellosis)?Mannheimia hemolytica serotype 1 is believed to be etiological agent, which colonize the nasopharynx of normal! Calves. Agent, which colonize the nasopharynx of normal calves. ~Weaning, transport, crowding, starvation & viral infxns predispose for the condition
**When is Shipping Fever seen in calves?Dz is seen in calves 3 days to 3 weeks after exposure to unfavorable conditions of stress
***What are the CS & lesions of Shipping Fever?They are of Acute Fibrinous Bronchopneumonia!!!! (Severe congestion, hemorrhages & exudation of fibrin which accumulates on pleural surfaces, septa, alveoli & thoracic cavity. Remember its the more severe one, as compared to suppurative. Marbled appearance, Foci of coagulative necrosis encapsulated by connective tissue (sequestrum) are common)
Outer surface
Cut surface
What is the causative agent of Bovine Pasteurellosis (Hemorrhagic Septicemia)?P. multocida serotype B & E. colonize nasopharynx of healthy claves-STRESS is what triggers it to become pathological
Where is Bovine Pasteurellosis (Hemorrhagic Septicemia) enzootic? WHAT ARE THE LESIONS?NOT REPORTED IN N. AMERICA! Lesions are of acute septicemia, hemorrhages & fibrinohemorrhagic interstitial pneumonia
Respiratory Histophilosis is czd by what & what are the major problems/symptoms of this DZ COMPLEX?Histophilus somni
The dz complex involves:
TME (Thromboembolic Menigoencephalitis)
Nervous lesions
Eye lesions
**What are the lesions of respiratory Histophilosis?Fibrinous Bronchopneumonia (he didn't emphasize, but rest of lesions section said: Similar to pneumonic Pasteurellosis. A mixed infxn by H. somnus, M. hemolytica & mycoplasma is common)
What’s another name for Histophilus somni?Haemophilus
*What is the etiological agent of Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia? Where does this dz geographically occur?Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies mycoides (small colony)
(Eradicated from North America!!!)
**What are the lesions of Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia?Fibrinous Bronchopneumonia, which is usually unilateral restricted to caudal lobes
*Mycoplasma bovis has what 2 manifestations???(1) As a component of Enzootic Pneumonia in young calves
(2) In Chronic Pneumonia & Polyarthritis in feedlot cattle
How is M. bovis shed?Shed in secretions of respiratory tract, genital tract & mammary gland from infected animals
**What are the lesions M. bovis czs in the resp system?*Suppurative Bronchopneumonia.*! (He pointed out that all other mycoplasma cz Fibrinous Bronchopneumonia - except for this one)
Tuberculosis in cattle can be czd by WHICH 3 etiological agents?M. bovis
M. tuberculosis
M. avium-intracellulare
What is the lesion that tuberculosis (from M. bovis, M. tuberculosis, M. avium-interacellulare) cz?**GRANULOMAS!!!
Acute Bovine Pulmonary Edema (ABPE) is aka? What’s the shortened reason for the cz? (More detailed card on cz later)AKA Fog Fever. Czd by changing the forage to something really lush
Explain the pathogenesis of Acute Bovine Pulmonary Edema (ABPE)There is a forage change to lush grass which is high in L-tryptophane, which is metabolized in the rumen into 3-methylindol, which is absorbed in the blood. The 3-methylindol in the blood gets to the lungs, where it is metabolized to highly pneumotoxic product by Clara cells (remember, Clara cells are cells in bronchioles which cz detox-oh the irony). The pneumonitoxic product is toxic to Type I Pneumocyte, bronchial & endothelial cells
What are the lesions of Acute Bovine Pulmonary Edema (ABPE)?Lesions of diffuse interstitial pneumonia & edema (makes sense, it's everywhere bc its hematogenous toxin)
*Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis (extrinsic allergic alveolitis) czs what kind of lesions?**Interstitial pneumonia**
What is the cz of hypersensitivity pneumonitis?Moldy hay (hypersensitivity type III) & also seen in parasitic infxn w/ lung worms
Parasitic Pneumonia (verminous pneumonia) is czd by which parasite?? Where do these parasites like to live?Dictyocaulus viviparous. The parasites live in the intrapulmonary bronchi of caudal lobes of lungs
What age is Parasitic Pneumonia most common in? What are the CS like?Dz is common in calves. CS resemble to that seen in interstitial pneumonia