Path 2 - Resp 2

drraythe's version from 2016-04-11 02:39

Specific Dzs of Nasal Cavity CONTINUED

Question Answer
Explain what the Transitory Rhinitis of dogs is associated w/?(2 specific examples)Associated w/ generalized bacterial & viral dzs:
Bacterial - B. bronchiseptica, E.coli, P. multocida (Bac-BEM)
Viral - Canine Distemper, Canine Adenovirus 1 & 2, Reovirus, Canine Herpes Virus & Parainfluenza Virus (Viral-DARHP)
**Which parasite can cz a dz of the nasal cavity in dogs? Important to know is?Linguatula serrata, adult stage lives in nasal passages of carnivores produce mucoid discharge as a result of catarrhal inflammation. Herbivores & humans are aberrant host → ZOONOTIC
***Feline Viral Rhinotracheitis (FVR) is czd by what?Feline Herpesvirus-1
***Which feline virus is an important resp dz of cats worldwide?FVR (Feline Viral Rhinotracheitis) czd by Feline Herpesvirus-1
(Calicivirus is also very important)
***What are the CS of Feline Viral Rhinotracheitis?Severe rhinitis, conjunctivitis w/ oculonasal discharges. (Bacterial contamination produces suppurative rhinitis & conjunctivitis). FVR also czs ulcerative keratitis, hepatic necrosis, abortion & stillbirths
How can you histologically identify FVR (Feline Viral Rhinotracheitis)?Intranuclear inclusions (HERPES!) present in early phase of the dz in the epithelium of upper respiratory passage
Which feline virus can also cz ulcerative keratitis, hepatic necrosis, abortion & stillbirths?FVR - Feline Viral Rhinotracheitis - czd by Feline Herpesvirus 1
**Which 2 feline viruses account for 80% of respiratory dz in cats?FVR (Feline Viral Rhinotracheitis czd by Feline Herpesvirus 1)
FCV (Feline Calicivirus)
***How can you differentiate the very similar presenting Feline Viral Rhinotracheitis & Calicivirus?FCV: In addition to conjunctivitis & rhinitis, there will be ulcers of the tongue & hard palate (C is for ulCer)
FVR: Affects upper respiratory tract (R is for Resp tract only)
What is Limping Kitten Syndrome, what agent is it related to & what is it czd by?An acute self-limiting arthritis of young cats, czd by infxn or Vx w/ some FCV (Feline Calicivirus) strains
*Feline Chlamydiosis is czd by what? What CS does it cz?Chlamydophilla felis. It czs mild conjunctivitis & serous to mucopurulent Rhinitis
**Feline Respiratory Dz Complex: What are the agents which cz this complex? How do some of the agents contribute to the complex?FCV
FVR (Feline Herpesvirus-1)

Chlamydia & Mycoplasma are less important. FIP may cz signs of upper respiratory tract infxn, but produces more generalized dz
**Inclusion Body Rhinitis: Who does this affect? What is the causative agent?PIGS up to 10wk of age (YOUNG pigs), Porcine Cytomegalovirus (Herpes virus)
***What is the morbidity of mortality of Inclusion Body Rhinitis? What are the lesions like?There is ↑ morbidity but ↓ mortality w/ lesions that are necrotizing & non-suppurative (Young pigs, cytomegalovirus aka Herpes)
**How can you dx Inclusion Body Rhinitis?Intranuclear Inclusions (basophilic) in nasal gland epithelium
(Young pigs, cytomegalovirus aka Herpes)
**Atrophic Rhinitis: Who does this affect? What is the causative agent?Affects OLDER PIGS (bc it takes ~4 mos to develop). Etiology is not clear, but believed to be a combined infxn of B. bronchiseptica & toxigenic strain of P. multocida
**What are the CS of Atrophic Rhinitis? (3)(1) Sneezing & nasal discharge
(2) Slow progressing dz over months resulting in dyspnea & death (Hence why it affects OLDER pigs)
(3) Retarded growth of snout, becoming short & concave; bending towards the side most severely affected. Atrophy of conchae, in severe cases even missing conchae
**How can you Dx Atrophic Rhinitis? (3)(1) CS (IN OLDER PIGS)
(2) Rarefaction (decrease in density of tissue) of turbinates leaving only a dense fibrous band
(3) Condition is best dx by making a transverse section of the snout btwn 1st & 2nd premolar teeth
*What's the main ddx for nasal neoplasia?Nasal granuloma
WHO most often gets nasal neoplasia? Is it usually malig or benign? Which type specifically is more common?Dogs usually get them. & they are frequently MALIGNANT.
Carcinomas more common than sarcomas (Squamous Cell Carcinoma predominate in cat & horse)
General CS of upper respiratory tract infxns are.... (3)(1) Sneezing, unilateral or bilateral nasal discharge which may be serous, mucoid or purulent
(2) In case of tumors, foreign body, parasites & fungal infxns the exudate in the nasal passage may be blood tinged
(3) Swelling of the sinuses & distortion of the face is usually bc of tumors & in pigs it is bc of specific dz (Atrophic Rhinitis)

Specific Dzs of Larynx, Trachea & Bronchi

Question Answer
*What is Bronchiectasis? What czs it? What problems can it lead to?Bronchiectasis is permanent abnormal dilation of bronchi as a result of chronic bronchial obstruction & infxn. It is mainly due to destruction of elastic & muscular components of airway walls. Dilation & accumulation of lung secretions perpetuate lung damage, which predisposes for infxn & compromise lung fxns
**Explain saccular vs cylindrical dilation (general)Saccular dilation - Sac-like out pouching of bronchi wall, after it has weakened (FB, tumor, fungus)
Cylindrical dilation - usually due to obstruction (dilated above the blockage) (bronchopneumonia, parasites)
*Which is more common - sacular or cylindrical dilation?Cylindrical
Who does SACCULAR bronchiectasis happen in most commonly? What czs this?Most often in CATTLE, altho common in cats & dogs too. Czd by local obstruction by inhaled foreign body, or a tumor/granuloma. This is bc they cz a defect in the wall of the bronchi & czing it to bulge out in a sac-like dilation
How much of the bronchus is usually affected in Cylindrical Bronchiectasis? What czs this?Mostly entire length of bronchi is affected. It is czd by OBSTRUCTION & is a frequent sequale of CHRONIC Bronchopneumonia
Bronchiectasis is always an ___ conditionUnfavorable
**Necrotic Laryngitis (aka Calf Diphtheria) happens to who? What is the etiological agent? (CSs?)Mostly CALVES, but also occurs in sheep. Czd by Fusobacterium necrophorum. (CS are very non-specific so he didn't emphasize, however they are: fever, anorexia, moist painful cough & dyspnea. Lesions are dry, yellow gray necrotic areas on larynx. Deep ulcers may also develop) (remember this bacteria also czs nasal granulomas in cats)
**What is the sequale to Necrotic Laryngitis (Calf Diphtheria)Sequelae of Calf Diphtheria is usually death by toxemia or bronchopneumonia
Laryngeal Paralysis is aka? Who does this most often affect & what czs this problem?Aka "roaring". Usually affects horses (can affect older large & giant breed dogs). Czd by NERVE DAMAGE!!! Leading to paralysis of the recurrent laryngeal nerve (usually left) resulting in ATROPHY of cricoarytenoid muscles
**Laryngeal paralysis is czd by nerve damage, usually by _________ or _________ of the nerve. List some things that can cz thisCompression or inflammation of the nerve. Could be czd by mycosis of guttural pouch, retropharyngeal abscess, Neoplasm involving cervical lymph glands, Injury & inflammatory lesions in the neck. Empyema of guttural pouch
**1Equine Pharyngeal Lymphoid Hyperplasia! is most often seen in what kind of horses? What czs this & what are the lesions?Common in 2-3yo race horses. The etiology is NOT CLEAR. Lesions are seen grossly as visible white foci on dorsolateral pharynx & on left palate
Mycosis of guttural pouch is usually czd by what?Aspergillus fumigatus & other Aspergillus sp.
***What are the CS of mycosis of the guttural pouch? Explain them.CS arise from the damage to the cranial nerves 9-12 & the arteries w/in the mucosa of guttural pouch. MOST COMMON is epistaxis bc of fungal erosion of the wall of the internal carotid or branches of external carotid. (Hemorrhage is spontaneous, severe & repeated bouts may precede to fatal hemorrhage)
Dysphagia, Horner’s syndrome & dorsal displacement of soft palate may develop due to damage to cranial & the sympathetic nerves that traverse the guttural pouch
*What’s the most common clinical presentation of mycosis of the guttural pouch?Intermittent epistaxis
How does mycosis of the guttural pouch look grossly?Mucosa of guttural pouch is covered w/ fibrin necrotic exudate, located at caudodorsal aspect of the medial pouch
How do you dx mycosis of the guttural pouch?Dx is confirmed by endoscopy of guttural pouch
*What are the 4 sequale of mycosis of the guttural pouch?(1) Erosion of internal & occasionally external carotid artery resulting in epistaxis & repeated bouts may result in fatal hemorrhage
(2) Formation of thrombi & emboli & brain abscess
(3) Laryngeal nerve paralysis
(4) Dysphagia & Horner’s syndrome
Empyema (collection of pus) of the guttural pouch is aka & czd by?Aka Strangles, Strep equi equi
**Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Dz (COPD) of horses has a million names. What are some of the akas?Aka: Alveolar Emphysema
Recurrent Airway Obstruction (RAO)
Chronic Bronchiolitis Emphysema Complex (CBEC)
Heaves (most owners are going to call it this, ley-person term)
Chronic Small Airway Dz
Broken Wind
*Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Dz (COPD) of horses is what/ czd by what? ***What is the main lesion?A clinical syndrome comparable to allergic bronchitis in humans. It is believed to be czd by inhalation of fungal spores & dust
Lesions are of chronic bronchitis
What is a problem which can develop from severe cases of COPD of horses?In severe cases accumulation of mucus leads to incomplete obstruction of bronchioles & alveoli, czing alveolar emphysema (accumulation of air in the lungs)
Canine Infectious Tracheobronchitis etiology?Etiology is complex. The viruses of Influenza group, adenoviruses & bacterium B. Bronchiseptica have been suggested
Canine Infectious Tracheobronchitis - explain CS & lesionsIt is a highly contagious infxn w/ onset of coughing. Btwn bouts of coughing most animals appear normal, some may show rhinitis, conjunctivitis & pharyngitis. Lesions consist of necrosis & suppuration (production of pus) in trachiobronchi
*Explain how Laryngeal Paralysis in dogs is different from horsesMost common in older, large & giant breeds, males. There will be abnormal barking & exercise intolerance. Laryngeal paralysis may predispose to aspiration pneumonia. cz in dogs is unknown, not proven to be the same as horses w/ the nerve damage
Feline asthma (Feline Allergic Bronchitis) → what czs this? What are the lesions? What is a Tx that this condition responds well to & might help you dx it?Believed to be a Type I hypersensitivity. Lesions are of chronic bronchitis & in severe cases leads to obstruction of small bronchioles. RESPONDS WELL TO STEROID THERAPY!