Path 2 - Resp 1

drraythe's version from 2016-04-10 14:10

Respiratory System General

Question Answer
What are the 3 parts of the resp system?(1) Conductive
(2) Transitional
(3) Gas exchange & detoxification
What are the parts of the resp system in the CONDUCTIVE portion?Nostrils
What are the parts of the resp system in the TRANSITIONAL portion?ONLY THE BRONCHIOLES! The tissue is btwn ciliated cells & alveolar cells. (Reduction in # ciliated cells & increase in # of alveolar cells)
**What are the parts of the resp system in the gas exchange & detoxification portion?GAS EXHANGE: In the alveoli, Pneumocyte I (membranous) & Pneumocyte II (granular, secrete surfactant)
**DETOXIFICATION: In bronchioles, goblet cells replaced by Clara cells – performs detoxification of foreign substances similar to hepatocytes
Whats the fxn of Pneumocyte I?Gas exchange. Very membranous
Whats the fxn of Pneumocyte II?Secrete surfactant. Second Secrete Surfactant
Surfactant keeps alveoli open
Secreting this is why they are granular in appearance
What are Clara cells & where are they?In bronchioles, they perform detox fxn (kinda like hepatocytes)
Explain what anatomical structures there are btwn the terminal bronchiole & the alveolus? What is this called?Terminal bronchiole → respiratory bronchiole → alveolar duct → alveolar sac → alveolus
(a single terminal bronchiole will form a single acinus)
Explain the relationship btwn a lobe, acinus, lobule & interlobular septumA lobe is made of many lobules & each lobule is composed of many acinus (8-10). Each lobule is separated by an interlobular septum
Explain the relationship of the Alveoli & inter-alveolar (IA) septa & what each is composed ofThe IA-septum is btwn each alveolus. In the septum are the capillaries, some intra-capillary/vascular macrophages & some elastin/collagen fibers. The blood vessels in the septum share a basement membrane w/ the alveolus for better gas exchange. The alveolus is composed of 2 types of cells - Type I (gas exchange) & Type II (surfactant production)
The pattern of respiratory dz mostly depends on what?On ROUTE OF ENTRY & etiological agents
What are the 3 routes of entry into the resp. system? (& what type of etiological agents are usually via this route of entry)(1) Aerogenous (infectious/non-infectious)
(2) Hematogenous (infectious/toxin)
(3) Direct extension (infectious via trauma)
If there is an inhaled (aerogenuos route) particle (possible etiological agent) what are the 3 things that can happen it (he labeled the slide as "defense mechanisms")(1) Deposition
(2) Clearance
(3) Retention
What is happening if there is "deposition" (defense mechanism) in the lungParticle of various sizes/shapes trapped in the mucosal surface of the respiratory tract
What is "clearance" (defense mechanism) of the lungThe process by which deposited particles are destroyed, neutralized or removed from the mucosal surfaces. Sneezing, coughing, muco-ciliary effect & phagocytosis are main mechanisms involved in clearance
What is retention (defense mechanism) of the lungThe difference btwn what is deposited & what is cleared from the respiratory tract. (Stuff that stays)
What are 4 specific defenses of the lung against airborne (aerogenous route) agents?(1) Sneeze, cough, reflex broncho-constriction
(2) Mucocilliary effect (Mucocilliary clearance, antibodies, lysosomes inside mucus, mucus itself)
(3) BALT (Bronchial Associated Lymphoid Tissue)
(4) Alveolar defense → Pulmonary alveolar macrophages (phagocytosis)
Which parts of the reps system are sterile & which parts are non-sterile? (Why are some areas sterile?)NON-sterile: Nasal cavity, pharynx & larynx
STERILE: Thoracic part of trachea, bronchi & lungs are considered sterile due to effective defense mechanism
If the animal is sick but all you see is normal flora, what should you keep in mind?Normal flora in the respiratory tract can be pathogenic
**What are Bacteria that are resistant to killing by macrophages?Mycobacterium

(My Little sister Rhonda is Resistant)
**What are defenses against blood borne agents? (SPECIES DIFFERENCES)There are PULMONARY INTRAVASCULAR MACROPHAGES in rumi, pig, cat, horse. This is different from dogs, rodents & humans, who use their Hepatic & Splenic macrophages
Does a dog use lung or liver/spleen macrophages as a hematogenous route defense?Liver/spleen
Does a rat use lung or liver/spleen macrophages as a hematogenous route defense?Liver/spleen
Does a cat use lung or liver/spleen macrophages as a hematogenous route defense?Lung
Does a sheep use lung or liver/spleen macrophages as a hematogenous route defense?Lung
How are viruses capable of impairing defense mechanisms? (2)(1) Destruction of mucocilliary blanket
(2) Impaired alveolar macrophage fxn
How are bacteria capable of impairing defense mechanisms?Some bact live & replicate w/in macrophages
There can be Impairment of defense mechanisms by direct damage to cells via...Toxins
Uremia, dehydration, endotoxemia, hypoxia, edema, ANx & other factors can all lead to?Impairment of defense mechanisms
Does immunodeficiency play a role in impairment of defense mechanisms leading to resp dz?It’s not a common cz of respiratory dzs but a definite risk factor (Pneumocystis carinii infxn in pigs, Arabian foals, dogs & rodents can make lung more susceptible)
What is inflammation of the nasal cavity called? What are some common (general) czs of this?Rhinitis can be czd by:
How is Rhinitis characterized? List the 5 typesRhinitis is characterized on the nature of exudate, which vary w/ the causative agent
The 5 types are:

Specific Dzs of Nasal Cavity

Question Answer
Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis....aka? Is czd by?Aka Rednose
It is czd by Bovine Herpes Virus
**Of the various presentations of Bovine Rhinotracheitis, what is the respiratory presentation & how dangerous is it?3 presentations. (He only cares about the respiratory 1 tho!!)
(1) RESPIRATORY form in feedlot cattle in the US. Viral infxn alone is not life threatening, but predisposes to **2° bacterial pneumonia especially w/ M. hemolytica, which may be fatal**
(2) Czs genital infxn in male & female breeding cattle
(3) In young calves, a generalized dz)
**What are the 5 CS of Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis in (what kind of?) cattle?Feedlot cattle
(1) Pyrexia, anorexia & coughing
(2) Nasal discharge, initial **serous to mucopurulent**
(3) Lacrimation & conjunctivitis w/ corneal opacity
(4) Inflamed nares, hence the name-‘red nose’
(5) Dyspnea, if laryngitis develops
What are the lesions associated w/ Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis?There is hyperemia, then necrosis & petechial & ecchymotic hemorrhages & after sloughing, ulcers develop
How can you histologically Dx Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis?You can do an impression smear & find intraNUCLEAR inclusion bodies (its a HERPES)
*Nasal Granuloma (Granulomatous Rhinitis) is MOST OFTEN czd by which type of agent?Mycotic agents
Nasal Granuloma (Granulomatous Rhinitis) which mycotic agents (3) affect which species to cz nasal granulomas?(1) Rhinosporidium seeberi in cattle, dog, horse, cat
(2) Cryptococcus neoformans in cats
(3) Aspergillus & Penicillium in dogs
Rhinosporidium seeberi czs what in who?Nasal granuloma in cattle, dog, horse, cat
Cryptococcus neoformans czs what in who?Nasal granuloma in cats
Aspergillus & penicillium czs what in who?Nasal granuloma in dogs
What is something all species can experience which can cz a nasal granuloma?Allergies
How do nasal granulomas grossly appear? (Unique attribute?) What is the main problem they cz?Grossly granuloma is seen as polypoid nodules, which are soft, pink & bleed easily (if you touch it & it starts bleeding, it's a granuloma. Diff from tumor w/ BVs). Large growths may obstruct the nasal passage, resulting in severe respiratory distress
(Whats Myasis?)A condition when larvae of flies invade the living tissue. Larvae of oestrus ovis (nasal bot) is important in sheep. They produce catarrhal to suppurative Rhinitis
*What agent czs Equine Viral Rhinopneumonitis?Equine Herpes Virus 4 & occasionally 1
**What is the unique clinical sign of Equine Viral Rhinopneumonitis?Edematous swelling of pharyngeal lymph nodes (this allows you to differentiate it from Strangles).
Otherwise, just normal symptoms like Fever, congestion & serous inflammation of nasal mucosa, conjunctivitis, cough
What are the lesions associated w/ Equine Viral Rhinopneumonitis?Ulceration & necrosis of respiratory epithelium w/ intranuclear inclusions in epithelial cells
What czs Equine Influenza?Type A Orthomyxovirus
**What are the typical lesions of Equine Influenza?Lesions usually NOT seen in the nasal passages (but if they are, can sometimes produce serous nasal discharge which moves to mucopurulent). Usually, the dz leads to interstitial pneumonia & pulmonary edema
Equine Viral Arteritis is czd by what?Arterivirus
What are the 2 major lesions of Equine Viral Arteritis?(1) Serous & mucopurulent Rhinitis, conjunctivitis & palpebral edema
(2) Virus czs fibrinoid degeneration of muscular arteries, cz hemorrhage in various tissues
(*Influenza/Equine viral Rhinopneumonitis also cz hemorrhages, but in Arteritis lesions of hemorrhages in VARIOUS tissues bc degeneration in various tissues!)
**What are the unique CS of Equine Viral Arteritis?Edema of palpebra, limbs & ventral abdomen
Palpebra edema is how to diff from the other resp viruses of horses
(Can also see more common symptoms like respiratory distress, fever, diarrhea, colic, abortion)
What is Strangles czd by?Streptococcus equi equi
**What are the CS of Strangles?(Czd by Strep equi equi)
Bilateral mucopurulent nasal discharge
Lymphadenopathy - Painful swelling of lymph glands
Which horse dz BEGINS w/ mucopurulent discharge & czs PAINFUL lymph gland swellings?Strangles (Strep equi equi)
What are the lesions of Strangles?Mandibular & parapharyngeal suppurative rhinitis & lymphadenitits
***How can you tell, in horses, the difference btwn a Herpes (Equine Viral Rhinopneumonitis) infxn & a Streptococcus (Strangles) infxn?Strep: SUPPURATIVE, the LNs will contain pus
Herpes: Only edema in the LN
**What are some really crappy sequale to a Strangles infxn?Extension of infxn into paranasal sinuses & guttural pouch & internal organs
Laryngeal hemiplegia
Purpura hemorrhagica (Type III hypersensitivity)

Facial paralysis
Horner’s syndrome
Which dz can cz empyema (collection of pus) of the guttural pouch?Strangles
Which dz, in who, can lead to laryngeal hemiplegia, facial paralysis & Horner’s syndrome?HORSE, Strangles
Which dz, in who, can cz a type III hypersensitivity called purpura hemorrhagica?HORSES, Strangles
Which horse dzs are zoonotic? (2)(1) GLANDERS (Burkholderia mallie)
(2) Meliodiosis aka Pseudoglanders (Burkholderia pseudomallie)
What czs Glanders? Who does it affect? Where is it (geographically)? What's important about it? What are the lesions?Glanders is czd by Burkholderia mallie. It is a horse dz which is NOT present in the US, but we care bc it is ZOONOTIC to man & dogs. It czs suppurative nodules in nasal cavity, lung & skin
Meliodiosis (pseudoglanders) is czd by what? Who does it affect? How is it different from Glanders?Czd by Burkholderia pseudomallie. IT affects ALL ANIMALS. ZOONOTIC! When in horses, dz is similar to Glanders (suppurative nodules). (Confined to Australia, Europe & South East Asia). THE DIFFERENCE btwn Glanders & pseudoglanders is that pseudo is czd by something else & it affects a wider range of hosts
What is a nasal polyp & how is it different from a granuloma?Polyp is a pedunculated mass & is due to an inflammatory condition
Granulomas usually are due to an etiological agent and they are soft, pink & bleed easily