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Path 2 - Muscles - Fast Review

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drraythe's version from 2016-05-01 00:59

Quick Muscles

Question Answer
Which band doesnt move'A' band doesnt move, 'I' MOVE!
Mm hyperplasia → due to what, is it ↑ in size or # of mmMutation of MYOSTATIN GENE. ↑ NUMBER OF MYOFIBERS (so...I want to PLAY w/ MORE people) (double mming happens in calves)
MYOFIBRILLAR HYPOPLASIA → ↓ number or size?NUMBER. (I want to PLAY w/ LESS people)
HYPERKALEMIC PERIODIC PARALYSIS (HYPP) → what czs this?SKELETAL MUSCLE NA CHANNEL GENEdefect, czs hyperkalemia
ARTHROGRYPOSIS → what is happening to the mm fibers & why?↓ IN SIZE bc of lack of innervation (makes sense, just atrophy but its all there)
Is atrophy ↓ size or number↓ size
Senile Atrophy characteristicLipofucinin
Hypertrophy → ↑ number or size?Size
STEATOSIS (lipomatosis) → what czs this & what happensDEFECTIVE MYOFIBER DEVELOPMENT → REPLACED w/ FAT
How would you describe mm dystrophy? how does this happen?Progressive & degenerative (abnormal proteins). There is an X-linked genetic type in dogs “Duchenne muscular dystrophy” & also HMLR (Hereditary Myopathy of Labrador Retrievers)
Color of severe calcification?Chalky white
Color of mm when there's degenerationPallor
4 common mechanisms of necrosisHypoxia (ATP depletion)
Free radicals
Membrane damage
Ca influx → Mitochondrial damage
What cells heal mm?Satellite cells
White mm dz is czd by?Selenium & Vit E deficiencies
Why does lack of vit E/Se cz white mm dz?These 2 things responsible for peroxidation, which prevents free radical damage
What kinda necrosis does white mm dz cz? What are the 3 lesions?(Segmental necrosis)
HYPEREOSINOPHILIA
LOSS OF STRIATIONS
CALCIFICATION
Exertional Rhabdomyolysis → what happens & what are the CS?Forced exercise after rest during which feed was not restricted → renal failure & myoglobinuria → MYOGLOBINURIC NEPHROSIS = dark black kidneys
What is happening in capture myopathy & what are the lesions like?Freaking out → lactic acid → acidosis → bilaterally symmetrical lesions of PALE, SWOLLEN, EDEMATOUS MUSCLES
What is an example of an ionophore, what does it do to mmMonensin → ILL DEFINED PALE STREAKS IN SKELETAL AND/OR CARDIAC MUSCLE
What does HYPOkalemia do?Hypo → hyperpolarized → weakness
2 CS of hypophosphatemia?Neuro & hemolytic signs
PORCINE STRESS SYNDROME (PSS) → what kinda problem is this? What happens?HYPERMETABOLIC SYNDROME → DEFECT IN UPTAKE, STORAGE & RELEASE OF CA2+ (pigs eat tums when theyre stressed out)
DEEP PECTORAL MYOPATHY → whats happening?Vigorous flapping of wings czs damage from vascular compression
Which 2 endocrine dzs affect mm & how?HYPOTHYROID & HYPERCORTISOL. DENERVATION!!! ATROPHY
Black leg czd by? What happens & what's the exudate?Clostridium chovi, there is INGESTION OF SPORES, then injury triggers endotoxin release. There is SEROHEMORRHAGIC EXUDATE
EOSINOPHILIC MYOSITIS happens in who, why?Rumis. Eosinophil = parasite = HYPERSENSITIVITY TO SARCOCYSTIS INFXN **NOTE: GREEN = EOSINOPHIL. IDIOPATHIC!!!
MASTICATORY MUSCLE MYOSITIS → who? Why?Dogs. IMMUNOLOGIC → AB TO TYPE IIC MYOFIBERS. See SWOLLEN FIBERS w/ INFILTRATION OF EOSINOPHILS
POLYMYOSITIS → what is this in who?This is a LYMPHOPLASMACYTIC inflammation (IMMUNE!!!)
PURPURA HEMORRHAGICA → who, whats happeningHorses, autoimmune complexes after strangles
Wooden tongue czd by w/ what CS?Actinobacillus lignersii w/ sulfur granules
Lumpy jaw czd by w/ what CS?ActinoMYCOSIS, granuloomas w/ CASEOUS-suppurative centers
TRICHINOSIS VS CYSTICERCOSIS → how does this affect musclesTRICH: ENTERS CELL
CYST: RESIDE IN MM
RHABDOMYOMA looks like?Large PEDUNCULATED mass
RHABDOMYOSARCOMA looks like?RHABDOMYOSARCOMA, SPHERICAL
BOTRYOID RHABDOMYOSARCOMA looks like?Grapes
Congenital MYASTHENIA GRAVIS bc?↓ # OF ACH RECEPTORS
Acquired myaesthenia gravis bc?Autoimmune To ach receptors
BOTULISM → how does this affect mmClostridium botulinum → TOXINS → PREVENT ACH RELEASE
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