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Path 2 - Hemolymphatic

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drraythe's version from 2016-03-20 16:12

Thymus & Spleen

Question Answer
*What kind of immunity does a Combined Immunodeficiency (CID) affect?Both humoral & cell mediated immunity (B & T cells) (remember: there is Innate (macrophages & shit) & acquired. Acquired is broken into humoral (B-cells) & cell mediated (T-cells))
**Which cz of immunodeficiency leads to LYMPHOCYTOLYSIS?VIRUSES!!!!
CDV (Canine Distemper)
EHV-1 (Equine Herpes Virus 1)
Feline Parvovirus
FIV (Feline Immunodeficiency Virus)
BVDV (Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus)
HC
(CHEF-FiB)
TOXINS!!
Fumonisins B1 & B2
*What are the 2 categories of neoplasias the thymus can get?Lymphoid & Epithelial (Thymoma)
*What is the lymphoid neoplasia that the thymus gets? Who usually gets it & what are the clinical findings?Thymic lymphoma. It is a T-lymphocyte neoplasm of young animals (cats, calves, dogs). There will be a large mass in the cr mediastinum which can lead to dyspnea. The thoracic aspirates will have medium to large lymphocytes w/ vacuolated cytoplasm, a feature unique to neoplastic lymphocytes in fluid + mitoses
*What is a property unique to neoplastic lymphocytes in fluid? (Such as in a thoracic aspirate)Medium to large w/ vacuolated cytoplasm
*Bovine Thymic Lymphoma usually occurs at what age, how does it present & what is the cz?Usually shows at 6-24 mo, there is a massive thymic enlargement (kinda looks like a giant lump coming off the top of their sternum) & it is IDIOPATHIC!
*How does Thymic Lymphoma appear in cats? What are the problems it czs?Large, white or gray mediastinal masses which will displace adjacent structures & result in fluid accumulation (can be chylous if lipid accumulation)
*What is the epithelial neoplasia of the thymus?Thymoma
*What is a thymoma? When is it usually seen? What does it look like & what does it behave like?Benign tumor of thymic epithelial cells + a mixture of nonneoplastic lymphocytes. It is uncommon but usually seen in older animals & is benign & slow-growing-encapsulated, nodular, firm masses w/ soft & cystic areas
****What 2 dzs that thymomas are related to in DOGS?Myasthenia Gravis (+/- megaesopahgus) (epithelial cells can produce ACH & has an effect w/ this)
Immune-mediated polymyositis ("inflammation of many muscles")
*What does a thymoma look like cytologically?Small lymphocytes & round to spindle-shaped epithelial cells ±mast cells, but small lymphocytes w/ few medium & large lymphocytes
**What are Gamna-Gandy bodies?Sidero-calcific plaques of capsule of spleen in old dogs (gamma is a `crusty-old` character now, doing `side`-jobs)
*Granulomatous splenitis looks like what & is czd by what? (Overall & 2 examples)The lesions are multiple pale *nodules* or diffusely swollen & firm. Czd by CHRONIC inflammation, such as in TB, or systemic mycoses
**WHO IS NODULAR HYPERPLASIA OF THE SPLEEN COMMON IN?OLD Dogs!!!
**Chronic Hemolytic Anemia (EIA) leads to what Splenomegaly??MEATY!!
****A small spleen can be due to wasting (cachectic dzs) What parts of the spleen are affected to cz it to be small?There is atrophy of the T-lymphocyte areas, BUT there is little to no effect on B-lymphocyte areas (If I'm starving, I have no Tea, but I still have my Blood)
*****WHATS THE DIFF BTWN LEUKEMIA & LYMPHOMA??Leukemia comes from the bone marrow, Lymphomas come from outside of the BM (like lymph nodes). Both are lymphocyte tumors!
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Lymph Nodes & Bone Marrow

Question Answer
**Small LNs → Cachexia & malnutrition. How are the LNs affected by this, specifically?Czs atrophy of T-lymphocyte areas, little or no effect on B-lymphocyte areas
**What situation czs LYMPHOCYTOLYSIS in the lymph nodes??VIRUSES!! Especially BVDV & CDV (Canine Distemper Virus)
**The FOLLICULAR area is referring to what kinda cells in the LNs?B-CELLS!!
**The DIFFUSE area is referring to what kinda cells in the LNs?T-CELLS!! (I think of a tea diffuser)
*What is a “Club Clony” / (“Asteroid body”)?In a granulomatous inflammation, there will be eosinophilic material around the pathogen. That eosinophilic material is the club clony/asteroid body
**Which animal would you be least concerned about if you saw they had brown-black LNs?The LNs of ruminants are often normally discolored by a brown to blackish pigment
***Enzootic Bovine Leukosis is czd by? Affects what age? Where do the tumors usually end up?Czd by BLV (Bovine Leukemia Virus) in ADULT cattle (usually 4-8yrs). The preferential sites are HAULS-R (I'd haul-r ass away from a cancerous cow) Heart, Abomasum, Uterus, LNs, Spinal canal, Retro-orbital space
**Sporadic Cattle Lymphoma happens at what age? What czs it?Young animals. NOT associated w/ BLV, it is SPORADIC
*In hyperplasia of the bone marrow, what is the mechanism by which is it getting bigger?It is an ↑ IN THE NUMBER OF CELLS
***WHAT IS APLASTIC ANEMIA? WHAT IS APLASTIC PANCYTOPENIA?APLASTIC ANEMIA: Absence of a particular hemopoietic lineage
APLASTIC PANCYTOPENIA: Absence of ALL LINEAGES
**What are some INFXNS which could cz aplasia of the BM? How would you characterize the anemia?Ehrlichiosis (dogs, cats)
Parvovirus (dogs, cats)
FeLV
FIV
EIA
All result in NON-REGENERATIVE ANEMIA
**What are the 2 types of leukemia? Explain their origin(1) Lymphocytic (lymphoid): Originate from outside the bone marrow, e.g., lymphosarcoma arising from lymphoid organs or tissues other than the bone marrow
(2) Myelogenous (myeloid): Leukemias of nonlymphoid origin
****WHAT IS MYELOPTHISIS???Replacement of hematopoietic tissue in the bone marrow can be replaced by fibrous tissue, malignant cells, etc...
*Once again, what is PANCYTOPENIA? What is the etiology? (2)Sustained ↓ production of all three major bone marrow hematopoietic lineages: Anemia, Neutropenia, Thrombocytopenia.
Etiology:
(1) Myelophthisis (replacement of normal bone marrow tissue by abnormal cells-malig or fibrous cells)
(2) Abnormality of hematopoietic cells
*What is the definition of anemia??↓ O2 CARRYING CAPACITY
*What is Pseudoneutropenia? Why does it happen?It looks like less neutrophils, but this is due to ↑ proportion of neutrophils in the marinating pool. Usually due to ↓ blood flow OR in response to endotoxemia (promoting interaction btwn neutrophils & endothelial cells)
*PERSISTENT LYMPHOCYTOSIS (PL) who gets it? What happens? What risk ↑ bc of this?≈30% of BLV infected cattle (>3 mos) get this. It is NON-NEOPLASTIC HYPERPLASIA OF B-LYMPHOCYTES. These animals have ↑ risk of developing B-lymphocyte lymphoma
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Erythrocytes, Platlets, Neoplasia & Co-ag

Question Answer
**What is Clostridium? How does it cz hemolytic anemia? How dangerous is it? What dz does it cz in cattle?Bacterial agent which czs a FATAL Hemolytic Anemia. This happens bc **bacterial toxin** (Phospholipase C or Lecithinase) enzymatically degrades cell membranes → acute IV hemolysis. In cattle, it czs Redwater dz (Bacillary Hburia) (liver flukes cz hepatic necrosis, the anaerobic enviro encourages Colostrum to proliferate & they release hemolytic toxins) (in the red closter)
*What are the 3 major effects EIA (Equine Infectious Anemia) has on the blood? WHAT IS IT INFECTING? (Explain a little bit for each)Infects cells of the Mononuclear Phagocyte System (MPS)
(1) Immune-mediated hemolysis (typically EV but also IV during the acute phase)
(2) ↓ Erythropoiesis (direct suppression of early-stage erythroid cells by the virus, +anemia of inflammation)
(3) Thrombocytopenia (2º immune-mediated destruction is a classic feature of acute EIAV infxn)
***What is the characteristic(s) of the anemia czd by EIA?Goes in a CYCLIC pattern, so there will be bouts of REGNERATIVE & NONREGENERATIVE ANEMIA
**What kinda anemia does FeLV cz?NON REGENERATIVE (infects hematopoietic precursor cells, so can't regenerate blood properly)
**In a Phosphofructokinase (PFK) deficiency, what kinda anemia do you see in the [what animal] affected?DOGS affected. Bc the lack of enzyme czs ↑ RBC membrane fragility (esp in ALKALINE ENVIRO), you will see chronic EV hemolysis w/ marked reticulocytosis (affected dogs are **not anemic**) ← so, trick question. No anemia but there is EV hemolysis.... however, acute IV hemolysis may occur w/ hyperventilation & resulting alkalemia
**WHAT IS THE MOST COMMON CANINE BLEEDING DISORDER?Von Willebrand Dz (vWD) (stabilizes coagulation factor 8)
****How severe is the thrombocytopenia czd by vWD?TRICK QUESTION - NO THROMBOCYTOPENIA CZD. THIS IS A DISORDER OF THE CLOTTING FACTORS, NOT PLATELETS
**********WHICH COAG FACTORS ARE K-DEPENDENT? WHY IS THE K NEEDED?II, VII, IX & X!!!! (Also regulatory molecules Protein C & Protein S). They are K-dependent bc the factors must undergo carboxylation (catalyzed by γ-glutamyl carboxylase) to be fxnal & carboxylation requires vitamin K as a cofactor
*What are the main types of lymphosarcoma for each species?EVERYONE IS MULTICENTRIC.....except for cats which are alimentary (Bc cat reasons)
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