Path 2 - Alimentary 4

drraythe's version from 2016-03-16 00:26


Question Answer
What is "1⁰ bloat" also known as?Frothy bloat
What are the 2 kinds of 1° bloat?Legume bloat & feedlot bloat
How does legume bloat occur/what is happening?Legumes have soluble proteins from their chloroplasts which can act as surfactants & they stabilize foam. This means the little fermentation bubbles cant coalesce into bigger bubbles, so they build up (he has "& block the cardia of the stomach" but, uh) bc they do not pop to form eructable gas & the rumen bloats
Is legume bloat 1° or 2° bloat?
How does feedlot bloat occur/what is happening?Happens w/ ↑ CARB, ↓ roughage diets. There is a change in the microflora of the rumen to bacteria which prefer this ↑ - carb diet. Most of these "carb bacteria" have thick mucoid capsules which ↑ the viscosity of the ruminal contents. The fermentation gas bubbles are trapped in the viscous content, gas builds up → bloat
What is "2⁰ bloat" also known as?Obstructive bloat
What is happening in 2° bloat? What might cz this? (5)Generally 2° to obstruction, just a prob of RELEASE of gas, not bubbles problem. Common czs Intraluminal foreign bodies of the esophagus, periesophageal inflammation, tumors, vagal nerve damage, or recumbency (like they fall in a ditch & cant get up)
6 main necropsy lesions you'd find in bloat? (2 pathognomonic)Rumen distended w/ gas, sawhorse appearance of carcass, blood dark & clots poorly due to the anoxia (they can't breathe bc of the pressure of the rumen on the diaphragm, causing the anoxia), bloat line (line on esophagus at thoracic inlet, which proves the bloat happened before death bc there is a portion of ischemia which proves blood had been flowing), Lungs compressed forward, clots in airways, Abdominal viscera pale → pressure ischemia
What is postmortem tympany?Gas produced by rumen bacteria after death of an animal → rumen greatly distended w/ gas
What signs does postmortem tympany lack that indicate it wasn't death due to bloat?NO bloat line, NO foam & NO hemorrhage if there is ruminal rupture (Which can happen in postmortem tympany)
Grain (carbohydrate) overload is also known as "engorgement ___".Toxemia (bc bact will get into blood via ulcers)
What happens in grain (carb) overload?Rapid ingestion of large amounts of a carbohydrate feed source → all of this gets digested by the ruminal bact to produce VFAs (the cow's energy source) but these are volatile fatty ACIDS, which mean that a large ↑ in VFAs leads to a large ↓ in the pH!! This change in pH changes the rumen microflora bc not all of the bact can live at the ↓ pH
Explain what happens to the ruminal microflora in grain overload, starting w/ the normal flora. Say pHs associated & the products(Normal pH → 5.5-7.5) Normal G-bacteria & protozoa (which produce VFAs) die when the VFA overload drops the pH to 5.0 & below. Then, Streptococci flourish & produce large amounts of lactic acid. But, as the pH continues to drop btwn 5 & 4.5, the Streptococci die off. Then, Lactobacilli proliferate & produce more lactic acid. The rumen pH may drop as ↓ as 4.5 to 4.0
What does the cow actually die from, in grain overload?Lactic acidosis (after normal flora die, the others, Strep & lacto, both produce lactic acid) & dehydration (water moves into rumen from osmotic pull of acids)
How is the rumen itself affected from grain overload?The VFAs cz rumen atony(has no strength) & rumenitis (hyperemia, soft dark papilli, mucosal sloughing)
How does grain overload cz dehydration? What does this lead to?The ↑ in VFAs/Lactic acid ↑ the osmotic pressure of the rumen. This draws fluids from the blood into the rumen, czing dehydration & hemoconcentration, anuria & circulatory collapse
What happens to blood pH in grain overload?The abundance of lactic acid in the rumen will be absorbed into the blood stream ((im assuming bc of the chemical gradient & the acid creates ulcers which open the blood stream up for the acid to move into)
Who is most susceptible to grain overload?New world camelids! Ie, llamas & alpacas (they aren't very sweet, so they shouldn't get given too much sweets)
What would you find on necropsy of a PTx that died from grain overload?Large amounts of grain in rumen (perhaps not even all that digested)
↓ rumen pH (unreliable, unless you know how long ago the animal died, bc the rumen will continue to make acid a little while after death)
Rumenitis (hyperemia, soft dark papilli)
What is the Sequela to Grain Overload (if they survive, what happens?) (4)(1) Necrobacillary rumenitis
(2) Mycotic rumenitis
(3) Liver abscesses
(4) Rumen scars (2⁰ invaders & healing from the damage)
Explain Necrobacillary rumenitisAfter 1° damage from the grain overload. Fusobacterium necrophorum is a bact that usually hangs out in the rumen (commensal) w/ no probs. But damage (ulcers) is czd by pH, fuso will invade into wall through ulcers & will cz 2° issues like ulceration. The bact can also go into bloodstream & get into liver → liver abscesses
Explain mycotic rumenitis (Causative agents?)2⁰ invaders from damaged rumen. Mucor, Rhizopus, Absidia are the main contenders (my ABSydian PUSsy is covered in MUCus)
Explain how the liver is affected by grain overload (special names for conditions?)The drop in pH damages the mucosa of the rumen, causing ulcerations which expose the bloodstream directly to the contents of the rumen. The bact in the rumen, (notably the 2⁰, opportunistic Fusobacterium necrophorum) will ride the blood stream to the portal vein & settle into the liver, where they create scattered abscesses, which is called "sawdust liver"
What is a Trichobezoar? Whats going on?Hairball. Can act as a foreign body
What is a Phytobezoars? Whats going on?Plant fiber balls which can act as foreign bodies
Explain Saccular Concretions aka? What is happening here & who gets these most often? How can you id it as a gastrolith?(Aka Gastroliths). Common in new world camelids (think: llama & alpaca). They get sacculations (outpouchings) of mucosae of 1st chamber of forestomach & the secretions build up into little stone-like gastroliths, which are identifiable by their concentric concretions. There are NOT FOREIGN BODIES
If there is a rumi impacted w/ plant matter, what are you thinking?Prolly didn't get enough water, so plant matter got dried up & couldnt get digested/move along
What are the 2 common neoplasms which can affect the forestomachs of the ruminants?Papillomas & lymphomas
What is the rumen fluke we mention? Where is it found (geographically) & what is the IH? What do they look like?Paramphistomum spp, which is found in warmer latitudes around the world. IH is a snail. They actually look similar to rumen papillae, kinda redish too
Describe how the rumen fluke (name the spp) affects the host at different stagesParamphistomum spp. The Adults generally cz little to no clinical problems. The LARVAE will heavily infect the sm intestinehypoproteinemia, anemia & death. (occasionally can burrow through intestinal wall & be found in peritoneal cavity, but this is rare) (REMEMBER parasit mnemonic about a cow drinking AMP & it ulcers it's intestines)
Which part of eso is pale & which is dark in bloat line?Dark = cervical
Pale = Thoracic (line is at thoracic inlet)


Question Answer
Traumatic ReticuloPericarditis (TRP) → happens when? (General & specific-what stuff, what size?)Happens when metal objects are ingested, when they are over 4cm long
Traumatic ReticuloPericarditis usually likes to occur in what specific location?Puncture from metal object almost always in reticulum & almost always anteroventral (& if long enough, can pierce diaphragm & pericardial sac too)
What are the results (dz process) of TRP?Focal reticulitis, peritonitis, Pericarditis, pneumonia/pleuritis
TRP often czs 2° (bacterial) infxns from the sustained injuries. What kinda organisms are often found in these 2° infxns?Trueperella
Fusobacterium necrophorum
(bc these are always present, usually present no problem, but are opportunistic) (TRUEly Necrotic from metal piercing your heart)
*What usually kills rumis that have TRP?Constrictive Pericarditis → congestive heart failure (happens bc of the fibrinous healing all around the heart constricting its ability to fxn)
Measure usually taken to prevent/curb TRP?Magnets
What is the process of injury that usually happens w/ the heart/pericardium in TRPUsually pericardium 1st fills w/ a clear yellow fluid. Then the heart gets covered w/ fibrinous tissue, restricting its movement which leads to the Constrictive Pericarditis → congestive heart failure. This is usually cz of death, not even the infxn, but the fibrinous healing from the infxn!


Question Answer
What are 3 viral dzs which can cz abomasal ulcers?BVD (Bovine Viral Diarrhea)
MCF (Malignant Catarrhal Fever)
Bluetongue (Tongue is on the track down to the abomasum!)
What is a common cz of abomasal ulcers in calves?PPT says "roughage", long notes say "dietary changes & stress" so prolly weaning from milk → roughage, which is stressful
Which adult rumis are prone to abomasal ulcers?Grain-fed dairy cows (↑ in VFAs, ↓ pH rumen, mucosal damage)
Stress can predispose to abomasal ulcers. Name some ↑-stress groups/situationsRecently weaned calves (veal calfs), postpartum animals, ill animals, transported animals
Which kind of neoplasm can predispose to abomasal ulcers?Lymphosarcoma (the tumor doesnt have the protective measures the regular mucosa has, so it can be damaged & ulcerated easily & leave the other parts around it exposed as well)
Which toxin can cz abomasal ulcers?Arsenic (think of farmer story)
Mycotic abomasal ulcers tend to look like what?Like bullseyes
Which population is most predisposed to a displaced abomasum? Why? Situations which put at even ↑er risk?DAIRY cattle. bc they are usually led lots of grains & not as much roughage (which is good for making lots of milk, but, production of lots of VFAs inhibit normal abomasal motility, gas czs abo to move w/in cavity). Another time of ↑ risk is around & up to 6 weeks after parturition
Where is the abomasum NORMALLY located?Over the xiphoid process at the abdominal ventral midline
What is LDA? What is happening?Left displaced abomasum. Most common, ventral & to the left of the rumen
Which is more common - LDA or RDA?LDA
Which type of displaced abomasum leads to abomasal torsion, infarction, rupture?RDA
What is RDA, what is happening?Right displaced abomasum. Displaced dorsally & can result in abomasal torsion, infarction, rupture
What additional problem, resulting from ↑ grain & hypocalcemia, can worsen the pathogenesis of a displaced abomasum?Abomasal atony
In abomasal displacement, along w/ abomasal atony, what other problems might be present?Cattle may have ketosis, metritis, retained placenta (displace your placenta? well, that might irritate your uterus & make you think you're fat)
Look at pics of LDA & RDAYep