Path 2 - Alimentary 2

drraythe's version from 2016-03-16 00:07

Dzs of the Oral Mucosa

Question Answer
Cheilitis is?Inflammation of lips
Stomatitis is?Inflammation of the oral mucosa
Glossitis is?Inflammation of the tongue
Gingivitis is?Inflammation of the gums
Pharyngitis is?Inflammation of the pharynx
What CS might you see if the PTx has a foreign body stuck in their mouth? What might result from the long-term FB?Pawing at mouth, salivating, doesnt wanna eat... can get pressure necrosis of oral mucosa if it's stuck in there for too long
If there is a vesicular dz of a cow/horse, what you wanna do?REPORT/CALL STATE VET
How are the vesicles formed in a viral vesicular dz?Viral replication in epithelium leads to epithelial damage w/ the formation of clefts in the epithelium which fill w/ fluids forming vesicles & bullae. These rupture forming erosions & ulcers.
Foot & Mouth dz → etiological agent? Affects who?Picornavirus. Affects cattle, swine & sheep/goats, but NOT HORSES
Vesicular Stomatitis → etiological agent? Affects who?Rhabdovirus. Affects cattle & sheep goats more severely than it does horses or swine, but all are affected
Vesicular Exanthema → etiological agent? Affects who?Calicivirus. Only affects swine but does so heavily
Swine Vesicular dz → etiological agent? Affects who?Enterovirus. Only affects swine but does so heavily (of course swine have to do w/ the poop virus)
What are CS of vesicular dzs?Salivation
What are the gross lesions associated w/ vesicular dzs?Small vesicles on oral mucosa, esophagus, rumen nasal mucosa. Vesicles rupture → ulcers. (Vesicles can also appear on Coronary band, teats, vulva & interdigital cleft)
What is Paradox Stomatitis? (Aka bovine Papular Stomatitis) who does it affect? Characteristics of the dz?Paradox Viral Dz of cattle
ALSO ZOONOTIC. Characterized by the formation of papules in the tissues of the oral cavity & also the nares, muzzle & teats. The papules can also be observed in the esophagus/rumen & omasum on occasion. (Cells affected have eosinophilic inclusions from the parapox) (on ppl affects hands bc that's where the contact is made w/ the cow)
What is Contagious Ecthyma? Who does it affect? What are the characteristics?Aka Sore Mouth, Scabby Mouth, Infectious Pustular Dermatitis. Affects sheeps & goats
ALSO ZOONOTIC. Macules/papules/vesicles/pustules/scabs/scars in the corners of the mouth/udder/teats/Coronary bands/anus. Can last up to 6 weeks. (On ppl affects hands, aka orf, can last weeks to months)
What is Pemphigus Vulgaris? cz?AUTOIMMUNE DZ which can cz vesicles. Autoantibodies to desmosomal proteins in squamous epithelium. Czs damage to epithelium, cleft formation in epithelium, ulceration.
What is Feline Ulcerative Stomatitis & Glossitis? cz?Chronic inflammation & ulceration of the oral tissues in older cats. Cz unknown
What is Feline Plasma Cell Gingivitis -Pharyngitis? cz?Erythematous, proliferative lesions on the glossopalatine arches. Cz unknown. Large numbers of plasma cells/lymphocytes
Oral eosinophilic granuloma complex → aka? Affects who, where?Aka Primarily a dz of cats but sometimes dogs (Siberian huskies) lick granuloma, rodent ulcer. Chronic ulcerative lesion at the mucocutaneous junction. In CATS, reddish brown ulcers on upper lip. May also see on the gums, palate, tongue etc In DOGS, single to multiple, often ulcerated, raised plaques on the ventrolateral aspect of the tongue & mucosa of the palate.
Chronic Ulcerative Paradental Stomatitis is what? Happens in who? (sp?) Results of the dz?Gingival inflammation & ulceration 2° to dental plaque. Gingiva adjacent to dental plaque becomes inflamed which can lead to 2° ulceration.. In OLDER DOGS primarily, esp Maltese, Cavalier King Charles Spaniels!. If left untreated the plaque & gingival damage can eventually lead to bone resorption & tooth loss.
Explain how kidney dz can lead to Erosive & Ulcerative Stomatitis?The notes say: "Bacterial urease break down urea to ammonia leading to tissue damage & ulceration"
Explanation from class: Urea building up bc of kidney not working, so urea goes into mouth, bact in mouth beak down the urea into ammonia, so that's why their mouth smells like ammonia (& the ammonia chemical burns the musoca). Also build up of tox in blood stream also czs damage to vessels
Oral Necrobacillosis (calf diphtheria) → czd by what? What happens?Bacterial Stomatitis
Fusobacterium necrophorum (learned it as foot rot in sheep) - Gram-negative rod
Bacterium is a common 2⁰ bacterial invader of wounds (just like how it is invading ulcers in grain overload)
Fibrinopurulent exudate
Diphtheritic membranes on tongue, cheeks, gums, pharynx
What czs Wooden Tongue? What results from this?Actinobacillus lignieresii - Gram-negative bacillus
Czs bacterial Stomatitis. Oral trauma
Chronic granulomatous inflammation w/ fibrosis in the deep tissues of the tongue → tongue is rigid. (lignieresii = lingual. Also ActinoBAcillus = Wooden you don't confuse w/ Actinomyces which is Lumpyjaw)
Lumpyjaw → what czs this? What results from this?Actinomyces bovis - Gram-positive rod or filament
Chronic granulomatous inflammation of the mandible. Czs swelling (lumpy jaw) & osteolysis of mandible. Draining tracts. “Sulfur granules” (dried out bits of pus w/bact inside)
What is going on in Mouth Rot? Who does it affect?Happens in reptiles, esp big snakes
Usually infxn due to immunocompromise or something (enviro too cold or irregular, cage unclean, etc...)
What is Thrush? What’s going on & what should you know for sure? What does it look like/where is it usually?It’s a fungal Stomatitis czd by Candida albicans (yeast)
It is a common oral inhabitant which is usually present, but will overgrow 2° TO DZ (debility, immunocompromise, long-term antibiotic therapy, diabetes mellitus) It is a grayish pseudomembrane that scrapes off easily & is most often found on the tongue & esophagus
Gingival Hyperplasia most often happens in who? How much should you be worried about this? Tx? Ddx?(Overgrowth of gingival tissues) This usually happens in middle aged to older DOGS! esp. Brachycephalic breeds, like boxers!. This is usually not a problem, unless the overgrowth is severe & impairs eating/bleeding if teeth scrape against it. In these cases, it can be surgically removed. ***MUST DISTINGUISH FROM EPULIS (benign tumor/lump)
Where do oral papillomas like to occur? How to you treat? Who is most susceptible to severe cases?Czd by Papillomavirus. Warts usually occur on:
Generally regress spontaneously & don't need Tx. Usually severe problems aren't common, but immunocompromised dogs are sometimes severely affected
Squamous Cell Carcinoma are common in which species & where in each species do they tend to occur? Benign or malignant/is there metastasis?Usually affects Cats (TONGUE & NOT usually metastatic) & Dogs (TONSILS, metastasis common) & ALL are locally invasive (malignant neoplasm) (he also said during class: old horses 3rd eyelid, skin of light skinned animals, vulva of light skinned animals & oral cavity is most common places) (I'd SCC my cat & dog on you, but the cat would just lick you & the dog would run over w/ 2 balls in its mouth)
Oral Melanomas are common in who? How severe are they compared to other melanomas? What do they look like? How do they act?Oral melanomas are common in DOGS & the oral form is much more worrisome than the cutaneous form (perineal in horses is also worrisome). Melanomas can be pigmented or NONpigmented! Usually very aggressive, frequently metastasize to regional nodes & the lungs
Oral Fibrosarcoma are common in who? What to know?Can happen in all spp, but ESP COMMON IN CATS (Fibrosarcomas account for approximately 20% of the oral neoplasms in cats.)
Oral Plasma Cell Tumor are usually found where? How do they look? How do they act?These can be found ANYWHERE in the oral cavity! Aggressive in histologic appearance (↑ mitotic index, bizarre nuclei, etc) but do not behave aggressively. Locally invasive but do not metastasize. (Plasma sounds scary, but harmless enough-it's in your TV!)
What is Fibromatous Epulis? Where does it occur? What do they look like? Where are they found? Who’s susceptible? Ddx?Stromal tumors that occur around teeth & can displace teeth (usually on periodontal ligament)
Gray-pink w/ smooth lobulated surface. These tend to be on carnassial & canine teeth of brachycephalic dogs. **cannot distinguish from gingival hyperplasia! (Ddx) DOESNT invade bone (need to use your canines & carnassial teeth to chew up fibrous meat)
What is Acanthomatous epulis? How is it different from fibromatous epulis? Where does it occur, how does it act? Ddx's & how do you differentiate?Epithelial tumor that occurs around teeth (fibrous epulis is stromal). It is locally invasive, often invading into surrounding bone. You will need to differentiate from SCC, fibromatous epulis using Histopathology
What is an Ameloblastoma? How does it act?(From teeth tissue!) Arise from ameloblasts of enamel organ. Locally invasive w/ bone destruction
What is an Odontometer? Who does it tend to occur in?Arise from enamel organ & contain dentin & enamel. Immature animals
How common are oral tumors, as compared to the rest of the GI?Approximately 70% to 75% of all tumors in the alimentary tract arise w/in the oral cavity or the oropharynx
Epulis are WHERE?Periodontal ligament

Tonsils + Salivary Glands

Question Answer
What are the 2 most common neoplasias of tonsils?LYMPHOMA in a variety of animals (remember that it is a lymphnode!!). SCC in dogs will occur on the tonsils (this was from the previous set, remember? SiCC dog on you but they just bring you 2 balls)
What is Ptylism? What might cz this?Excess salivation. Oral irritation, certain poisons
What is Aptylism? What are some problems that might arise bc of this?Reduced or no salivation. This might lead to difficult chewing & swallowing & ↑ gum & tooth dz
Sialoliths (Salivary Calculi) → what do they look like (gross, radiographs)? What are they made of? How does this happen & what is the result?Hard, chalky, white to yellowish concretions of Calcium phosphate & Calcium carbonate. Concentric rings on radiography
They start to form around a NIDUS (a bit of protein or foreign material that the Ca++ starts to form around) & can continually grow. This will lead to blockage of the salivary duct, causing submucosal swellings under the tongue (sublingual salivary duct) & along the side of the head (parotid salivary duct). This can be very painful
What is Sialoadenitis? Give examples of what might cz thisInflammation of the salivary glands! Can be czd by Rabies, strangles in horses (Streptococcus equi), distemper in dogs, Vitamin A deficiency(metaplasia of epithelium lining ducts & ductules), sialodacryadenitis virus in rats & mumps
Explain how a Vit a deficiency can affect salivary glandsCzs Sialoadenitis (inflammation of salivary glands) by causing metaplasia (replace 1 adult tissue w/ another) of epithelium lining ducts & ductules
When do dilations of salivary ducts occur? What are 2 examples?They occur when there is a blockage (2⁰ TO OBSTRUCTION). 2 examples are a ranula & a salivary mucocele (sialocele)
Explain what is happening in a ranulaMost common dilation of a salivary duct. Dilation of sublingual salivary duct
Explain what is happening in a sialocele"Salivary mucocele." pseudocyst in subcutaneous & deeper tissues filled w/ saliva. Ruptured salivary duct. (Usually in dogs, usually under chin & neck. happens bc duct is torn, but get dumped into tissues instead of going to the mouth. usually has a gooey red looking gel filled lump)
What would you call neoplasias of the salivary glands? How common are they? who do they affect? How do they act?"Salivary adenomas & adenocarcinomas" Rare, but usually occur in dogs & cats. Commonly metastasize to regional nodes & lungs (they are already full of ducts & stuff, which is a super easy way for metastasis to take place-remember from tumor section?)