Path 1

robbypowell's version from 2015-09-11 03:21


Question Answer
T/F: Tobacco, Alcohol, Illegal Drugs & Drug Reactions are all examples of "elements that cause Environmental Disease"True
lung conditions in which there is a reaction in response to inhaled particulate irritant (general term)Pneumoconiosis
Anthracosisname given to Carbon deposits in the lungs (Carbon Dust Deposition in the lungs) (common finding for Urban dwellers) (not fibrogenic)
3 variables that determine the potential for lung damage in Pneumoconiosis1. Particle Size, 2. Dust Concentration and Duration of exposure 3. Capacity of Dust to Cause Fibrosis
What Particle size is most damaging for Pneumoconiosis?1-3 micrometers
T/F: Healthy Lungs can clear about 1 Tbs/day of particulatesTrue
4 Fibrogenic (immune response mediators) Factors associated with PneumoconiosisTNF-Alpha, PDGF, IGF-1, Fibronectin (stimulate stem cells to differentiate into fibroblasts) (lead ultimately to fibrosis)
Coal Worker's Pneumoconiosis (CWP)(Black Lung Disease)A form of Anthrocosis, caused by coal inhalation
is function severely affected by Simple CWP? (Black Lung)no (form of anthrocosis)
what is outcome of Complex CWP? (black lung)can cause destructive lung disease
Caplan SyndromePneumoconiosis associated with Rheumatoid Arthrities (cloudy appearance on x-ray) (Rheumatoid nodules w/ central necrosis on slide) (necrotizing granulomatous inflammation)
SilicosisPneumoconiosis associated with SiO2, Silica, esp. Quartz; MOST COMMON Chronic Occupational Disease (Silica is HIGHLY Fibrinogenic)
highly fibrinogenic form of Pneumoconiosis caused by Silica (esp. quartz) form fibrotic nodules w/ silica crystals ((can lea to Progressive MassiveChronic silicosis
Asbestos (is it fibrogenic or carcinogenic)highly fibrinogenic & Carcinogenic (mesothelioma … comes from lining of Pleura)
T/F: Asbestos exposure and smoking drastically increase cancer risk for bothTrue
Which type of Asbestos fibers are more dangerous, curly or straight?Straight
Ferruginous bodies are associated with what type of Pneumoconiosis?Asbestos (iron-coated Asbestos fibers)
Malignancy associated w/ Chronic Asbestos exposureMesothelioma (of Pleura of Lung)
Dumbell shaped bodies in lung that appear golden brownFerruginous Bodies; (associated w/ Asbestos)
Extensive Pleaural Thickening (due to Fibrosis) is associated with what Pneumoconiosis?Asbestos
Calcified Pleural Plaques are associated with what Pneumoconiosis?Asbestos
Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis (allergic alveolitis) are what type of reactions to what stimulus?Extrinsic Allergic Reactions to Organic Dusts (--> granulomas --> fibromas)
chemical carcinogenesis is caused by what?direct acting and indirect acting... Caused by Electron Deficient and can cause DNA damage (carcinogens)
Electron Deficient (electrophilic) molecules that can cause cancers and DNA damageChemical Carcinogenesis
Direct-acting carcinogenic agentscarcinogenic in their unmodified state (do not require modification to be carcinogenic)
Indirect-acting carcinogenic agentsNot carcinogenic until metabolized by body
A mutated cell or cell line usually requires additional proliferative stimulation to develop into cancer, a step called ____. This is referred to as the "___ ___ theory".Promotion; Two-Hit Theory
2 types of Genes that are especially prone to causing cancer when damagedOncogenes & Tumor Suppressor genes (p53 example)
What type of Gene is p53?Tumor Suppressor gene
What environmental disease is brought about for Chimney Sweepers?scrotal carcinoma
Two Hit Theory!Cancer development takes both 1. Initiation & 2. Promotion (Initiation or Promoter alone has no effect) (genetic predisposition and environmental exposure)
Is epidemiology useful for environmental carcinogenesis pathology?yes
Chimney soot (carcinogen) causes...scrotal carcinoma
aromatic amines (carcinogen) causes... bladder carcinoma
benzene (carcinogen) causes... leukemia
aflatoxin B1 (poorly stored nuts and grains)) (mold exposure) (carcinogen) causes... (hepatocellular carcinoma
nickel (carcinogen) causes... lung and nasal carcinoma
vinyl chloride (carcinogen) causes... Angiosarcoma of Liver
AMES TESTIn-vitro MUTAGENICITY test (on chemical) using Salmonella Typhimuriam (b/c of its susceptibility to mutations, permeable membranes, DNA repair mechanisms are weak)
Dose Response Curve (X axis)Dose ( as Dose increases, so does Response) (there IS an amount of Dose that will cause NO response)
Dose Response Curve (Y-axis)Response (as Dose increases, so does Response) (there IS an amount of Dose that will cause NO response)
Immunocompromised patients are more likely to develop what two results?Infection & Cancer
Most of the damage of Radiation (pathology) is believed to be caused by ___ radiation interacting with ____ molecules that create ____ ___ ____Ionizing; Water; Reactive Oxygen Species
Radiation exposure can lead to what 3 pathological conditions?1. Acute Syndromes (tissue necrosis, fibrosis) 2. Carcinogenesis 3. Teratogenesis
necrosis as a result of permanent impaired vascular function in area as a result of radiation therapyosteo-radio-necrosis (relevant for dentists esp. for the jaw from radiation)

quiz 1

Question Answer
Caseous Necrosis(cheese-like) more detail (tuberculosis associated)
What type of Necrosis most common in brain?Liquefactive Necrosis
Squamos Metaplasia associated with what tissue?Bronchial Epithelium (in response to smoking etc)
LymphadenitisInflammation of Lymph Nodes
LymphangitisInflammation of Lymphatic Channels
First Sign of acute inflammationSwelling (smallest molecule, fluid enter interstitial in excess before neutrophils) EDEMA FIRST

inflammation general

What are the 5 Cardinal features of inflammation?
Question Answer
A defensive host response to foreign invaders and/or necrotic tissueInflammation
2 main components of Inflammation1. VASCULAR Reaction; 2. CELLULAR response
What is the main product of Mast cells?Histamine (mediator)
Presence of many NEUTROPHILS under a slide suggest what type of inflammation?ACUTE inflammation
Presence of Leukocytes, Macrophages and Plasma cells suggest what type of inflammation?CHRONIC inflammation
Presence of multinucleate macrophages and T-Lymphocytes suggest what type of inflammation?CHRONIC GRANULOMATOUS inflammation
3 possible outcomes of Acute Inflammation?1. Resolution, 2. Scarring, 3. Chronic Inflammation
Is the Onset of Acute inflammation fast or slow?FAST (minutes or hours)
Is the Onset of Chronic inflammation fast or slow?SLOW (days)
What cellular infiltrate is associated with Acute inflammation?Neutrophils (mainly)
What cellular infiltrate is associated with Chronic inflammation?Monocytes/Macrophages & Lymphocytes
What amount of Tissue Injury (or Fibrosis) is associated with Acute inflammation?MILD (usually self-limited)
What amount of Tissue Injury (or Fibrosis) is associated with inflammation?Severe & Progressive (often)
How observable are Local and Systemic signs associated with Acute inflammation?PROMINENT
How observable are Local and Systemic signs associated with Chronic inflammation?Subtle (less prominent than acute)
Is Fever an example of a Sign or a Symptom?SIGN (objective, observable)
Is Pain an example of a Sign or a Symptom?Symptom (subjective, unobservable)
What are the 5 Cardinal Signs & Symptoms of Inflammation?Calor (heat), Dolor (pain), Rubor (redness), Tumor (swelling), Loss of Function
Inflammation is fairly summarized as a collaboration between ____ and ____Vessels & Cells
What are the 5 R's of Inflammation (steps of inflammatory response)?Recognition (of injury or agent), Recruitment (of leukocytes), Removal (of agent), Regulation (controlling response), Resolution (repair)
Inflammation of prolonged duration (weeks to years)Chronic Inflammation


Question Answer
What is the first step in inflammation?EDEMA (first vessels leak, only then can neutrophils & macrophages enter tissue)
2 Vascular Responses in Acute Inflammation1. Vasodilation (histamine can induce) 2. Increased Permeability
Endothelial cell contraction is ___ (duration) after binding to Histamine, Bradykinin, or LeukotrienesShort-lived (15-30 min)
Endothelial cell contraction is ___ (duration) after binding to TNF-alpha or IL-1PROLONGED (can be > 24 hours)
Process of new blood vessel development during inflammation and repairAngiogenesis
3 growth factors associated with AngiogenesisVEGF (Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor), FGF (Fibroblast Growth Factor), Angiopoietins
T/F: Angiogenesis is commonly associated with Granulation tissueTRUE (note plump, immature endothelial cells)
What Leukocytes are known for using extracellular "traps" as part of the RemovalNeutrophils
How do Phagocytes eliminate targets?Phagocytosis, Lysosomal digestion (ROS, nitric oxide), Extracellular ((enzymes and ROS
What type of Acute inflammation has Effusion in a cavity?Serous (source Mesothelial cells)
What type of Acute inflammation creates severe damage and has a fibrin Exudate?Fibrinous inflammation
What type of Acute inflammation has an abscess or purulent exudate?Suppurative inflammation
What type of Acute inflammation has destruction of an epithelial surface with granulation tissue below?ULCER
What type of inflammation is associated with Pericarditis?Fibrinous
What cytokines bring about a Fever?TNF & IL-1
What is an example of an Acute Phase Protein produced in the liver in response to inflammation?C-Reactive Protein
The normal range of Leukocytes in the blood is 4,000 - 10,000 per microliter... how many are seen in Leukocytosis?11,00-20,000
Septic shock is brought about by extremely high levels of what cytokine?TNF-alpha
What three cell types produce Histamine?Mast Cells, Basophils, Platelets
What are the 3 actions of Histamine?Vasodilation, Inc. Vasc. Permeability, Endothelial activation
What is the sole source of the inflammatory mediator Serotonin?Platelets
What is the action of the inflammatory mediator Serotonin?Vasoconstriction
What are the Local functions of Cytokines?Endothelial Activation (adhesion molecules)
What are the Systemic functions of Cytokines?induce fever, (also can induce shock)
What are the actions of Chemokines?Chemotaxis, Leukocyte activation
What effect do Cytokines have on the brain?Induce fever
What 2 effects do cytokines have on Endothelial cells?Increase permeability & Increase expression of Adhesion Molecules
What effect do Cytokines have on the heart?Lower Cardiac output
What effect do cytokines have on bone marrow?Increase Leukocyte production


Question Answer
Are Hypersensitivities & Autoimmune disorders associated with Chronic or Acute Inflammation?Chronic
What are the Key features of Chronic Inflammation's cellular infiltrate?Macrophages, Lymphocytes & Plasma cells (B cell derivative)
What are the key Features of Chronic Inflammation?Infiltration (more than neutrophils), Tissue Destruction, Repair (Angiogenesis & fibrosis)
What is the term for Inflammation that shows both signs of Chronic AND ongoing Acute inflammation?Sub-Acute Inflammation
What are 2 examples of microbes that are usually lead to Chronic Inflammation (b/c of their difficulty to eradicate)M. Tuberculosis & T. Pallidum
What type of cell causes the "activation" of multi-nucleated Macrophages in Chronic Granulomatous Inflammation?T-cells
What type of inflammation is Crohn's disease associated with? (A, C, CG)Chronic Granulamatous (immune-mediated)
What type of inflammation is commonly caused by Foreign bodies?CG (Foreing Body Granulomas)
What type of Necrotizing inflammation is associated with TB in the lungs?Caseating Chronic Granuloma
What Granulomatous disease is caused by an autoimmune response against Neutrophils?Wegenr's Granulomatosis
What disease is associated with Langhan's Giant Cells?Tuberculosis ((specific multi-nucleated macrophages)
Where is Fibrosis a common result of chronic inflammation? list 4Lungs, Liver, Kidneys, Myocardium