Path 1- Urinary 6

kelseyfmeyer's version from 2015-04-16 19:00

Disorders of dogs

Question Answer
Greyhound cutaneous glomerular vasculopathy--> what is this? What is happening to the kidney? what is happening to the skin? What IS this dz?Rare idiopathic vascular disease with genetic predisposition in Greyhounds. (esp racing and training ones). renal disease results from damage to the glomerular capillary endothelium, and also causes ulcerative skin lesions due to vascular thrombosis, “Alabama rot”.cause of disease unknown; lesions similar to DIC. Glomerular thrombotic microangiopathy.
**one of the most common causes of acute renal toxicosis in dogs and cats??Ethylene glycol toxicity (Antifreeze poisoning)
Ethylene glycol toxicity (Antifreeze poisoning)--> why/how does this damage the kidney? What easy way to diagnose this?Ethylene glycol, a major constituent of antifreeze, is readily absorbed by the GI tract and converted to toxic metabolites by hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase. toxic metabolites, especially oxalate and glycolic acid, cause acute tubular necrosis and tubular oxalate crystal formation. “picket fence” calcium oxalate monohydrate crystalluria
Aminoglycoside toxicosis--> What is the order in which the aminoglycosides are nephrotoxic?Neomycin > kanamycin > gentamycin > streptomycin > tobramycin > amikacin
How do aminoglycosides damage the kideny? Where else are they toxic?causes acute tubular degeneration and necrosis, and Severe toxicosis results in acute renal failure. Aminoglycosides are also toxic to the inner ear and neuromuscular junction.
Leptospirosis--> how do dogs get this? where does the bacteria live once it's in the body?infections are obtained from wet, contaminated environments through compromised mucus membranes. organisms spread to the kidney and persist in the renal tubular epithelial cells.
leptospirosis--> what are the clinical signs?clinical signs include fever, anorexia, vomiting, dehydration, icterus, muscle pain, and bleeding due to endothelial injury, and chronic cases will show weight loss and sometimes uveitis
leptospirosis---> how does it damage the kidney? what is important to know about this bact?causes acute tubular damage and acute to chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis. important to know it's a ZOONOTIC DZ!!!!!
Infectious canine hepatitis--> how does this affect the kidney?acute systemic infection with canine adenovirus-1 can cause mild, transient glomerulitis with transient proteinuria
Canine herpesvirus--> how are dogs infected by this? WHO typically has renal problems from this? intrauterine or neonatal infection from the dam with canine herpesvirus-1. occurs in **young puppies** less than 6w old.
Canine herpes virus--> how does this damage the kidney (lesions?) and how dangerous is this?causes **multifocal** acute tubular necrosis with hemorrhage. CHV-1 neonatal mortality has been associated with viral replication in puppies with hypothermia
Pyelonephritis--> how common is this in dogs? what is it caused by? What are the CLINICAL SIGNS?relatively common, caused by ascending bacterial infections. dogs present with fever, depression, arched back due to renal pain, polyuria due to tubular necrosis
Pyelonephritis--> Most common organisms in dogs include (and when does this usually occur?)Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus mirabilis, Streptococcus sp., Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter sp.. occurs when there is altered lower urinary tract defence mechanisms
Progressive juvenile nephropathy---> what is this? what is happening? What are the clinical signs like?inherited disorder leading to development of severe bilateral renal fibrosis, dysplasia, and progressive loss of functional nephrons. variable degrees of severity with progressive fibrosis leading to progressive loss of renal function clinical symptomatology similar to chronic renal failure and end stage kidney
Progressive juvenile nephropathy---> WHO does this usually affect?typically younger dogs, and there are BREED DISPOSITIONS: Samoyeds, bull terriers, and Shih Tzus are over-represented with known inheritance patterns. However, many variations of PJN occur in numerous other breeds
Urolithiasis--> which types do dogs usually have? How do the dogs usually present?dogs most commonly have struvite, urate, xanthine, and cystine uroliths. typically present with clinical signs of obstructive uropathy
**Who is prone to urate calculi? And why? What diet would you reccomend?Dalmations (English bulldogs to a lesser extent) are predisposed to urate calculi due to inefficient hepatic uric acid metabolism (Purines converted to hypoxanthine, which converts to xanthine, which converts to uric acid, which converts to allantoin). therapy involves low purine diets and allopurinol which lowers the amount of uric acid in the blood. (allopurinol blocks xanthine conversion to uric acid so you then see xanthine crystalluria)
**Who is prone to calcium oxalate urolithiasis? Why?Miniature Schnauzers and Bichon Frise (Lhasa Apsos, Yorkshire terriers, miniature poodles, and Shih Tzus to a lesser extent) are predisposed, because they have a genetic predisposition for hypercalciura
Chronic urocystitis--> what usually causes this? What lesions usually develop from this?chronic cystitis is typically caused by urolithiasis or chronic bacterial infection, or both. dogs commonly develop lymphofollicular and polypoid cystitis with hematuria
Which neoplasia is common in dogs in the BLADDER? (where in the bladder? what should you know about this neoplasia?)Transitional cell carcinoma!!! which usually occur in the TRIGONE area. They have a VERY HIGH METASTATIC RATE
**WHAT IS the most common primary kidney neoplasms in dogs? who/why does it usually occur? Where does it usually metastasize?Renal carcinoma! It is SPORATIC in older dogs, and often metastasis to lungs, lymph nodes, liver, and adrenals
*Melamine and Cyanuric Acid--> what does this cause?(evil pet food addetives) (Toxic tubulointerstitial nephritis)... **causes distal tubular necrosis with characteristic irregular brown birefringent crystals**
Grape or raisin toxicity--> what/how does this happen?ingestion of grapes and raisins by dogs can lead to acute renal failure, uremic syndrome, and diarrhea (tannins suspected)
What is the parasite which affects dog kidneys? who else can it affect? what does it cause, and what are the clinical signs?Dioctophyma renale (GIANT KIDNEY WORM) affects mostly fish eating mammals, especially mink and dogs causes hemorrhagic and purulent pyelitis and obstruction leading to hydronephrosis, but HEMATURIA might be the ONLY CLINICAL SIGN!

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