Path 1 - Urinary 6

drraythe's version from 2015-05-04 14:49

Disorders of Dogs

Question Answer
Greyhound cutaneous glomerular vasculopathy → What is this? What is happening to the kidney? What is happening to the skin? What IS this dz?Rare idiopathic vascular dz w/ genetic predisposition in Greyhounds. (esp racing & training ones). Renal dz results from dmg to the glomerular capillary endothelium & also causes ulcerative skin lesions due to vascular thrombosis, “Alabama rot”. Cause of dz unknown; lesions similar to DIC. Glomerular thrombotic microangiopath.
**1 of the most common causes of acute renal toxicosis in dogs & cats??Ethylene Glycol toxicity (Antifreeze poisoning)
Ethylene Glycol toxicity (Antifreeze poisoning) → Why/how does this dmg the kidney? What easy way to diagnose this?Ethylene glycol, a major constituent of antifreeze, is readily absorbed by the GI tract & converted to toxic metabolites by hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase. Toxic metabolites, especially oxalate & glycolic acid, cause Acute Tubular Necrosis & tubular oxalate crystal formation. “Picket fence” calcium oxalate monohydrate crystalluria
Aminoglycoside toxicosis → What is the order in which the aminoglycosides are nephrotoxic?Neomycin > kanamycin > gentamycin > streptomycin > tobramycin > amikacin
How do aminoglycosides dmg the kidney? Where else are they toxic?Causes acute tubular degeneration & necrosis & severe toxicosis results in Acute Renal Failure. Aminoglycosides are also toxic to the inner ear & neuromuscular junction
Leptospirosis → How do dogs get this? Where does the bacteria live once it's in the body?Infxns are obtained from wet, contaminated environments through compromised mucus membranes. Organisms spread to the kidney & persist in the renal tubular epithelial cells.
Leptospirosis → What are the CS?CS include fever, anorexia, vomiting, dehydration, icterus, muscle pain & bleeding due to endothelial injury & chronic cases will show weight loss & sometimes uveitis
Leptospirosis → How does it dmg the kidney? What is important to know about this bact?Causes acute tubular dmg & acute to chronic TubuloInterstitial Nephritis. Important to know it's a ZOONOTIC DZ!!!!!
Infectious Canine Hepatitis → How does this affect the kidney?Acute systemic infxn w/ Canine Adenovirus-1 can cause mild, transient glomerulitis w/ transient proteinuria
Canine Herpesvirus → How are dogs infected by this? WHO typically has renal problems from this?Intrauterine or neonatal infxn from the dam w/ Canine Herpesvirus-1. Occurs in **young puppies** less than 6w old
Canine Herpesvirus → How does this dmg the kidney (lesions?) & how dangerous is this?Causes **Multifocal** Acute Tubular Necrosis w/ hemorrhage. CHV-1 neonatal mortality has been associated w/ viral replication in puppies w/ hypothermia
Pyelonephritis → How common is this in dogs? What is it caused by? What are the CS?Relatively common, caused by ascending bacterial infxns. Dogs present w/ fever, depression, arched back due to renal pain, polyuria due to tubular necrosis
Pyelonephritis → Most common organisms in dogs include (& when does this usually occur?)Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus mirabilis, Streptococcus sp., Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa & Enterobacter sp. occurs when there is altered lower urinary tract defense mechanisms
Progressive juvenile nephropathy → What is this? What is happening? What are the CS like?Inherited disorder leading to development of severe bilateral renal fibrosis, dysplasia & progressive loss of fxnal nephrons. Variable degrees of severity w/ progressive fibrosis leading to progressive loss of renal fxn clinical symptomatology similar to Chronic Renal Failure & End stage kidney
Progressive juvenile nephropathy → WHO does this usually affect?Typically younger dogs & there are BREED DISPOSITIONS: Samoyeds, bull terriers & Shih Tzus are over-represented w/ known inheritance patterns. However, many variations of PJN occur in numerous other breeds
Urolithiasis → Which types do dogs usually have? How do the dogs usually present?Dogs most commonly have struvite, urate, xanthine & cystine uroliths. Typically present w/ CS of obstructive uropathy
**Who is prone to urate calculi? & why? What diet would you recommend?Dalmatians (English bulldogs to a lesser extent) are predisposed to urate calculi due to inefficient hepatic uric acid metabolism (Purines converted to hypoxanthine, which converts to xanthine, which converts to uric acid, which converts to allantois). therapy involves ↓ purine diets & allopurinol which lowers the amount of uric acid in the blood. (Allopurinol blocks xanthine conversion to uric acid so you then see xanthine crystalluria)
**Who is prone to calcium oxalate urolithiasis? Why?Miniature Schnauzers & Bichon Frise (Lhasa Apsos, Yorkshire terriers, miniature poodles & Shih Tzus to a lesser extent) are predisposed, bc they have a genetic predisposition for Hypercalciura
Chronic Urocystitis → What usually causes this? What lesions usually develop from this?Chronic is typically caused by urolithiasis or chronic bacterial infxn, or both. Dogs commonly develop lymphofollicular & polypoid cystitis w/ Hematuria
Which neoplasia is common in dogs in the BLADDER? (Where in the bladder? what should you know about this neoplasia?)Transitional Cell Carcinoma!!! Which usually occur in the TRIGONE area. They have a VERY HIGH METASTATIC RATE
**What IS the most common 1° kidney neoplasms in dogs? Who/why does it usually occur? Where does it usually metastasize?Renal Carcinoma! It is SPORATIC in older dogs & often metastasis to lungs, lymph nodes, liver & adrenals
*Melamine & Cyanuric Acid → What does this cause?(evil pet food additives) (Toxic TubuloInterstitial Nephritis)... **Causes distal tubular necrosis w/ characteristic irregular brown birefringent crystals**
Grape or Raisin toxicity → What/how does this happen?Ingestion of grapes & raisins by dogs can lead to Acute Renal Failure, Uremic Syndrome & diarrhea (tannins suspected)
What is the parasite which affects dog kidneys? Who else can it affect? What does it cause & what are the CS?Dioctophyma renale (GIANT KIDNEY WORM) affects mostly fish eating mammals, especially mink & dogs causes hemorrhagic & purulent Pyelitis & obstruction leading to Hydronephrosis, but HEMATURIA might be the ONLY CS!