Path 1 - Urinary 5

rilohoji's version from 2016-11-20 18:37

Disorders of Ruminants

Question Answer
Oak toxicity → How does this harm the cow? What does the cow do? Which part of the plant hurts the cow?Ingestion of leaves, buds, or acorns of oak trees & shrubs causes renal tubular necrosis. Toxic substances are metabolites of tannins in the plant (exact dmg mechanism is unknown)
Oak toxicity → What are the clinical symptoms/lesions created by this?Swollen pale kidneys w/ dmgd tubules that can fill w/ blood resulting in multifocal red spots. Also GI ulceration.
*Pulpy Kidney Dz → WHAT CAUSES THIS?Caused by enteric overgrowth of Clostridium perfringens type D w/ production of *Epsilon toxin*
Pulpy Kidney dz → What lesions/problems does this cause to the kidney?causes proximal tubular degeneration & necrosis w/ interstitial edema & hemorrhage leading to “pulpy” appearance
Embolic Nephritis → AKA? Caused by what?AKA White Spotted Kidney. This occurs when bacteria embolize the kidney leading to microabscess & abscess formation (Bacteria isolated include: E. coli, Salmonella spp., Brucella spp., Trueperella pyogenes, Leptospira spp.)
Embolic Nephritis → How is this histologically characterized? (Acute & chronic)Initially characterized by suppurative (neutrophilic) infiltration; at chronic stages neutrophils are replaced by mononuclear cells (lymphocytes, plasma cells & macrophages)
Embolic Nephritis → How severe is this usually?Commonly subclinical. Mild chronic cases are often incidental findings at necropsy w/ multifocal fibrosis
TubuloInterstitial Nephritis → What is this caused by? who is more resistant to this? What is the dmg to the kidney like?Caused by LEPTOSPIRA!!. (Most common in cattle, which is why it's in the cow section). Small rumis seem more resistant to lepto. infxn causes direct dmg to endothelium, tubules & interstitium! (dayum). Can be acute or chronic
Granulomatous Nephritis → Aka? What is this caused by?AKA Hairy Vetch toxicosis. caused by Hairy Vetch, which is a legume often fed as pasture, hay, or silage.
Granulomatous Nephritis → What are the lesions caused by this? CS? How dangerous?(Hairy Vetch toxicosis) ingestion results in multifocal eosinophilic to granulomatous lesions w/in the kidney, skin & other viscera. CS develop several weeks after ingestion which includes pruritic dermatitis. Death can result 10 to 20 days after onset
Pyelonephritis → What is this caused by? How common is it? What happens in this condition?caused by ascending infxns, but occurs UNCOMMONLY in cows. Results in accumulation of suppurative exudate w/in the renal pelvis which may extend into tubules
Pyelonephritis → What is the MAIN causative agent of this in CATTLE? The condition is aka?Corynebacterium renale is the most common isolate in cattle. Aka Contagious bovine Pyelonephritis
What is the most common (or, at least the 1 he mentioned) cancer in the kidneys of cows?RENAL LYMPHOSARCOMA
Renal Lymphosarcoma → WHAT IS/IS THERE A CAUSATIVE AGENT?Can be sporadic, or can be associated w/ Bovine Leukosis Virus (BLV), a retrovirus spread by blood contact b/t animals, possibly in colostrum.
Renal Lymphosarcoma → How does this grossly appear? What other places in the body can lymphosarcomas appear in cattle?Tumors may occur in the kidney as multiple bulging, soft to tan nodules in the renal cortex. Other common sites of bovine lymphosarcoma include uterus, abomasum, retrobulbar space, lymph nodes & right atrium
Urolithiasis → Most common in what gender & Where?Most common in MALES, obstruction most commonly occurs at the sigmoid flexure (bulls), or at the urethral process (sheep & goats)
In cattle, what are most uroliths composed of?Uroliths are typically silica calculi due to high silica content of pasture grasses
What are the problems a urolith will cause?causes hemorrhage & necrosis of the urethral mucosa at site of lodgment or impaction. Rupture may lead to Uroabdomen, or collection of urine in prepuce or subcutaneous inguinal areas
Bracken Fern toxicosis → AKA? How common is this?Aka Enzootic Hematuria. MOST COMMON TOXICOSIS OF CATTLE.
What is the MOST COMMON TOXICOSIS OF CATTLE?Bracken Fern toxicosis
How does Bracken Fern cause toxicosis & what are the results? (CS? How dangerous?)Prolonged ingestion of Bracken Fern (Pteridium aquilinum) can cause hemolysis, dmg to the bone marrow & immunosuppression. CS include intermittent Hematuria, anemia, weakness, hemorrhages, concurrent infxns. It is usually fatal after onset of symptoms.
Aside from the toxic effects of Bracken Fern, what other problem can it cause?Can cause Urinary Bladder NEOPLASIA!. Repeated ↓ level exposure to Bracken Fern is carcinogenic. Typically causes urinary bladder tumors such as Transitional Cell Carcinoma (may be 2° to immunosuppression & bovine papilloma virus infxn)
Renal Amyloidosis → What does this cause to happen? What are the CS? What is the SPECIFIC amyloid involved in this?Sporadic protein-losing nephropathy of cattle. CS include: weight loss, diarrhea & poor productivity. Caused by type AA amyloid which is associated w/ chronic inflammatory conditions & infxns.

Disorders of Pigs

Question Answer
Glomerulonephritis → How common is this? When does it usually occur?Uncommon in pigs but may occur w/ infxns such as Classical swine fever, African swine fever, Cytomegalovirus, Circovirus & group A Streptococcus
Toxic Nephritis (Pigweed) → What does ingestion of this cause?(Amaranthus retroflexus) ingestion of Pigweed can cause Acute Tubular Necrosis leading to Acute Renal Failure
Leptospirosis → What problems does this cause?Similar to bovine Lepto (infxn causes direct dmg to endothelium, tubules & interstitium)
Circovirus → Causes what dz name? Aka? What kind of lesions does it cause?Viral Interstitial Nephritis, aka Postweaning Multisystemic Wasting Syndrome (PMWS). Causes a variety of systemic lesions including lymphoplasmacytic to granulomatous Interstitial Nephritis
Urolithiasis → What are the most common uroliths in pigs?Pigs most commonly have calcium carbonate, calcium phosphate, struvite & urate uroliths
**Is the most common cause of Embolic Nephritis in pigs???Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae
*Erysipelothrix → What does it cause? What are the gross lesions like?Most common cause of Embolic Nephritis in pigs. You will see petechial hemorrhages caused by septic emboli throughout the cortex
What is the parasite which affects the pig kidney? Say a little about it. How severe is it?Stephanurus dentatus (The kidney worm). It is a strongylid nematode that migrates to the kidney after migration through the liver. Adult parasites reside in kidney or w/in perirenal fat. Eggs shed in urine. May be asymptomatic or may cause renal failure if both kidneys are severely affected

Lecture 8

Disorder of Cats

Question Answer
Feline Infectious Peritonitis (Granulomatous Nephritis) → How does FIP affect the kidneys?Cats w/ FIP, particularly the non-effusive form, frequently have renal lesions. There is the 1° vasculitis & multifocal pyogranulomatous nephritis
What is 1 of the most common neoplasms in cats, which can affect the kidney?Lymphosarcoma
What does a lymphosarcoma of the kidney in cat look like? What is a ddx?Can be multifocal or diffuse (still raised bulging surface lesions that are white). You MUST differentiate from granulomatous Nephritis
*Feline Lower Urinary Tract Dz (FLUTD) → How would you describe this dz? WHO does this affect most often?Collection of dzs affecting urethra & bladder. Most frequently seen in middle-aged, overweight cats, w/ little exercise, indoor litter box & dry food diet
*Urolithiasis → What is the common calculi in cats? What happens w/ these calculi?Older cats typically form struvite calculi, “infxn calculi”. Commonly leads to urethral obstruction (especially in males)
Chronic &/or recurring bacterial urinary tract infxns → What might this lead to? Who would this be a bigger problem in?Inflammation may predispose to formation of protein matrix plugs – younger male cats
*Hemorrhagic Urocystitis → What is this a consequence of? Who is it more common in?Consequence of urethral obstruction! Older cats – calculi, Younger cats - protein matrix plugs. More common in MALES
*Hemorrhagic Urocystitis → What happens to the bladder in this? Chronic results?(Remember, result of obstruction) The urinary bladder becomes severely distended leading to pressure necrosis, hemorrhage, ulceration. In CHRONIC situations: There may be fibrosis that limits bladder fxn & leads to poor urine voiding & ↑ susceptibility of bacterial infxns
Toxic TubuloInterstitial Nephritis → What are 3 toxins that can cause this?Ethylene Glycol toxicosis (similar as in dogs), Melamine & Cyanuric Acid & Lilies!
Explain lily tox in cats → What kind of dmg does it cause? CS?Toxic if eats leaves of flowers. Causes Acute Tubular Necrosis & Acute Renal Failure. Vomiting & lethargy 1 to 5 days after ingestion