Path 1- Urinary 5

kelseyfmeyer's version from 2015-04-16 18:59

disorders of ruminants

Question Answer
Oak toxicity--> how does this harm the cow? what does the cow do? which part of the plant hurts the cow?ingestion of leaves, buds, or acorns of oak trees and shrubs causes renal tubular necrosis. toxic substances are metabolites of tannins in the plant (exact damage mechanism is unknown)
oak toxicity--> what are the clinical symptoms/lesions created by this?Swollen pale kidneys with damaged tubules that can fill with blood resulting in multifocal red spots. Also GI ulceration.
*Pulpy kidney disease--> WHAT CAUSES THIS?caused by enteric overgrowth of Clostridium perfringens type D with production of *epsilon toxin*
Pulpy kideny disease--> what lesions/problems does this cause to the kidney?causes proximal tubular degeneration and necrosis with interstitial edema and hemorrhage leading to “pulpy” appearance
Embolic nephritis--> AKA? caused by what?AKA White Spotted Kidney. This occurs when bacteria embolize the kidney leading to microabscess and abscess formation (Bacteria isolated include: E. coli, Salmonella spp., Brucella spp., Trueperella pyogenes, Leptospira spp.)
embolic nephritis--> how is this histologically characterized? (acute and chronic)initially characterized by suppurative (neutrophilic) infiltration; at chronic stages neutrophils are replaced by mononuclear cells (lymphocytes, plasma cells, and macrophages)
embolic nephritis--> how severe is this usually?Commonly subclinical. Mild chronic cases are often incidental findings at necropsy with multifocal fibrosis
Tubulointerstitial nephritis--> what is this caused by? who is more resistant to this? what is the damage to the kidney like?Caused by LEPTOSPIRA!!. (most common in cattle, which is why it's in the cow section). Small rumis seem more resistant to lepto. infection causes direct damage to endothelium, tubules, and interstitium! (dayum). Can be acute or chronic
Granulomatous nephritis--> aka? what is this caused by?AKA hairy vetch toxicosis. caused by Hairy vetch, which is a legume often fed as pasture, hay, or silage.
Granulomatous nephritis--> What are the lesions caused by this? clinical signs? how dangerous?(hairy vetch toxicosis) ingestion results in multifocal eosinophilic to granulomatous lesions within the kidney, skin, and other viscera. clinical signs develop several weeks after ingestion which includes pruritic dermatitis. death can result 10 to 20 days after onset
Pyelonephritis--> what is this caused by? how common is it? what happens in this condition?caused by ascending infections, but occurs UNCOMMONLY in cows. results in accumulation of suppurative exudate within the renal pelvis which may extend into tubules
Pyelonephritis--> What is the MAIN causative agent of this in CATTLE? The the condition is aka?Corynebacterium renale is the most common isolate in cattle. a.k.a Contagious bovine pyelonephritis
What is the most common (or, at least the one he mentioned) cancer in the kidneys of cows?RENAL LYMPHOSARCOMA
Renal lymphosarcoma--> WHAT IS/IS THERE A CAUSATIVE AGENT?Can be sporadic, or can be associated with bovine leukosis virus (BLV), a retrovirus spread by blood contact between animals, possibly in colostrum.
renal lymphosarcoma--> how does this //grossly appear//? what other places in the body can lymphosarcomas appear in cattle?tumors may occur in the kidney as multiple bulging, soft to tan nodules in the renal cortex. other common sites of bovine lymphosarcoma include uterus, abomasum, retrobulbar space, lymph nodes, and right atrium
Urolithiasis--> most common in what gender, and where?Most common in MALES, obstruction most commonly occurs at the sigmoid flexure (bulls), or at the urethral process (sheep and goats)
In cattle, what are most uroliths composed of?uroliths are typically silica calculi due to high silica content of pasture grasses
what are the problems a urolith will cause?causes hemorrhage and necrosis of the urethral mucosa at site of lodgement or impaction..rupture may lead to uroabdomen, or collection of urine in prepuce or subcutaneous inguinal areas
Bracken fern toxicosis--> AKA? How common is this?aka Enzootic hematuria. MOST COMMON TOXICOSIS OF CATTLE.
What is the MOST COMMON TOXICOSIS OF CATTLE?Bracken fern toxicosis
How does Bracken fern cause toxicosis, and what are the results? (clinical signs? How dangerous?)prolonged ingestion of bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum) can cause hemolysis, damage to the bone marrow, and immunosuppression. Clinical signs include intermittent hematuria, anemia, weakness, hemorrhages, concurrent infections. It is usually fatal after onset of symptoms.
Aside from the toxic effects of bracken fern, what other problem can it cause?Can cause UB NEOPLASIA!. repeated low level exposure to bracken fern is carcinogenic. typically causes urinary bladder tumors such as transitional cell carcinoma (may be secondary to immunosuppression and bovine papilloma virus infection)
Renal amyloidosis--> what does this cause to happen? What are the clinical signs? What is the SPECIFIC amyloid involved in this?sporadic protein-losing nephropathy of cattle. clinical signs include: weight loss, diarrhea, and poor productivity. caused by type AA amyloid which is associated with chronic inflammatory conditions and infections.

disorders of pigs

Question Answer
Glomerulonephritis--> how common is this? when does it usually occur?uncommon in pigs but may occur with infections such as Classical swine fever, African swine fever, cytomegalovirus, circovirus, and group A Streptococcus
Toxic nephritis (Pigweed)--> what does ingestion of this cause?(Amaranthus retroflexus) ingestion of pigweed can cause acute tubular necrosis leading to acute renal failure
Leptospirosis--> what problems does this cause?similar to bovine lepto (infection causes direct damage to endothelium, tubules, and interstitium)
Circovirus--> causes what dz name? aka? what kinda lesions does it cause?Viral interstitial nephritis, aka postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS). Causes a variety of systemic lesions including lymphoplasmacytic to granulomatous interstitial nephritis
Urolithiasis-> what are the most common uroliths in pigs?pigs most commonly have calcium carbonate, calcium phosphate, struvite, and urate uroliths
**is the most common cause of embolic nephritis in pigs???Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae
*Erysipelothrix--> What does it cause? what are the gross lesions like?most common cause of embolic nephritis in pigs. You will see petechial hemorrhages caused by septic emboli throughout the cortex
What is the parasite which affects the pig kidney? Say a little about it. How severe is it?Stephanurus dentatus (The kidney worm). It is is a strongylid nematode that migrates to the kidney after migration through the liver. adult parasites reside in kidney or within perirenal fat. eggs shed in urine. may be asymptomatic or may cause renal failure if both kidneys are severely affected

Lecture 8

Disorder of cats

Question Answer
Feline Infectious Peritonitis (Granulomatous nephritis)--> how does FIP affect the kidneys?cats with FIP, particularly the non-effusive form, frequently have renal lesions. There is the primary vasculitis, AND multifocal pyogranulomatous nephritis
What is one of the most common neoplasms in cats, which can affect the kidney?lymphosarcoma
What does a lyphosarcoma of the kidney in cat look like? What is a ddx?can be multifocal or diffuse (still raised bulging surface lesions that are white). You MUST differentiate from granulomatous nephritis
*Feline Lower Urinary Tract Disease (FLUTD)--> How would you describe this dz? WHO does this affect most often?collection of dzs affecting urethra and bladder. Most frequently seen in middle-aged, overweight cats, with little exercise, indoor litter box, and dry food diet.
*Urolithiasis--> What is the common calculi in cats? What happens with these calculi?older cats typically form struvite calculi, “infection calculi”. commonly leads to urethral obstruction (especially in males)
Chronic and/or recurring bacterial urinary tract infections--> what might this lead to? Who would this be a bigger problem in?Inflammation may predispose to formation of protein matrix plugs – younger male cats
*Hemorrhagic urocystitis--> what is this a consequence of? who is it more common in?Consequence of urethral obstruction! Older cats – calculi, Younger cats - protein matrix plugs. More common in MALES
*Hemorrhagic urocystitis--> what happens to the bladder in this? Chronic results?(remember, result of obstruction) the urinary bladder becomes severely distended leading to pressure necrosis, hemorrhage, ulceration. in CHRONIC situations: there may be fibrosis that limits bladder function and leads to poor urine voiding and increased susceptibility of bacterial infections
Toxic tubulointerstitial nephritis--> what are three toxins that can cause this?Ethylene glycol toxicosis (similar as in dogs), Melamine and Cyanuric Acid, and lilies!
explain lily tox in cats--> what kinda damage does it cause? clinical signs?toxic if eats leaves of flowers. causes acute tubular necrosis and acute renal failure. vomiting and lethargy 1 to 5 days after ingestion

Recent badges