Path 1- Neoplasia

taylormaloney's version from 2016-07-20 05:07

Section 1

Question Answer
What is a Neoplasm?Any abnormal and uncontrolled growth of cells.
What is Oncology?Study/Science of Cancer.
Define Cancer.A group of diseases characterized by the uncontrolled proliferation and spread of abnormal cells.
Do all Neoplasms create tumors?No- not all form a distinct mass.
Define Undifferentiated.Complete loss of identity, anaplasia= tumor has completely lost identity of parent cell.
How does differentiation affect the prognosis of a tumor?The less differentiated it becomes, the faster it spreads. = The worse the prognosis.

Section 2

Question Answer
Define Dysplasia.Unorganization of cells, Variation of cell size,shape, and organization.
What is Dysplasia caused by?Chronic Irritation.
Dysplasia can be ______, or it may progress into _____.Reversed, -- Cancer.
Define Metaplasia.First Level of Dysplasia.- Reversible benign but abnormal change.
Define Anaplasia.The most advanced level of dysplasia. Complete loss of differentiation, found only in malignant cells.
Define Hyperplasia.Increased # of cells, = increased tissue mass.
What are the two types of Hyperplasia?Physiological- normal. Neoplastic- abnormal, due to tumor growth.
What are the three most important classifications of tumors?Clinical, Histological, and Clinico-pathological.
What are the two types of Clinical Classifications for tumors?Benign- 'oma', slow growth/no metastasis/encapsulated. Malignant- 'sarcoma', fast growth/metastasis/invasive.
What is the difference between primary and secondary tumors?Primary- at site of origin. Secondary- arise from cells that have metastasized from elsewhere in body.

Section 3

Question Answer
What is the difference between Micro/Macroscopic?Micro- histologic secretion from tumor. Macro- seen by naked eye.
Does Benign/Malignant Tumors have any effect on # of chromosomes?Benign- no change. Malignant- change in # of chomosomes. ( Aneuploid)
Can all cells metastasize?No, only malignant cells can travel to other areas of body.
What are the most likely pathways of metastasis?Via Lymph Nodes, Blood, or Surface of Body Cavities.
What supplies blood and nutrients to tumors?New Blood Vessels formed via Angiogenesis.
What are the six most common sites of metastasis?Pulmonary, Hepatic, Bones, Brain, Spinal Cord, and Lymphatic System.
What are the symptoms of pulmonary metastasis?Dry cough, dyspenea, hemoptysis, pain.
What are the three most common origins of bone metastasis?Kidney, Lymphoma, Melanoma.
What accounts for approx 50% of metastatic brain lesions?Lung Carcinoma.

Section 4

Question Answer
What are the two categories of histologic classification of tumors?Mesenchymal (CT Tumors)- ie, fibroma,fibrosarcoma. Epithelial- ie. intestinal adenoma, adenocarcinoma.
What is a Teratoma?(Monster-like tumor) Tumor derived from germ cells- mostly sex organs.
Define Carcinoma in situ.Preinvasive, premalignant epithelial tumors of glandular or squamos cell origin.
What is an Eponymic Tumor?Tumors that cannot be classified by standard methods. Carry name of doctor who first described them.
How are Tumors Staged?By TNM system. T- site of tumor. N- presence of lymph node metastases. M- distant metastases.
How are Tumors Graded?1- well differentiated. 2- moderately differentiated. 3- undifferentiated.
Cancer cells contain fewer ________,less _______, and fewer ______.Mitochondria, RER, and fewer specialized enzymes.
What is Carcinogenesis/Oncogenesis?Process by which normal cells undergo malignant transformation.
What is the order of carcinogenesis/oncogenesis?Hypoplasia, Metaplasia, Dysplasia, Carcinoma In Situ, Invasive Carcinoma, Metastasis.
Oncogenes are activated by what?Carcinogens.
What are Antioncogens?Tumor Suppressor Genes.
What is the most important Antioncogen?RB-1