Path 1 - Male Repro 2

pufexaxe's version from 2016-11-06 17:32

Accessory Sex Glands

Seminal Vesicles

Question Answer
What dzs do you find in the Seminal Vesicles? (2)1) Segmental Aplasia
2) Seminal Vesiculitis
What is Segmental Aplasia?A Wolffian duct defect, glands become distorted & cystic, 2° inflammation
What is Seminal Vesiculitis? What can cause it? Chronic/Acute?Infxn w/ a variety of infectious organisms
Brucella sp. (not much any more)
Trueperella pyogenes
Staph & Strep
- Commonly have Chronic Interstitial Seminal Vesiculitis w/ widespread fibrosis & squamous metaplasia

Prostate & Bulbourethral Gland

Question Answer
What animal is most likely to develop prostate problems?DOG
What kind of Growth Disturbances do we see in the prostate?Atrophy - commonly following castration, occurs as animal ages (lack of androgenic stimulation)
Hyperplasia/hypertrophy - usually hormone related but not completely understood. Androgen excessacinar hyperplasia & Estrogen excess → fibromuscular hypertrophy (Prostatic Hyperplasia) → problems urinating & defecating
What happens in the prostate after Estrogen excess w/ Sertoli cell tumors?Squamous metaplasia - Metaplasia of epithelium of prostatic glands, ducts, & prostatic urethra
Sloughing of metaplastic epithelium w/ plugging of glands/ducts & 2° inflammation
***What is Prostatitis? What czs it? Who gets it?Inflammation of the prostate
Usually bacteria ascending from urinary tract (Proteus, E. coli, Staph. Strep.)
2° to Squamous Metaplasia
Older dogs

What happens in acute vs chronic Prostatitis?Acute → abscessation
Chronic → fibrosis
What are the CS of Prostatitis?Dog has problems defecating & pain
What is the Tx for Prostatitis?Castration → removes trophic hormones → gland will atrophy
How common are Prostatic Neoplasias? Who gets them? What type are they usually?Not common, seen is in older dogs
May initially appear as prostatitis &/or hyperplasia but it’s usually Adenocarcinoma that metastasizes to regional nodes & internal organs
Does not follow hyperplasia
What happens in the Bulbourethral Gland of castrated sheep after ingesting estrogenic plants?Bulbourethral Gland changes:
Squamous metaplasia

Penis & Prepuce

Question Answer
What kind of Penile Development abnormalities are seen?Congenital short penis
Diphallia (double penis)
Penile & preputial hypoplasia
persitent frenulum
*What is Persistent Frenulum?Thin band of connective tissue on ventral midline of penis connecting glans penis w/ penile shaft
Normally it degenerates & breaks as penis grows
If it persists the glans will be deviated
Difficult/impossible intromission during breeding (can't get it in!)
What is congenital short penis associated w/?Shortening of retractor penis muscle (rarely observed)
Occurs in bulls
What is Diphallia?Duplication of the penis (Double the pleasure? o.O)
**What is Hypospadia?Failure of closure of the urogenital groove on ventral side of penis along it length
**What is Epispadia?Failure of closure of the urogenital groove on the dorsal side of the penis along its length

Traumatic Lesions of the Penis/Prepuse

Question Answer
What czs Penile & Preputial hypoplasia?Early castration
**When do you usually see Penile Hematomas? What is being damaged?Breeding injury
Rupture of Tunica Albuginea w/ hemorrhage from corpus cavernosum penis
Where do Penile Hematomas normally occur? What happens if you don't fix it?Occur anterior to the attachment of the retractor penis muscle
If not corrected often inflammation followed by fibrosis & adhesions
Who commonly gets Preputial laceration & prolapse?Brahma/Brahma cross cattle due to excessive length & volume of prepuce
What are some of the Brahma cross breeds?Braford (Brahma x Herford)
Brangus (Brahma x Angus)
Santa Gertudis (Brahma x Shorthorn)
Brahousin (Brahma x Limousine)
How do they get Preputial laceration & prolapse?Tear of prepuce during breeding; usually ventrally
Torn preputial tissue everts → prolapse
What is the consequence of penile prolapse?Prolapse → more trauma & inflammation
May lead to 2° inflammation of the penis & chronic preputial fibrosis

Dick Dzs

Question Answer
**What is Phimosis? Czs?Inability to protrude the penis
Preputial orifice too small or penis too swollen
Often 2° to scarring
Occasionally a developmental problem or neoplasm
**What is Paraphimosis? Who gets it? Czs ?Inability to pull the penis back into the prepuce
2° to trauma, neoplasia, inflammation, penile paralysis
Can lead to gangrene
What is Balanitis?Inflammation of penis
What is Posthitis?Inflammation of prepuce
What is Balanoposthitis?Inflammation of penis & prepuce
What is Infectious Balanoposthitis (IBP) czd by?Bovine Herpes Virus-1
What is Equine Coital Exanthema czd by?Equine ALPHAHERPES Virus-3
What is Penile Habronemiasis?Larval stages of Habronema spp. → granulomatous inflammation w/ eosinophils in the urethral opening
*What czs Sheath Rot, Pizzlerot? Who gets this?C. renale; Rams
Where do you find Penile SCC?Sheath & penis of older horses
What czs Fibropapillomas (warts) of bulls? Who usually gets these?Papilloma virus (spontaneous regression)
Young bulls
*What is special about Canine Transmissible Venereal Tumor (TVT)? What happens with these? Who gets it?Transplants from 1 dog to another at intercourse & have 59 chromosomes (N-78)
Spontaneous regression usually, seen in sexually active dogs