Path 1 - Male Repro 1

pufexaxe's version from 2016-11-06 20:39

Rule #1: Protect the Testicles!

Abnormal Testicular Development

Question Answer
What is Cryptorchidism?When 1/both testicles do not descend into the scrotum
May be abdominal or beneath the skin btwn inguinal ring & scrotum. Unilateral or bilateral. Epididymis is small & poorly developed
What is the risk assoc. w/ Cryptorchidism?Increased risk of Tumors – Sertoli cell tumors & Seminomas more common in cryptorchid testicles than scrotal testicles
*Hypoplasia of the testicle is?Sporatic, low incidence. Testicles/epididymis small but still movable in the scrotum. Not apparent until puberty.
Reason usually unknown, but sometimes: Nutritional, *ZINC DEFICIENCY*, chromosomal, endocrine or Inherited autosomal recessive gene in Swedish Highland cattle or Klinefelter’s syndrome – XXY, XX/XY, XX/XXY, XY/XXY (Male Calico Cats)
What is Klinefelter’s Syndrome? How common is it?Rare - most common example in vet-med is the tricolor male cat. Male torti’s & calico cats. Gene for black & gene for orange reside on different X chromosomes meaning he MUST be a Klinefelter’s (Malkie had 1!)
Klinefelter’s are also called?Mosaic or Chimeras: Mosaics & chimeras are animals w/ >1 cytogenetically-distinct population of cells
Mosaic – different cell types arise from same fertilized egg (Disjxn during meiosis, etc.) = XXY (Male Calicos)
What is Testicular Atrophy?When a testicle that developed normally is now smaller than normal
2° to:
Partial loss of blood flow
Thermal injury
Compare findings in Hypoplasia vs Atrophy?Hypoplasia - testicle small & freely movable in scrotum. Epididymis small & poorly developed
Atrophy - testicle small, firm & MAY be attached to scrotal wall. Epididymis more normal in size or even enlarged
What is Testicular Degeneration? What czs it? What does it cause?May involve 1/both testicles
Reversible or irreversible
Causes are many & unknown. Most common cause of infertility.
What are the types of Testicular Degeneration? (7)1) Thermal: cryptorchidism, increased scrotal fat, scrotal lesions, too close to body, environmental temperature, adhesions
2) Infxn
3) Nutritional deficiencies: Vitamin A, Zinc deficiency, malnutrition
4) Vascular lesions: Torsion, lesions 2° to chronic inflammation & fibrosis, trauma, compression
5) Obstructive lesions: Interferes w/ outflow of sperm, malformations, epididymitis
6) Toxins: various chemotherapeutic drugs. Usually toxic to developing spermatogonia. Some toxic to Sertoli cells
7) Hormonal factors: GNRH, LH (Leydig cells), FSH (Sertoli cells) - Pituitary/hypothalamic problems
What do Testicular Degeneration lesions look like?Gross - Initially slightly swollen & edematous, bulge on cut surface. Degenerating testicle becomes smaller & firmer. Calcification
Microscopic - Small seminiferous tubules containing small numbers of spermatogonia, spermatocytes, few to no mature sperm depending on severity & duration of insult
What is Testicular Regeneration? How long does it take?Regeneration of testicular tissue, depends on persistence of spermatogonia & sertoli cells. Usually ~3-6 mos


Question Answer
******What is Orchitis? What czs it?Inflammation of the TESTICLE ONLY = True orchitis is rare. Usually 2° to epididymitis
Often czd by infectious agents: bacteria, viruses, fungi, rarely parasites
Can infect thru the Hematogenous route but Ascending or Retrograde: genito-urinary tract = most common
What are the typical isolates of Orchitis in Bulls?B. abortus
Trueperella pyogenes
What are the typical isolates of Orchitis in DogsB. canis
Distemper virus
E. coli
What are the typical isolates of Orchitis in the Ram?B. ovis
C. ovis
What are the typical isolates of Orchitis in Boars?B. suis
A. pyogenes
What are the typical isolates of Orchitis in StallionsEquine Viral Arteritis (EVA)
Equine INfectious Anemia (EIA)
What is Autoimmune Orchitis? What czs it?Normally sperm are sequestered from general circulation by Sertoli cells. During sperm production & maturation, sperm antigens change which can initiate autoimmune rxns. The Blood-Testes barrier prevent this. Disruption of BT barrier → exposure of sperm to immune system → immune rxn → Orchitis


Question Answer
***What are the 1° testicular tumors? Usually seen in?1° testicular tumors: Interstitial cell (Leydig cell) tumor - arise from interstitial cell of testicle
Sertoli cell tumor - arise from Sertoli cells of seminiferous tubules
**Seminoma - Arise from germ cells of seminiferous tubules
**Teratoma (rare) - also arise from germ cells

Primarily seen in dogs & infrequently in other species
Interstitial Cell Tumor: Un/common? Look like? Behavior?Most common testicular tumor in dog & bull. Rare in stallion
Look like:
Tan to orange in color
Spherical & well demarcated

Compress adjacent testicular tissue.
May have hemorrhage, necrosis, cyst formation.
Don’t usually cz testicular enlargement
**Seminoma: Un/common? Look like? Behavior?**Germ Cell Tumor
Most common testicular tumor in aged stallions
2nd most common testicular tumor in dog
More common in cryptorchid testicles
Multicentric w/in testicle & may be locally invasive
Seldom malignant
Whitish to pink-gray, firm & bulge on cut surface
***Sertoli Cell Tumor: Un/common? Look like? Behavior?3rd most common tumor in dogs. Rare in other species
In dog over 1/2 are in cryptorchid testicle
Firm (fibrous connective tissue)
Whitish & may be round to lobulated
Metastasis can occur but is rare beyond regional nodes
~ 30% produce estrogens → Testicular feminization → Alopecia in genital region, thigh, abdomen→ Hyperpigmentation, Gynectomastia, penile & testicular atrophy, loss of libido → attract male dogs
Bone marrow suppression
***Prostatic dz - squamous metaplasia in the testicle becomes prostate like cells
(metastasized tumors from testicle to kidneys)
(Prostatic dz from SCT)
***Testicular Teratomas are _ _ tumors?Germ cell tumor!! (Seminoma are germ cell tumors too!)
How common are Testicular Teratomas? Look like? Behave?Uncommon but seen most often in stallions, cryptorchid testicle
Tumors can be large, solid to cystic & contain recognizable hair, bone, mucus & teeth
Usually benign


Abnormal Epididymis Development & Inflammation

Question Answer
Who is Segmental Aplasia/Hypoplasia common in?Most common in bull & involves body & tail of epididymis
Usually unilateral
Sperm impaction 2° to obstruction → back-pressure & 2° testicular degen → dilatation (spermatocele) &/or rupture from lipid build-up (Sperm Granuloma)
(Segmental aplasia of Epididymis)
What is Epididymitis?Inflammation of the Epididymis
Usually unilateral, acute to chronic
Infectious & Non-infectious czs
What are the Non-infectious czs of Epididymitis? (4)Trauma
Retrograde urine flow
Congenital & acquired obstructions w/ 2° sperm granuloma
What are the Infectious czs of Epididymitis?2° to bacteria infxn from urinary tract: E. coli, Proteus, etc
Hematogenous - Brucella sp. variety of animals: B. ovis & A. seminis in rams

Spermatic Cord

Question Answer
What in the hell is a Varicocele?Dilation of vessels of spermatic cord (pampiniform plexus, cremaster veins)
Common in Rams
Thrombosis in dilated vessels → to testicular degeneration 2° to blood flow problems & thermoregulation problems or deficiency of valves in veins
Describe Torsion of spermatic cord?Twisting of testes cutting off blood flow. Happens more in Cryptorchid testicles & testicles w/ neoplasms
What can happen as a result of TorsionInflammation of spermatic cord (funiculitis)
*funiculitis most often follows?Contamination of castration wounds
What is the risk of Acute Torsion?Acute Torsion = necrotizing → may develop into peritonitis. Tetanus
What is the risk of Chronic Torsion?Chronic Torsion → Scirrhous cord
Usually caused by: Staphlococcus sp., Trueperella sp., fungi, or parasites

Dat Scrot Tho

Question Answer
Scrotal lesions can lead to?Thermoregulatory problems & testicular degen
What kind of scrotal lesions are there and what do they cz?Inflammatory lesions - scrotal dermatitis

Neoplasia - dogs - melanoma, mast cell tumor, hemangioma
Frost bite - dry gangrene w/ 2° fibrosis. Testicles forced up close to body as the scrotal lesion heals & matures
What is the Tunica Vaginalis? What lesions can you find there? (3)Extension of peritoneal cavity. Fluid can accumulate btwn the visceral & parietal layers of the vaginal tunic czing lesions called:
1) Hydrocele - accumulation of fluid
2) Chylocele - accumulation of lymph
3) Hematocele - accumulation of blood
What is Hydrocele?Accumulation of fluid between the visceral & parietal layers of the vaginal tunic
What is Chylocele?Accumulation of lymph between the visceral & parietal layers of the vaginal tunic
What is Hematocele?Accumulation of blood between the visceral & parietal layers of the vaginal tunic
What is Periorchitis?Infxn of the tissues around the testicle (occurs w/ orchitis)
What can result from fibrin production in Periorchitis?Scrotal adhesions
***What is Scrotal Mesothelioma? Who do you find it in?***Old bulls & Old dogs
Neoplasm arising from mesothelium of peritoneum
***The Sctorum is the predalection site for _ in Bulls & _ in Rams?Bulls: Bermatophilus congolensis
Rams: Chorioptes bovis