Path 1 - Integument - Quick Review

drraythe's version from 2015-05-04 16:26

Check yo'self (Practice TQ's)

(Thank you Joel H.!!!)
Question Answer
What does a Hx of >2 years of barrenness mean when looking at a mare's EM biopsy?It increases her Category by +1 automatically! (If you would give the histo of the biopsy a Cat I, it makes it a Cat IIA)
Infxn of hair follicle more frequent in the dog, caused by Staph psuedointermedius?Deep pyoderma
Poorly demarcated bact infxn of dermis/hypodermis & underlying muscle?Cellulitis
Severe cellulitis life threatening, death by septic shock?Necrotizing fasciitis (om nom nom you taste delicious)
Name the Actinic injuries1) UV radiation – solar elastosis, keratosis, neoplasia
2) Photosensitization – photodynamic compound deposition in skin
3) Photo enhanced dermatosis
Actinic injuries: UV exposure, keratosis & neoplasia?Solar Elastosis
Actinic injuries: Photodynamic compound deposition in skin?Photosensitization
Actinic injuries: Existing dermatits worsens with UV exposure?Photo enhanced dermatosis
Vegetative skin lesions, giant cell pneumonia = death in LANDRACE PIGS?Dermatosis vegetans
Atopic dermatitis occurs in whom? What does it mean to be an atopic animal?Cats, Dogs, Horses – is a genetic predisposition to inflamatory + puritic allergic skin dz
Atopic dermatitis is a Type _ hypersensativity? Immune system makes _ abs against _ ags?Type 1 Hyp.
IgE Abs against environmental ags
What are the CS of Atopic dermatitis?Puritis, Excoriation, Secondary bac-t & yeast infxns
Puritis, Excoriation & secondary bac-t & yeast infxns?Clinical signs of Atopic dermatitis
Insect bite hypersensitivity in cats manifests as?Millary dermatitis
Characterized by proliferative & necrotic dermatitis?Poxvirusus lesions
Microsporum/Trichphyton cause?Dermatophytosis (RINGWORM)
Dermatophytosis (RINGWORM) is common in? What causes the lesions?Cats & young animals. Lesions are caused by the HOST’S immune system. Agents are Microsporum or Trichphyton
What is the histopath of Dermatophytosis (RINGWORM)?Luminal folliculitis, occasional furunculosis & epidermal hyperplasia
Your Ptx has luminal folliculitis, occasional furunculosis & epidermal hyperplasia. What's your Dx, what agents are you suspecting?Dermatophytosis (RINGWORM) via Microsporum or Trichphyton
Subcutaneous mycoses leads to?Nodular granulomatous/pyogranulomatus panniculitis & dermatitis
A Ptx presents with nodular granulomatous/pyogranulomatus panniculitis & dermatitis. What is your Dx?Subcutaneous mycoses
Malassezia dermatitis is caused by? Describe the gross lesions? M. pachydermatis. Gross lesions = erythematous, scaly, lichenified alopecic dermatitis (skin folds)
Erythematous, scaly, lichenified alopecic dermatitis (skin folds)?Malassezia dermatitis
Histiopath reveals acantholysis & subcorneal pustules, Dx is?Pemphigus folliaceus = Superficial pemphigus
Possible additional CS of Pemphigus vulgaris?Deep pemphigus - more severe - may be pyrexic, depressed, &/or anorexia
Histopath reveals Supra-basalar lesions & tombstoning, Dx is?Pemphigus vulgaris = Deep pemphigus
Abs against soluble Ags – many different cellular Ags (nucleic acids)? What type of hypersensativity? What is characteristic feature?SLE = Systemic Lupus – Type 3 hyp. Elevated ANA titer.
Elevated ANA titer?SLE - Systemic Lupus
Histopath reveals lymphohistocytic interface dermatitis?SLE - Systemic Lupus
May be asked “Which is NOT an example of a response to physical injury?” so what are ALL the causes? (6)(CAPFIT)
(1) Callus
(2) Acral Lick Dermatitis - Psychogenic nuerodermatits on extremities
(3) Pyotruamatic Dermatitis – (Acute Moist Dermatitis) hot spots, allergies, parasites, matted hair, underlying pain, self-trauma and secondary baterial infxn Leukocytic infiltration of Neutrophils
(4) Feline Ulcerative Dermatitis Syndrome (FUDS) – self trauma, on the dorsal neck
(5) Intertrigo – trauma & mirco prolif. at apposed moist skin surfaces
(6) Thermal Burns & Frostbite
Bacteria living inside macrophages to prevent fusion of phagosomes & lysosomes? What do they cause?Mycobacteria - Mycobacterial granulomas
Mycobacterium Dzs? How are they transmitted?Tuberculosis & Leprosy – transmitted via rat & cat bites
Mycobacteriosis is? What stain to ID it?Saprophytic mycobacteria infxn thru wound contamination. ID with acid fast staining
How do sterile granulomas + pyogranulomas happen (cause)?IDEOPATHIC, Happen mostly in dogs, any age, always suspect infxn first!
How do you arrive at the Dx of sterile granuloma or pyogranuloma?Dx only after everything else is ruled out. DX with histopath & culture
Juvenile sterile granulomatous dermatitis & lymphanditis? What is the key feature to know?Puppies <4mo. INVOLVES THE LYMPHNODES!
What is the pathogenesis of Juvenile sterile granulomatous dermatitis & lymphanditis? What are the gross lesions like?Unknown pathogenesis! Gross lesions are papules → plaques → nodules on head and extremities. There will be NO microbes on histopath
Mechanisms affecting BV? (4)(1) Bacterial embolism (E. rhusiopathiae)
(2) Bacterial toxins
(3) Direct infxn of vascular endothelial cells
(4) Type 3 hypersensitivity
Examples of Systemic bacterial infxn w/ cutaneous lesions? (6)(1) Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae – vascular thrombosis + infarction = DIAMOND SKIN DZ
(2) Septicemic Salmellanosis – ENDOtoxin induced venous thrombosis – cyanosis – necrosis of extremities
(3) E. coli = shiga toxin 2e – endothelial dmg – vasculitis – edema
(4) Staph aureus – EXOtoxin acts as super antigen – toxic shock
(5) Strep canis – EXOtoxin – vascular dmg in necrotizing fasciitis
(6) Rickettsia RMSF – directly infects endothelial cells – vasculitis + necrotic skin lesions
I say "Staph. psuedointermedis." You say?Canine Superficial Pyoderma! (& deep)
Canine Superficial Pyoderma is characterized by?Infxn of Staph. psuedointermedis, +/- predisposing factors
What are the Gross lesions of Canine Superficial Pyoderma?Erythema, macules, papules crusts & COLLARETTES
You see the following gross lesions on a dog → erythema, macules, papules crusts & collarettes. What is this?Canine Superficial Pyoderma!
What are the CS of Canine Zinc responsive dermatosis in Huskies & Malamutes? What is the causes it?Scaling & crusting (hyperkeratosis) around mouth, chin, eyes. Caused by a reduced ability to absorb zinc from the intestine
Primary target in Vasculitis?ENDOthelium of BV’s are the primary target of injury!!
What causes Vasculitis? (5)(1) Infxn
(2) Immune-mediated injury
(3) toxins & drugs
(4) DIC
(5) Idiopathic
What are 2 examples of Vasculitis?(1) Type 3 hypersensitivity = SLE
(2) Endotheliotrophic infxns – Herpes, RMSF, FIV, Bacterial embolism – Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae (diamond dz in pigs)
What causes Panniculitis (6)? What definitely is NOT a cause of Panniculitis (1)?(1) Infxn
(2) Immune-mediated = SLE
(3) Physical injury
(4) Nutritional disorder (VITAMIN E DEF)
(5) Pancreatic dz
(6) Idiopathic
What is Sebaceous adenitis?An Immune-mediated Inflammation resulting in COMPLETE LOSS of the gland w/ scarring
What causes HypERpigmentation?(1) Increased PRODUCTION of melanin due to CHRONIC dermatitis
(2) Increased Melanocytes
Ptx has thin skin (atrophy) probably due to?Malnutrition or Starvation
Chronic UV radiation leads to?Solar elastosis = thickened skin
Solar elastosis comes from?Chronic UV radiation. It is a thickening of the skin due to increase of basophilic elastoic fibers in the epidermis
Calcium/mineralization of the skin is a _ process caused by? When does this happen?Dystrophic process see in CUSHINGS Dz called Calcinosis Cutis.
It is caused by chronic collagen degeneration in the dermis + deposition of calcium granular foci
Calcinosis Cutis = ?Chronic collagen degeneration in the dermis + deposition of calcium granular foci observed in Cushing Dz Ptxs
What are the causes & CS of Primary Cornification DisordersBact/yeast infx - Causes flaky skin
What are the Primary Cornification Disorders?(1) Seborrhea of the Cocker Spaniel
(2) Ichthyosis
Hyperkeratosis predisposes the animal to?Skin infxns
Round cell tumor Grading and Patnaik scale(1) Grade 1 → small, well circumscribed, superficial, ↓ mitotic rate (least malignant)
(2) Grade 2 → larger, deeper, less circumscribed, moderate mitotic rate
(3) Grade 3 → largest, deepest, poorly circumscribed, ↑ mitotic rate, poorly differentiated (most malignant)
~Patnaik histologic grading scheme → correlates w/ prognosis & survival time
G1 = 93%, 4yr survival
G2 = 44%, 4yr survival
G3 = 6%, 4yr survival