Path 1- Integument 7

kelseyfmeyer's version from 2015-04-16 19:05

Lecture 8 continued

Question Answer
Describe the GRADES of CANINE mast cell tumors (what type of cell?) why do you wanna grade?(ROUND CELL). (1) Grade 1- small, well circumscribed, superficial, low mitotic rate. (2) Grade 2- larger, deeper, less circumscribed, moderate mitotic rate (3) Grade 3- largest, deepest, poorly circumscribed, high mitotic rate, poorly differentiated. WHY GRADE? Patnaik histologic grading scheme (1984)--> correlates with prognosis and survival time (G1= 93%, 4Y survival. G2=44%, 4Y survival. G3=6% 4Y survival)
Feline mast cell tumors--> type of cell? benign or malig?(how can this be influenced?) how common? what are the three histologic types? how does it behave?Round cell, usually BENIGN with good prog. However, pleomorphic mast cell tumors may be more aggressive. feline is much less common than MCT in dogs. The three types are: well-differentiated, atypical/poorly granuled, and pleomorphic. Recurrence after excision has been reported. metastasis to regional LNs is rare. visceral feline MCT have poor prognosis
Equine mast cell tumors--> cell type? benign or malig? what do they usually look like histologically?ROUND cell, benign, uncommon. Usually very eosinophil-rich
what are the three types of histiocyte tumors? (what is the cell type?)(ROUND CELL.) (histiocyte is a tissue macrophage) (1) Reactive fibrohistiocytic nodule (2) Canine cutaneous histiocytoma (3) Histiocytic sarcoma
Reactive fibrohistiocytic nodule--> cell type? benign or malig? how common? in who?non-neoplastic, benign mixed-cell tumor. Uncommon in dogs and rare in cats
Canine cutaneous histiocytoma--> cell type? benign or malignant? common in who?ROUND cell, arise from Langerhans cells(skin macrophages). They are benign, reactive tumors that spontaneously regress. They are very common in YOUNG DOGS(<3yr)
Histiocytic sarcoma--> cell type? benign or malig? types? Where does it usually occur? how common? in who?Round cell. malig with poor prognosis. localized or disseminated form in DOGS, very rare in cats. can be on skin, joints, bone, spleen, tongue, lungs, nasal cavity, CNS
Plasmacytic tumors--> (cell type?) what are the 2 tumors in this category?(round cell) (1) Cutaneous plasmacytoma (2) multiple myeloma
**Cutaneous plasmacytoma--> cell type? benign or malig? aka? how common, in who?Round cell. most are benign, recurrence is rare. excision is typically curative. AKA plasma cell tumor. relatively uncommon in dogs, rare in cats
Multiple myeloma--> cell type? what kinda tumor is this?round cell, a plasmacytic tumor
what are the 2 Lymphocytic tumors? (cell type?)(round cell) (1) Epitheliotropic lymphoma (2) Non-epitheliotropic lymphoma
**Epitheliotropic lymphoma--> cell type? aka? explain what is going on/what it is associated with? stages? how common and in who?Round cell. aka mycosis fungoides(bc look like fungal plaque). neoplastic infiltration of the epidermis and hair follicle epithelium, which may be associated with chronic antigen stimulation and atopic dermatitis. Stages are patch-->plaque-->tumor. no effective treatments and poor prognosis. uncommon in cats and dogs.
what are the stages of a epitheliotropic lymphoma? (aka?)(round cell tumor aka mycosis fungoides) go from patch-->plaque-->tumor
**Non-epitheliotropic lymphoma--> cell type? what is going on with it/possible origins?~Round cell tumor. nodular neoplastic infiltration of the dermis. May be primary or metastatic from viscera lymphoma

Lecture 9

Question Answer
what are the 3 Eosinophilic diseases?(1) Eosinophilic granulomas (2) Feline eosinophilic granuloma complex (3) Canine nasal eosinophilic folliculitis and furunculosis
Eosinophilic granulomas--> what is it associated with? Who is it common in?thought to be associated with reactions to insect bites, parasites, foreign bodies, or mast cells. very common in cats, horses, and some dogs (Siberian husky)
Feline eosinophilic granuloma complex---> can present in what forms? aka? what is it thought to be associated with?may present as nodules, plaques, ulcers. Aka indolent ulcer, or rodent ulcer. thought to be associated with hypersensitivity reactions and atopic dermatitis
Canine nasal eosinophilic folliculitis and furunculosis--> where on the body does this usually occur? Who does it affect usually? what is the pathogenesis?develops primarily on the dorsal and lateral surfaces of the nose. Primarily affects YOUNG DOGS. The pathogenesis is unknown, but it is suspected to be associated with arthropod bites and stings
what are the 2 Plasma cell diseases?(1) Feline plasma cell pododermatitis (2) Feline plasma cell gingivitis and stomatitis
Feline plasma cell pododermatitis--> what is happening? causes? sequale?Infiltration of the paw pads by plasma cells causes swelling and may lead to ulceration. unknown pathogenesis
what are the 4 Sterile granulomatous diseases?(1) Canine juvenile sterile granulomatous dermatitis and lymphadenitis (2) Idiopathic sterile granuloma and pyogranuloma complex (3) Idiopathic sterile nodular panniculitis (4) Xanthogranuloma
Canine juvenile sterile granulomatous dermatitis and lymphadenitis--> how common, in who?uncommonly happens in puppies <4mo. Remember to rule out any infectous cause
*Idiopathic sterile granuloma and pyogranuloma complex--> how common in who? what must you do?common in dogs, rare in cats and horses. very important to rule out infectious causes
Idiopathic sterile nodular panniculitis--> how common in who? what must you do before you tx? (what is tx?)occurs in dogs, and cats, rare in horses. MUST RULE OUT INFECTIOUS CAUSES BEFORE STARTING IMMUNOSUPPRESSION THERAPY.
Xanthogranuloma--> who does this occur in, and under what conditions?usually occurs in BIRDS fed ALL SEED diets. This leads to high fat and diabetes, and this condition is associated with high plasma concentrations of cholesterol, triglycerides, and lipoproteins. There is deposition of lipoproteins in the skin, which leads to the granulomatous inflammation in the dermis and subcutis
*Canine zinc-responsive dermatosis--> what are the gross lesions?scaling and crusting (hyperkeratosis) develop around the mouth, chin, and eyes
*Canine zinc-responsive dermatosis--> what are the breeds/animals predisposed to this, and why does this happen?Poorly balanced diet...(NOT ENOUGH ZINC) usually Siberian huskies, Alaskan malamute, esp. AM because they have an inherited reduced ability to absorb zinc from the intestine. Other large breeds of dogs can also be affected though, esp if there are rapidly growing pups (not enough zinc to keep up with demand), or dogs with diets low in zinc or high in calcium which interferes with zinc absorption---> "generic dog food dermatosis"
*Feline paraneoplastic alopecia--> aka? describe it. Who does this usually affect? pathogenesis?a.k.a pancreatic paraneoplastic syndrome. rapidly progressive, ventral, symmetric alopecia. It develops in old cats with metastatic pancreatic or biliary carcinoma. The pathogenesis is unknown.
*Feline exfoliative dermatitis--> what kinda syndrome is this? Describe it. Who does this usually affect?PARANEOPLASATIC SYNDROME. it is a generalized exfoliative dermatitis.develops in old cats with thymoma...also recognized in dogs and rabbits (cats will exfoliate their thyroid right off)
*Canine hepatocutaneous syndrome--> what kind syndrome is this? what is it aka?it is a cutaneous paraneoplastic syndrome, and it is aka superficial necrolytic dermatitis, diabetic dermatopathy
*Canine hepatocutaneous syndrome--> who does this usually affect? What are the gross lesions? what is the pathogenesis?primarily affects older dogs with liver failure, diabetes mellitus, or pancreatic islet tumor. The syndrome leads to pustules and ulceration on areas of wear (feet, nose, etc.). The pathogenesis is poorly understood, however, it is believed to be associated with deranged nutrient metabolism (fatty acid, amino acid, and zinc deficiency)
*Pancreatic panniculitis--> what kinda syndrome is this? aka? usually affects who, under what conditions?paraneoplastic syndrome which is aka necrotizing panniculitis. It is a rare, acute disorder causing nodular to ulcerating panniculitis and develops in dogs with pancreatic neoplasia and/or pancreatitis (release of pancreatic enzymes causes fat necrosis)
*Nodular dermatofibrosis--> what kinda syndrome is this? what are the gross lesions, and why do they occur? Who does this occur most commonly in?This is a cutaneous paraneoplastic syndrome, where multiple cutaneous dermal fibrous nodules develop with cases of renal neoplasia or uterine smooth muscle tumors (exact pathogenisis is unknown). It is most common in GERMAN SHEPARDS
*Paraneoplastic pemphigus--> what is the pathogenesis? who does this happen in? gross lesions?rare aggressive form of pemphigus associated with neoplasia, which occurs in humans and dogs. there can be mucosal to mucocutaneous vesicles and/or pustules. cutaneous lesions may precede detection of neoplastic disease!

Pattern recognition chart

Question Answer
superficial pyoderma is what lesions?Pustules /Crusts
pemphigus foliaceous is what lesions?Pustules /Crusts
dermatophilosis is what lesions?Pustules /Crusts (not phyto)
exudative epidermitis is what lesions?Pustules /Crusts
hepatocutaneous syndrome is what lesions? Pustules /Crusts AND Necrosis/ulceration
lupus is what lesions? Pustules /Crusts AND vesicles/bulla AND hypopigmentation
drug reaction is what lesions?Pustules /Crusts AND vesicles/bulla
pemphigus vulgaris is what lesions?vesicles/bulla
chemical and thermal burn is what lesions?vesicles/bulla AND necrosis/ulceration
dermatomyositis is what lesions?vesicles/bulla (myo-> mm-> bulla are bulges like mm)
photosensitization is what lesions?vesicles/bulla
viral infection is what lesions?vesicles/bulla
vasculitis/infarction is what lesions?necrosis/ulceration
erythemia multiforme and TEN is what lesions?necrosis/ulceration
ergot/fescue tox is what lesions?necrosis/ulceration
frostbite is what lesions?necrosis/ulceration
feline indolent ulcer is what lesions?necrosis/ulceration
FUDS (feline ulcerative dermatitis?) is what lesions?necrosis/ulceration
trauma is what lesions?necrosis/ulceration
primary seborrhea is what lesions?scaling/flaking
ichthyosis is what lesions?scaling/flaking
zinc responsive dermatosis is what lesions?scaling/flaking
sebaceous adenitis is what lesions?scaling/flaking (oily flakey skin)
vit-A responsive dermatosis is what lesions?scaling/flaking
feline exfoliative dermatitis/ thymoma is what lesions?scaling/flaking (exfoliate your scales off)
callus is what lesions?scaling/flaking
actinic dermatitis is what lesions?scaling/flaking
deep pyoderma is what lesions?nodules +/- draining tracts
abscesses is what lesions?nodules +/- draining tracts
granulomatous dermatitis is what lesions?nodules +/- draining tracts (granuloma=/=pus so NODULE)
mycobacteria spp is what lesions?nodules +/- draining tracts
mycoses is what lesions?nodules +/- draining tracts
sterile granulomas is what lesions?nodules +/- draining tracts
furunculosis is what lesions?nodules +/- draining tracts
panniculitis is what lesions?nodules +/- draining tracts
neoplasia is what lesions?nodules +/- draining tracts
folliculitis is what lesions?alopecia
endocrine is what lesions?alopecia
idiopathic is what lesions (uh)alopecia
follicular dysplasia is what lesions?alopecia
congenital alopecia and hypotrichosis is what lesions?alopecia
feline psychogenic traumpatic alopecia is what lesions?alopecia
malnutrition/chronic dz is what lesions?alopecia
feline paraneoplastic syndrome is what lesions?alopecia
alopecia areata is what lesions?alopecia
vitiligo is what lesions?hypopigmentation
copper deficiency is what lesions?hypopigmentation
piebaldism is what lesions?hypopigmentation
albinism is what lesions?hypopigmentation