Path 1- Integument 7

drraythe's version from 2015-05-02 14:02

Lecture 8 continued

Round Cell Tumors

Question Answer
Describe the GRADES of CANINE mast cell tumors. Why do you wanna grade?(1) Grade 1 → small, well circumscribed, superficial, ↓ mitotic rate (least malignant)
(2) Grade 2 → larger, deeper, less circumscribed, moderate mitotic rate
(3) Grade 3 → largest, deepest, poorly circumscribed, ↑ mitotic rate, poorly differentiated (most malignant)
WHY GRADE? Patnaik histologic grading scheme (1984) → correlates w/ prognosis & survival time
G1 = 93%, 4yr survival
G2 = 44%, 4yr survival
G3 = 6% 4yr survival
Feline mast cell tumors → Benign or malig? (how can this be influenced?) how common? What are the 3 histologic types? How does it behave?Usually BENIGN w/ good prog. However, pleomorphic mast cell tumors may be more aggressive. Feline is much less common than MCT in dogs. The 3 types are: well-differentiated, atypical/poorly granulated & pleomorphic. Recurrence after excision has been reported. Metastasis to regional LNs is rare. Visceral feline MCT have poor prognosis
Equine mast cell tumors → Benign or malig? What do they usually look like histologically?Benign, uncommon. Usually very eosinophil-rich
What are the 3 types of histiocytic tumors?(Histiocytic tumors are from tissue macrophages)
(1) Reactive fibrohistiocytic nodule
(2) Canine cutaneous histiocytoma
(3) Histiocytic sarcoma
Reactive fibrohistiocytic nodule → Benign or malig? How common? In who?Non-neoplastic, benign mixed-cell tumor. Uncommon in dogs & rare in cats
Canine cutaneous histiocytoma → Benign or malignant? Common in who?Arise from Langerhans cells (skin macrophages). They are benign, reactive tumors that spontaneously regress. They are very common in YOUNG DOGS (<3yr)
Histiocytic sarcoma → Benign or malig? Types? Where does it usually occur? How common? In who?Malig w/ poor prognosis. Localized or disseminated form in DOGS, very rare in cats. Can be on skin, joints, bone, spleen, tongue, lungs, nasal cavity, CNS
Plasmacytic tumors → What are the 2 tumors in this category?(1) Cutaneous plasmacytoma
(2) Multiple myeloma
**Cutaneous plasmacytoma → Benign or malig? Aka? How common, in who?Most are benign, recurrence is rare. Excision is typically curative. AKA plasma cell tumor. Relatively uncommon in dogs, rare in cats
Multiple myeloma → What kind of tumor is this?A plasmacytic tumor
What are the 2 Lymphocytic tumors?(1) Epitheliotropic lymphoma (mycosis fungoides)
(2) Non-epitheliotropic lymphoma
**Epitheliotropic lymphoma → Aka? Explain what is going on/What it is associated w/? Stages? How common & in who?Aka mycosis fungoides (bc look like fungal plaque). Neoplastic infiltration of the epidermis & hair follicle epithelium, which may be associated w/ chronic antigen stimulation & atopic dermatitis. Stages are patch → plaque → tumor. No effective Tx. Poor prognosis. Uncommon in cats & dogs
What are the stages of a Epitheliotropic lymphoma? (Aka?)(Aka mycosis fungoides) Go from patch → plaque → tumor
**Non-epitheliotropic lymphoma → What is going on w/ it/possible origins?~Nodular neoplastic infiltration of the dermis. May be 1° or metastatic from viscera lymphoma

Lecture 9

Misc Skin Dzs

Question Answer
What are the 3 Eosinophilic diseases?(1) Eosinophilic granulomas
(2) Feline eosinophilic granuloma complex
(3) Canine nasal eosinophilic folliculitis & furunculosis
Eosinophilic granulomas → What is it associated w/? Who is it common in?Thought to be associated w/ rxns to insect bites, parasites, foreign bodies, or mast cells. Very common in cats, horses & some dogs (Siberian husky)
Feline eosinophilic granuloma complex → Can present in what forms? Aka? What is it thought to be associated w/?May present as nodules, plaques, ulcers. Aka indolent ulcer, or rodent ulcer. Thought to be associated w/ hypersensitivity rxns & atopic dermatitis
Canine nasal eosinophilic folliculitis & furunculosis → Where on the body does this usually occur? Who does it affect usually? What is the pathogenesis?Develops primarily on the dorsal & lateral surfaces of the nose. Primarily affects YOUNG DOGS. The pathogenesis is unknown, but it is suspected to be associated w/ arthropod bites & stings
What are the 2 Plasma cell diseases?(1) Feline plasma cell pododermatitis
(2) Feline plasma cell gingivitis & stomatitis
Feline plasma cell pododermatitis → What is happening? Causes? Sequelae?Infiltration of the paw pads by plasma cells causes swelling & may lead to ulceration. Unknown pathogenesis
What are the 4 sterile granulomatous diseases?(1) Canine juvenile sterile granulomatous dermatitis & lymphadenitis
(2) Idiopathic sterile granuloma & pyogranuloma complex
(3) Idiopathic sterile nodular panniculitis
(4) Xanthogranuloma
Canine juvenile sterile granulomatous dermatitis & lymphadenitis → How common, in who?Uncommonly happens in puppies <4mo. Remember to rule out any infectious cause
*Idiopathic sterile granuloma & pyogranuloma complex → How common in who? What must you do?Common in dogs, rare in cats & horses. very important to rule out infectious causes
Idiopathic sterile nodular panniculitis → How common in who? What must you do before you tx? (What is tx?)Occurs in dogs & cats, rare in horses. MUST RULE OUT INFECTIOUS CAUSES BEFORE STARTING IMMUNOSUPPRESSION THERAPY.
Xanthogranuloma → Who does this occur in & under what conditions?Usually occurs in BIRDS fed ALL SEED diets. This leads to ↑ fat & diabetes & this condition is associated w/ ↑ plasma concentrations of cholesterol, triglycerides & lipoproteins. There is deposition of lipoproteins in the skin, which leads to the granulomatous inflammation in the dermis & subcutis
*Canine zinc-responsive dermatosis → What are the gross lesions?Scaling & crusting (hyperkeratosis) develop around the mouth, chin & eyes
*Canine zinc-responsive dermatosis → What are the breeds/animals predisposed to this & why does this happen?Poorly balanced diet (NOT ENOUGH ZINC) usually Siberian huskies, Alaskan malamute, esp. AM because they have an inherited reduced ability to absorb zinc from the intestine. Other large breeds of dogs can also be affected though, esp if there are rapidly growing pups (not enough zinc to keep up w/ demand), or dogs w/ diets ↓ in zinc or ↑ in calcium which interferes w/ zinc absorption → "generic dog food dermatosis"
*Feline paraneoplastic alopecia → Aka? Describe it. Who does this usually affect? Pathogenesis?Aka pancreatic paraneoplastic syndrome. Rapidly progressive, ventral, symmetric alopecia. It develops in old cats w/ metastatic pancreatic or biliary carcinoma. The pathogenesis is unknown
*Feline exfoliative dermatitis → What kind of syndrome is this? Describe it. Who does this usually affect?PARANEOPLASATIC SYNDROME. It is a generalized exfoliative dermatitis. Develops in old cats w/ thymoma...also recognized in dogs & rabbits (cats will exfoliate their thyroid right off)
*Canine hepatocutaneous syndrome → What kind syndrome is this? What is it aka?It is a cutaneous paraneoplastic syndrome & it is aka superficial necrolytic dermatitis, diabetic dermatopathy
*Canine hepatocutaneous syndrome → Who does this usually affect? What are the gross lesions? What is the pathogenesis?Primarily affects older dogs w/ liver failure, diabetes mellitus, or pancreatic islet tumor. The syndrome leads to pustules & ulceration on areas of wear (feet, nose, etc.). The pathogenesis is poorly understood, however, it is believed to be associated w/ deranged nutrient metabolism (fatty acid, amino acid & zinc deficiency)
*Pancreatic panniculitis → What kind of syndrome is this? Aka? Usually affects who, under what conditions?Paraneoplastic syndrome which is aka necrotizing panniculitis. It is a rare, acute disorder causing nodular to ulcerating panniculitis & develops in dogs w/ pancreatic neoplasia and/or pancreatitis (release of pancreatic enzymes causes fat necrosis)
*Nodular dermatofibrosis → What kind of syndrome is this? What are the gross lesions & why do they occur? Who does this occur most commonly in?This is a cutaneous paraneoplastic syndrome, where multiple cutaneous dermal fibrous nodules develop w/ cases of renal neoplasia or uterine smooth muscle tumors (exact pathogenesis is unknown). It is most common in GERMAN SHEPARDS
*Paraneoplastic pemphigus → What is the pathogenesis? Who does this happen in? Gross lesions?Rare aggressive form of pemphigus associated w/ neoplasia, which occurs in humans & dogs. There can be mucosal to mucocutaneous vesicles and/or pustules. Cutaneous lesions may precede detection of neoplastic disease!

Pattern Recognition Chart (Most important slide of all)

Question Answer
Superficial pyoderma is what lesions?Pustules /Crusts
Pemphigus foliaceous is what lesions?Pustules /Crusts
Dermatophilosis is what lesions?Pustules /Crusts (not phyto)
Exudative epidermitis is what lesions?Pustules /Crusts
Hepatocutaneous syndrome is what lesions?Pustules /Crusts & Necrosis/ulceration
Lupus is what lesions?Pustules /Crusts & vesicles/bulla & hypopigmentation
Drug rxn is what lesions?Pustules /Crusts & vesicles/bulla
Pemphigus vulgaris is what lesions?Vesicles/bulla
Chemical & thermal burn is what lesions?Vesicles/bulla & necrosis/ulceration
Dermatomyositis is what lesions?Vesicles/bulla (myo → mm → bulla are bulges like mm)
Photosensitization is what lesions?Vesicles/bulla
Viral infxn is what lesions?Vesicles/bulla
Vasculitis/infarction is what lesions?Necrosis/ulceration
Erythemia multiforme & TEN is what lesions?Necrosis/ulceration
Ergot/fescue tox is what lesions?Necrosis/ulceration
Frostbite is what lesions?Necrosis/ulceration
Feline indolent ulcer is what lesions?Necrosis/ulceration
FUDS (feline ulcerative dermatitis?) is what lesions?Necrosis/ulceration
Trauma is what lesions?Necrosis/ulceration
1° seborrhea is what lesions?Scaling/flaking
Ichthyosis is what lesions?Scaling/flaking
Zinc responsive dermatosis is what lesions?Scaling/flaking
Sebaceous adenitis is what lesions?Scaling/flaking (oily flakey skin)
Vit-A responsive dermatosis is what lesions?Scaling/flaking
Feline exfoliative dermatitis/ thymoma is what lesions?Scaling/flaking (exfoliate your scales off)
Callus is what lesions?Scaling/flaking
Actinic dermatitis is what lesions?Scaling/flaking
Deep pyoderma is what lesions?Nodules +/- draining tracts
Abscesses is what lesions?Nodules +/- draining tracts
Granulomatous dermatitis is what lesions?Nodules +/- draining tracts (granuloma=/=pus; NODULE)
Mycobacteria spp is what lesions?Nodules +/- draining tracts
Mycoses is what lesions?Nodules +/- draining tracts
Sterile granulomas is what lesions?Nodules +/- draining tracts
Furunculosis is what lesions?Nodules +/- draining tracts
Panniculitis is what lesions?Nodules +/- draining tracts
Neoplasia is what lesions?Nodules +/- draining tracts
Folliculitis is what lesions?Alopecia
Endocrine is what lesions?Alopecia
Idiopathic is what lesions (uh)Alopecia
Follicular dysplasia is what lesions?Alopecia
Congenital alopecia & hypotrichosis is what lesions?Alopecia
Feline psychogenic traumatic alopecia is what lesions?Alopecia
Malnutrition/chronic dz is what lesions?Alopecia
Feline paraneoplastic syndrome is what lesions?Alopecia
Alopecia areata is what lesions?Alopecia
Vitiligo is what lesions?Hypopigmentation
Copper deficiency is what lesions?Hypopigmentation
Piebaldism is what lesions?Hypopigmentation
Albinism is what lesions?Hypopigmentation

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