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Path 1- Integument 6

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kelseyfmeyer's version from 2015-04-16 19:05

Lecture 8

Question Answer
what are 3 Carcinogenic factors cause damage to cellular DNA?(1) solar radiation (2) viral infection (3) chronic trauma and inflammation (leads to inc cell turnover, aka hyperplasia, which leads to an inc rate of cellular mutations)
what are the 4 categories of genes affected which lead to neoplastic transformation?(1) tumor suppressor genes (2) proto-oncogenes (3) genes that regulate apoptosis (4) genes that regulate DNA repair
*Features of benignancy?generally have only low grade dysplasia and low mitotic rate. expansile, compressive, and well circumscribed
*Features of malignancy?~generally have high grade dysplasia (POORLY DIFFERENTIATED) and high mitotic rate. It is also INVASIVE (to surrounding tissue AND vasculature), and will have metastasis.
what is the main way you determine if benign or malignant? How can you improve prognosis? Why do we care?~Most of the features can only be confirmed by histopathology!! Many tumors will progress from benign to malignant, so you want to dx and then excise as early as possible (before it has a chance to become malignant)
**WHAT ARE THE 5 ROUND CELL TUMORS?mast cell tumors, plasma cell tumors, histiocytic tumors, lymphocytic tumors, TVT
**WHAT ARE THE 4 SPINDLE CELL TUMORS?fibrosarcoma/sarcoid, peripheral nerve sheath tumors, hemangiopericytoma, muscle tumors
**WHAT ARE THE 3 POLYGONAL CELL TUMORS?papillomas, adenomas, carcinomas
what are the 6 epidermal tumors? (what type of cell tumor are they?)(POLYGONAL CELL TUMOR) (1) Squamous papilloma (2) Squamous cell carcinoma (3) Squamous cell carcinoma in situ (4) Basal cell tumor (adenoma and carcinoma) (5) Dermoid cyst (6) Hoof and Pawpad Keratoma
Squamous papilloma, “wart”--> cell type? Malig or benign? pathogenesis? types?POLYGONAL cell tumor. BENIGN. most have viral pathogenesis (papillomavirus). may be exophytic, plaque-like, or inverted
Squamous cell carcinoma--> cell type? Malig or benign? possible causes and where is it usually found?polygonal cell tumor. MALIG. associated with chronic UV radiation and/or inflammation, and is usually found on skin, mouth, esophagus, stomach, conjunctiva, penis/prepuce
Squamous cell carcinoma in situ--> cell type? malig or benign? unique charateristic? example?polygonal cell tumor. Considered to be a "premalignant" tumor. It contains high grade dysplasia without invasiveness! example is "feline multicentric carcinoma in situ" (a.k.a. feline Bowen’s-like disease, associated with papillomavirus infection)
Basal cell tumor (adenoma and carcinoma)--> cell type? malignant or benign? common in who? main cause is?POLYGONAL cell tumor. malignant--> most common cutaneous malignancy in humans, less common in dogs and cats. like SCC, BCC is also associated with UV radiation
Dermoid cyst--> cell type? benign or malig? happens in who? usually occur where?(under "polygonal cell tumor" section. non-neoplastic def says) rare, non-neoplastic developmental anomaly in dogs, cats, humans. frequently occur along dorsal midline (aka teratoma). (aka cystic teratoma)
what is a Hoof and Pawpad Keratoma?mass composed of exuberant stratum corneum
Nailbed keratoacanthoma--> cell type? benign or malig? arises from where? happens in who? looks like what?polygonal cell type. benign. arising from the nailbed (ungual) epithelium. RARE, in dogs. presents as a swollen digit
Nailbed squamous cell carcinoma--> cell type? benign or malignant? happens in who? How does it act?polygonal MALIG tumor. uncommon in dogs, rare in cats. destructive tumor with invasion of phalangeal bone and metastasis to regional lymph nodes and/or lungs
Feline metastatic pulmonary carcinoma--> cell type? what is a frequent site of metastasis for this type of pulmonary tumor?polygonal. digits are a frequent site of metastasis for pulmonary cancer in cats!
what are the 4 types (/categories) of follicular tumors?Fibroadnexal hamartoma, Follicular cyst, Benign follicular neoplasms, Malignant follicular neoplasms
Fibroadnexal hamartoma--> cell type? benign or malig? affects what, where, and is aka?(under polygonal cell type) common in dogs. /non-neoplastic/ malformation of folliculo-sebaceous units and dermal collagen. frequently occurs at pressure points. Is aka fibroadnexal dysplasia.
Follicular cyst--> cell type? common in who? what is this?(under polygonal cell type) common in cats and dogs. non-neoplastic malformation of a hair follicle leads to keratin-filled cyst in the dermis
what are 5 Benign follicular neoplasms?infundibular keratinizing acanthoma, trichoepithelioma*, tricholemmoma, pilomatricoma*, trichoblastoma (he put those stars there. Idk why) *(the ones that are malig say malig before them. so. just recognize these?)
what are 2 Malignant follicular neoplasms?malignant trichoepithelioma*, malignant pilomatricoma (he put those stars there. Idk why) (so..they say malig)
Nodular sebaceous hyperplasia--> describe. Response to what?non-neoplastic, fully differentiated. may be a response to chronic inflammation
Sebaceous adenoma--> cell type? malig or benign?polygonal cell. benign.
Sebaceous epithelioma--> cell type? malig or benign?polygonal cell. benign to low grade malignancy
Sebaceous adenocarcinoma--> cell type? malig or benign?polygonal cell. malignant
Meibomian gland adenoma, epithelioma, carcinoma--> cell type? happen where? common in who?polygonal cell, malignancy is rare, sebaceous gland of eyelids, very common in dogs
Perianal gland adenoma, epithelioma, carcinoma--> cell type? malign or benign? perianal glands aka? tumor associated with?polygonal cell type. malignancy uncommon. aka hepatoid glands. associated with androgen influence.
what are the 4 apocrine gland tumors? what is their cell type?all polygonal. (1) apocrine cyst (2)Apocrine gland adenoma / adenocarcinoma (3) Ceruminous(earwax) gland adenoma / adenocarcinoma (4) Anal sac gland adenoma / adenocarcinoma
which apocrine gland tumor is associated with hypercalcemia, and has a high metastatic rate? (cell type?)(polygonal) Anal sac gland adenoma / adenocarcinoma
Fibrous tumors--> composed of what? cell type?composed of fibroblasts. spindle cell tumors!!!
what are the 7 fibrous tumors? (cell type?)(spindle cell) (1) Collagenous hamartoma (2) Canine nodular dermatofibrosis (3) Acrochordon, “skin tag” (4) Fibroma (5) fibrosarcoma (6) Myxoma / Myxosarcoma (7) Sarcoid
Collagenous hamartoma--> cell type? malig or benign? common in who?spindle cell. /Non-neoplastic/ malformation composed of dermal collagen. Common in dogs
Canine nodular dermatofibrosis--> cell type? associated with what? common in who?spindle cell. rare paraneoplastic disorder associated with renal tumors and uterine tumors. German shepherd, less commonly reported in other breeds (dotties kidneys on her skin?)
Acrochordon, “skin tag”--> cell type? benign or malig? describe. common in who?spindle cell. /non-neoplastic/. small pedunculated tumors composed of hyperplastic dermal collagen. common in cats, dogs, humans
Acrochordon akaskin tag
Fibroma--> cell type? benign or malig? how common?spindle cell. Benign. fibrocytic neoplasm of dermis and subcutis. uncommon in cats and dogs
**Fibrosarcoma--> cell type? benign or malig? come from where in the body? common in who? how does it behave? what specific example fits into this category?spindle cell. malig. frequently arise from deep dermis and/or subcutis. common in cats and dogs. locally invasive and destructive, but with a low metastatic rate. They frequently recur after surgical excision. EX: feline vaccine-asssociated sarcoma
what is a Myxoma / Myxosarcoma? Cell type?spindle cell. myxomatous (mucinous) variant of fibroma / fibrosarcoma
**what is the most common cutaneous neoplasm in horses?sarcoid
**Sarcoid--> cell type? benign or malig? Associated with what? common in who? how does it behave?~spindle cell. malignant. associated with bovine papillomavirus *1 and 2*. most common cutaneous neoplasm in horses, but also occurs in barn cats. it is locally invasive with a low metastatic rate, but will commonly recur after excision
what are the 5 Vascular tumors and perivascular tumors? what is their cell type?(spindle cell) (1) Angiomatosis (2) Vascular hamartoma (3) Hemangioma (4) Hemangiosarcoma (5) Hemangiopericytoma
Angiomatosis--> cell type? benign or malig? where does it happen? how common is it? how does it act?Spindle cell. Non-neoplastic. proliferation of thin-walled blood vessels in the dermis and subcutis, digital, scrotal. rare in dogs and cats. may be locally destructive and spread to adjacent tissue
Vascular hamartoma aka? cell type?spindle cell. aka arteriovenous malformation
Hemangioma--> cell type? benign or malig? how common, in who? associated with that?Spindle cell. benign endothelial cell tumor. very common in dogs, less common in cats. associated with UV radiation and chronic solar damage
Hemangiosarcoma--> cell type? benign or malig? tumor of what? how does it behave?spindle cell. malignant endothelial cell tumor. moderate to high metastatic potential, especially with tumors extending into subcutis
*Hemangiopericytoma--> cell type? benign or malig? how common? in who? arise from what? how does it behave?spindle cell. Malig. Common in dogs. arise from pericytes that surround blood vessels (MALIGNANT PEARS). typically dermal or subcutaneous. locally invasive with a low metastatic rate. frequent recurrence after surgical excision biological behavior and prognosis similar as fibrosarcoma.
what are the 4 Neural tumors and perineural tumors?(1) Traumatic neuroma (2) Merkel cell tumor (3) Benign peripheral nerve sheath tumor (PNST) (4) Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor
*Traumatic neuroma--> cell type? benign or malig? happens when? aka? how common in who?spindle cell...NON-NEOPLASTIC proliferation of nerve tissue at site of traumatic injury or surgery, aka "tail dock neuroma" which occurs uncommonly in many sp.
* Merkel cell tumor--> cell type? malig or benign? what kinda tumor? how common? in who?*pleomorphic!!!* it is generally benign but metastasis has been reported (starts with M but usually not malig). it is a cutaneous neuroendocrine tumor which is uncommon in humans and rare in cats and dogs
*Benign peripheral nerve sheath tumor (PNST)--> cell type? aka? arise from what? how common? in who? where does it most frequently occur?Spindle cell tumor. aka Schwannoma, neurofibroma. arise in the subcutis from the perineural sheath cells (Schwann cells). uncommon in cats and dogs. frequently occur on the trunk and distal limbs
*Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor--> cell type? how common? in who? how does it act?spindle cell. more common in dogs than benign PNST. locally invasive with a low metastatic rate. biological behavior and prognosis similar as fibrosarcoma
what are the three smooth muscle tumors? (cell type?)(spindle cell) (1) Vascular smooth muscle (2) Arrector pili muscle (3) Genital-associated smooth muscle
*Vascular smooth muscle tumors--> cell type? what is it called?spindle cell. angioleiomyoma / angioleiomyosarcoma
*Arrector pili muscle tumors--> cell type? called?spindle cell. piloleiomyoma / piloleiomyosarcoma
*Genital-associated smooth muscle tumors--> cell type? usually which mm? how common?spindle cell. deep subcutaneous muscles of scrotum, such as cremaster and dartos. scrotal leiomyosarcoma! Rare.
what are the 3 Lipocytic tumors?(1) lipoma (2) infiltrative lipoma (3) Liposarcoma
lipoma--> malig or benign? how common in who? diff names?benign, neoplastic, subcutaneous adipocyte proliferation. very common in dogs, less common in cats. fibrolipoma, angiolipoma, chondrolipoma, etc.
Infiltrative lipoma--> benign or malig? infiltrative to where? how common? in who?intermediate malignancy. infiltrative to surrounding tissue, muscle, fascia, etc...uncommon in dogs, rare in cats
Liposarcoma--> benign or malig? how does it behave? where is it usually located? how common? in who?malignant. invasive and destructive to surrounding tissue, low metastatic rate. commonly involve the axial regions and proximal legs. uncommon in dogs, very rare in cats
what are the 2 Melanocytic tumors?(1) melanocytoma (2) melanoma
Melanocytoma--> benign or malig? how common? in who? types? what can you do as tx?BENIGN! common in dogs and horses, uncommon in cats. junctional, compound, dermal. complete excision is typically curative
Melanoma--> cell type? benign or malig? how common? in who? how does it behave? How can you gauge malignancy (unique)? where are they usually located?PLEOMORPHIC (round, polygonal, spindle) and MALIGNANT. common in dogs and horses, less common in cats. high metastatic rate. larger tumors are generally more malignant. melanocytic tumors of the nailbed, mucocutaneous junctions, and oral cavity are usually malignant
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