Path 1- Integument 6

drraythe's version from 2015-05-01 16:57

Lecture 8

Question Answer
What are 3 Carcinogenic factors cause dmg to cellular DNA?(1) Solar radiation
(2) Viral infxn
(3) Chronic trauma & inflammation (leads to ↑ cell turnover, aka hyperplasia, which leads to an ↑ rate of cellular mutations)
What are the 4 categories of genes affected which lead to neoplastic transformation?(1) Tumor suppressor genes
(2) Proto-oncogenes
(3) Genes that regulate apoptosis
(4) Genes that regulate DNA repair
*Features of benignancy?Generally have only low-grade dysplasia & ↓ mitotic rate. Expansile, compressive & well circumscribed
*Features of malignancy?~Generally have high-grade dysplasia (POORLY DIFFERENTIATED) & ↑ mitotic rate. It is also INVASIVE (to surrounding tissue & vasculature) & will have metastasis.
What is the main way you determine if benign or malignant? How can you improve prognosis? Why do we care?~Most of the features can only be confirmed by histopathology!! Many tumors will progress from benign to malignant, so you want to dx & then excise as early as possible (before it has a chance to become malignant)

Polygonal Cell Tumors

Question Answer
What are the 6 epidermal tumors? (What type of cell tumor are they?)(1) Squamous papilloma
(2) Squamous cell carcinoma
(3) Squamous cell carcinoma in situ
(4) Basal cell tumor (adenoma & carcinoma)
(5) Dermoid cyst
(6) Hoof & Pawpad Keratoma
Squamous papilloma, “wart” → Malig or benign? Pathogenesis? Types?BENIGN. Most have viral pathogenesis (papillomavirus). May be exophytic, plaque-like, or inverted
Squamous cell carcinoma → Malig or benign? Possible causes & where is it usually found?MALIG. Associated w/ chronic UV radiation &/or inflammation & is usually found on skin, mouth, esophagus, stomach, conjunctiva, penis/prepuce
Squamous cell carcinoma in situ → Malig or benign? Unique characteristic? Example?Considered to be a "premalignant" tumor. It contains high-grade dysplasia w/out invasiveness! Example is "feline metacentric carcinoma in situ" (a.k.a. feline Bowen’s-like ds, associated w/ papillomavirus infxn)
Basal cell tumor (adenoma & carcinoma) → Malignant or benign? Common in who? Main cause is?Malignant → Most common cutaneous malignancy in humans, less common in dogs & cats. Like SCC, BCC is also associated w/ UV radiation
Dermoid cyst → Benign or malig? Happens in who? Usually occur where?rare, non-neoplastic developmental anomaly in dogs, cats, humans. Frequently occur along dorsal midline (aka teratoma). (Aka cystic teratoma)
What is a Hoof & Pawpad Keratoma?Mass composed of exuberant stratum corneum
Nailbed keratoacanthoma → Benign or malig? Arises from where? Happens in who? Looks like what?Benign. Arising from the nailbed (ungual) epithelium. RARE, in dogs. Presents as a swollen digit
Nailbed squamous cell carcinoma → Benign or malignant? Happens in who? How does it act?MALIG. Uncommon in dogs, rare in cats. Destructive tumor w/ invasion of phalangeal bone & metastasis to regional lymph nodes &/or lungs
What are the 4 types (categories) of follicular tumors?Fibroadnexal hamartoma, Follicular cyst, benign follicular neoplasms, malignant follicular neoplasms
Fibroadnexal hamartoma → Benign or malig? Affects what, where & is aka?common in dogs. Non-neoplastic/malformation of folliculo-sebaceous units & dermal collagen. Frequently occurs at pressure points. Is aka fibroadnexal dysplasia.
Follicular cyst → Common in who? What is this?common in cats & dogs. Non-neoplastic malformation of a hair follicle leads to keratin-filled cyst in the dermis
What are 5 benign follicular neoplasms?Infundibular keratinizing acanthoma, trichoepithelioma*, tricholemmoma, pilomatricoma*, trichoblastoma (he put those stars there. Idk why) *(the ones that are malig say malig before them. so. just recognize these?)
What are 2 malignant follicular neoplasms?Malignant trichoepithelioma*, malignant pilomatricoma (he put those stars there. Idk why) (so...they say malig)
Nodular sebaceous hyperplasia → Describe. Response to what?Non-neoplastic, fully differentiated. May be a response to chronic inflammation
Sebaceous adenoma → Malig or benign?benign.
Sebaceous epithelioma → Malig or benign?benign to low-grade malignancy
Sebaceous adenocarcinoma → Malig or benign?malignant
Meibomian gland adenoma, epithelioma, carcinoma → Happen where? Common in who?malignancy is rare, sebaceous gland of eyelids, very common in dogs
Perianal gland adenoma, epithelioma, carcinoma → Malign or benign? Perianal glands aka? Tumor associated w/?Malignancy uncommon. Aka hepatoid glands. Associated w/ androgen influence.
What are the 4 apocrine gland tumors? What is their(1) Apocrine cyst
(2) Apocrine gland adenoma adenocarcinoma
(3) Ceruminous(earwax) gland adenoma adenocarcinoma
(4) Anal sac gland adenoma adenocarcinoma
Which apocrine gland tumor is associated w/ hypercalcemia & has a ↑ metastatic rate? ()Anal sac gland adenoma/adenocarcinoma

Spindle Cell Tumors

Question Answer
Fibrous tumors → Composed of what?Composed of fibroblasts.
What are the 7 fibrous tumors?(1) Collagenous hamartoma
(2) Canine nodular dermatofibrosis
(3) Acrochordon, “skin tag”
(4) Fibroma
(5) Fibrosarcoma
(6) Myxoma Myxosarcoma
(7) Sarcoid
Collagenous hamartoma → Malig or benign? Common in who?Non-neoplastic/malformation composed of dermal collagen. Common in dogs
Canine nodular dermatofibrosis → Associated w/ what? Common in who?Rare paraneoplastic disorder associated w/ renal tumors & uterine tumors. German shepherd, less commonly reported in other breeds (dotties kidneys on her skin?)
Acrochordon, “skin tag” → Benign or malig? Describe. Common in who?Non-neoplastic. Small pedunculated tumors composed of hyperplastic dermal collagen. Common in cats, dogs, humans
Fibroma → Benign or malig? How common?Benign. Fibrocystic neoplasm of dermis & subcutis. Uncommon in cats & dogs
**Fibrosarcoma → Benign or malig? Come from where in the body? Common in who? How does it behave? What specific example fits into this category?Spindle cell. Malig. Frequently arise from deep dermis &/or subcutis. Common in cats & dogs. Locally invasive & destructive, but w/ a ↓ metastatic rate. They frequently recur after surgical excision. EX: feline vaccine-associated sarcoma
What is a Myxoma Myxosarcoma?Myxomatous (mucinous) variant of fibroma/fibrosarcoma
**What is the most common cutaneous neoplasm in horses?Sarcoid
**Sarcoid → Benign or malig? Associated w/ what? Common in who? How does it behave?~Malignant. Associated w/ bovine papillomavirus *1 & 2*. Most common cutaneous neoplasm in horses, but also occurs in barn cats. It is locally invasive w/ a ↓ metastatic rate, but will commonly recur after excision
What are the 5 vascular tumors & perivascular tumors? What is their(1) Angiomatosis
(2) Vascular hamartoma
(3) Hemangioma
(4) Hemangiosarcoma
(5) Hemangiopericytoma
Angiomatosis → Benign or malig? Where does it happen? How common is it? How does it act?Non-neoplastic. Proliferation of thin-walled blood vessels in the dermis & subcutis, digital, scrotal. Rare in dogs & cats. May be locally destructive & spread to adjacent tissue
Vascular hamartoma aka?Aka arteriovenous malformation
Hemangioma → Benign or malig? How common, in who? Associated w/ that?Benign endothelial cell tumor. Very common in dogs, less common in cats. Associated w/ UV radiation & chronic solar dmg
Hemangiosarcoma → Benign or malig? Tumor of what? How does it behave?Malignant endothelial cell tumor. Moderate to ↑ metastatic potential, especially w/ tumors extending into subcutis
*Hemangiopericytoma → Benign or malig? How common? In who? Arise from what? How does it behave?Malig. Common in dogs. arise from pericytes that surround blood vessels (MALIGNANT PEARS). Typically dermal or subcutaneous. Locally invasive w/ a ↓ metastatic rate. Frequent recurrence after surgical excision biological behavior & prognosis similar as fibrosarcoma
What are the 4 neural tumors & perineural tumors?(1) Traumatic neuroma
(2) Merkel cell tumor
(3) Benign peripheral nerve sheath tumor (PNST)
(4) Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor
*Traumatic neuroma → Benign or malig? Happens when? Aka? How common in who?NON-NEOPLASTIC proliferation of nerve tissue at site of traumatic injury or surgery, aka "tail dock neuroma" which occurs uncommonly in many sp
*Benign peripheral nerve sheath tumor (PNST) → Aka? Arise from what? How common? In who? Where does it most frequently occur?Aka Schwannoma, neurofibroma. Arise in the subcutis from the perineural sheath cells (Schwann cells) .Uncommon in cats & dogs. Frequently occur on the trunk & distal limbs
*Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor → How common? In who? How does it act?More common in dogs than benign PNST. Locally invasive w/ a ↓ metastatic rate. Biological behavior & prognosis similar as fibrosarcoma~
What are the 3 smooth muscle tumors?(1) Vascular smooth muscle
(2) Arrector pili muscle
(3) Genital-associated smooth muscle
*Vascular smooth muscle tumors → What is it called?angioleiomyoma/angioleiomyosarcoma
*Arrector pili muscle tumors → Called?Piloleiomyoma/piloleiomyosarcoma
*Genital-associated smooth muscle tumors → Usually which mm? How common?Deep subcutaneous muscles of scrotum, such as cremaster & dartos. scrotal leiomyosarcoma! Rare

Pleomorphic & Lipos

Question Answer
*Merkel cell tumor → Cell type? Malig or benign? What kind of tumor? How common? In who?*Pleomorphic!!!* it is generally benign but metastasis has been reported (starts w/ M but usually not malig). it is a cutaneous neuroendocrine tumor which is uncommon in humans & rare in cats & dogs
What are the 2 Melanocytic tumors?(1) Melanocytoma
(2) Melanoma
Melanocytoma → Cell type? Benign or malig? How common? In who? Types? What can you do as tx?Pleomorphic! BENIGN! Common in dogs & horses, uncommon in cats. Junctional, compound, dermal. Complete excision is typically curative
Melanoma → Cell type? Benign or malig? How common? In who? How does it behave? How can you gauge malignancy (unique)? Where are they usually located?PLEOMORPHIC (round, polygonal, spindle) & MALIGNANT. Common in dogs & horses, less common in cats. ↑ Metastatic rate. Larger tumors are generally more malignant. Melanocytic tumors of the nailbed, mucocutaneous junctions & oral cavity are usually malignant
What are the 3 Lipocytic tumors?(1) Lipoma
(2) Infiltrative lipoma
(3) Liposarcoma
Lipoma → Malig or benign? How common in who? Diff names?Benign, neoplastic, subcutaneous adipocyte proliferation. Very common in dogs, less common in cats. Fibrolipoma, angiolipoma, chondrolipoma, etc.
Infiltrative lipoma → Benign or malig? Infiltrative to where? How common? In who?Intermediate malignancy. Infiltrative to surrounding tissue, muscle, fascia, etc...Uncommon in dogs, rare in cats
Liposarcoma → Benign or malig? How does it behave? Where is it usually located? How common? In who?Malignant. Invasive & destructive to surrounding tissue, ↓ metastatic rate. Commonly involve the axial regions & proximal legs. Uncommon in dogs, very rare in cats