Path 1- Integument 5

kelseyfmeyer's version from 2015-04-16 19:05


Question Answer
Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis more commonly cause? (what diseases with what lesions) alimentary and pulmonary disease with rare cutaneous lesions.
Mycobacterium lepraemurium causes what? and is transmitted how?feline leprosy, and is often transmitted via bite wounds from rats or other cats.
mycobacteriosis is caused by what?opportunistic pathogens
Numerous saprophytic Mycobacterium sp can cause infection through what method?through wound contamination
Non-mycobacterial granulomas are classified into what two categories?(1) Non-filamentous bacterial granulomas (Botryomycosis) (2) Filamentous bacterial granulomas (Nocardia sp., Actinomyces sp., Streptomyces sp)
Idiopathic granulomatous dermatitis (non-infectious) are split into what two categories?(1) Sterile granuloma and pyogranuloma syndrome (2) Juvenile sterile granulomatous dermatitis and lymphadenitis (Juvenile cellulitis, Juvenile pyoderma, Puppy strangles)
when should you consider a sterile granuloma complex?Sterile granuloma complex should be considered as a differential diagnosis AFTER attempts have been made to rule out infectious etiologies (biopsy with histopathology and bacterial culture).
Sterile granuloma and pyogranuloma syndrome--> Who is this common in? what are the gross lesions?Common in DOGS. The gross lesions are: single or multifocal papules, plaques or nodules most commonly occurring on the head and extremities.
**Juvenile sterile granulomatous dermatitis and lymphadenitis--> WHO does this occur in? What are the lesions like? What systems are involved and what is the pathogenesis?Occurs in puppies less than 4mo. Similar lesions as sterile granuloma and pyogranuloma syndrome (single or multifocal papules, plaques or nodules most commonly occurring on the head and extremities) and there is involvement of the LNs. UNKNOWN PATHOGENESIS
**Systemic bacterial infection and sepsis can lead to skin lesions by four mechanisms affecting blood vessels---> WHAT ARE THEY?(1) bacterial embolization (2) bacterial toxins (3) direct infection of vascular endothelial cells (4) immune-complex vasculitis (Type III hypersensitivity)
Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae creates skin lesions HOW? aka? lesions via bacterial embolization resulting in vasculitis, thrombosis, and infarction. (aka Diamond skin disease).
Septicemic salmonellosis causes skin lesions, how?endotoxin-induced venous thrombosis leading to cyanosis and necrosis of distal extremities. (SalmoNella eNdo toxin-- onlyENDO toxin and only etiological agent with N!)
Escherichia coli causes skin lesions how?production of Shiga toxin 2e leads to endothelial damage, vasculitis, and resultant edema disease of pigs.
Staphylococcus aureus causes skin lesions how?production of exotoxin! that act as superantigens causing a condition in dogs similar to toxic shock syndrome
Streptococcus canis causes skin lesions how?produce exotoxin! that contribute to vascular damage in necrotizing fasciitis.
Rickettsia rickettsia (the agent of what?) causes skin lesions how?the agent of Rocky Mountain spotted fever. directly infects endothelial cells leading to vasculitis and necrotic skin lesions.

Lecture 7

Question Answer
Superficial Mycoses--> how are they superficial?infections are restricted to the stratum corneum and/or hair shaft
Trichosporon beigelii causes what, in who? How severe is this?causes a very mild condition known as /piedra/, or /trichosporosis/, or /trichomycosis nodularis/, which causes swelling of extrafollicular hair shaft. Happens in humans, dogs, and horses and is mostly just a cosmetic problem
Cutaneous Mycoses is a fungal infection of what?Fungal infection of the /hair follicles, claws, and epidermis/
Dermatophytosis is aka? common in who? which age is most susceptible?(aka Ringworm) common in CATS and YOUNG animals are more susceptible
Dermatophytosis is usually caused by what two organisms? where do these organisms colonize? what is the clinical disease caused by?(ringworm) Microsporum sp., Trichophyton sp.. Dermatophytes colonize the cornified structures (hair, s. corneum). Clinical disease is caused by the host’s immune reaction!
what are the gross lesions of dermatophytosis? Histologic features?Gross:circular to irregular, scaly to crusty patches of alopecia. Histologic: perifolliculitis and luminal folliculitis with occasional furunculosis and epidermal hyperplasia
Candidiasis is caused by what? When does this infection occur?caused by candida sp. which are yeast that are normal inhabitants of the skin and GI tract. Infection occurs when host resistance is compromised or when the normal microflora is disrupted.
what are the gross lesions of candidiasis?exudative and fibrinous cheilitis, stomatitis, esophagitis, and otitis externa (Histologic lesions: neutrophilic inflammation with parakeratosis, erosion, ulceration, +/- yeast)
Malassezia dermatitis is found where? How does it infect animals?can be isolated from the normal skin and external ear canal. The yeast proliferates and causes clinical dermatitis when the microclimate or host defenses are altered.
What are the Gross lesions caused by Malassezia pachydermatis?Erythematous, scaly, lichenified, and alopecic dermatitis (interdigital, otic, perianal, or intertriginous are most common). (Histologic lesions: Acanthosis with parakeratosis, spongiosis, lymphocytic exocytosis, +/- yeast)
how does Subcutaneous mycoses occur? what does it lead to?caused by *traumatic implantation of fungi from the environment. leads to nodular granulomatous to pyogranulomatous panniculitis and dermatitis
(Subcutaneous mycoses)Eumycotic Mycetoma--> how common? who? describe the fungirare infection of horses and dogs, it is due to a saprophytic fungi (Curvularia geniculata, others) with dark-walled, septate hyphae
(Subcutaneous mycoses)Dermatophytic Pseudomycetoma (“deep dermatophytosis”)--> Who does this affect? what might be the reason for this? What is it caused by?rare infection only in Persian cats. suggests a breed-specific genetic deficit. Microsporum canis (persion cat is apparently a pseudo fungi dog)
(Subcutaneous mycoses)Phaeohyphomycosis--> caused by?caused by pigmented fungi (Alternaria sp., others) (Dark phae)
(Subcutaneous mycoses) Sporotrichosis--> how common? Who? any notes about this?uncommon infection of humans, horses, mule, cattle, cats, and dogs. can be ZOONOTIC esp from infected cats.
(Subcutaneous mycoses) Sporotrichosis--> CAUSATIVE AGENT? describe itcaused by saprophytic, dimorphic fungi, Sporothrix schenckii. intrahistiocytic yeast are 4-10 um, ovoid to elongate, cigar-shaped bodies surrounded by clear halo
zoonotic Subcutaneous mycoses?Sporotrichosis
*(Subcutaneous mycoses) Oomycosis--> which organism is an oomycosis which causes subcutaneous mycoses?Pythiosis
(Subcutaneous mycoses) Pythiosis aka? causative agent? happens in who? where is this most common(geographically)aka "swamp cancer" which is caused by Pythium insidiosum. occurs in horses, cattle, dogs, and cats. Most common in southern gulf states
(Subcutaneous mycoses) Pythiosis what are the gross lesions? where do they usually occur?necrotizing subcutaneous nodules that ulcerate and drain, and are usually located on the distal limbs and ventrum
(Subcutaneous mycoses) Zygomycosis is caused by what? how does this infection occur?opportunistic infections caused by saprophytic Zygomycete fungi.
Systemic mycoses causing cutaneous lesions--> how does this occur? what are the gross lesions?Cutaneous lesions may occur by systemic spread to the skin, or by direct implantation of fungi by traumatic injury. Gross lesions: Nodular skin which may have draining tract
what are 4 organisms which are Systemic mycoses causing cutaneous lesions?Blastomyces dermatitidis, Coccidioides immitis, Cryptococcus neoformans, Histoplasma capsulatum
( Algal infections--> rare, prolly wont ask us) Protothecosis causes whatpyogranulomatous dermatitis and panniculitis. (other algal infection is Chlorellosis)
Mites--> Demodicosis. Usually affects who? What are the gross lesions? What are the histological lesions?Usually affects dogs, esp. juvenile ones. (can be localized or generalized). Gross lesions: scaly, erythematous, thickened, alopecic areas. Histologic lesion: Lymphocytic mural folliculitis with intrafollicular mites and occasional sites of furunculosis +/- secondary bacterial infection
Mites--> scabies. Caused by what? important notes about scabies? commonly affects which animals?caused by Sarcoptes scabiei, and important to note that it's highly contagious and zoonotic! Commonly affects dogs and foxes (sarcoptic mange)
what is the most important ectoparasite of pigs?scabies
What are the gross lesions of scabies, and why is this?Gross lesions: scaly, erythematous, thickened, alopecic areas Mites burrow in tunnels in the stratum corneum and cause intense pruritus with marked acanthosis and hyperkeratosis!
Notoedric mites--> name of mite? happens in who? things to know?Notoedres cati infestation occurs in cats and rabbits, less commonly in foxes, dogs, and humans. Highly contagious and pruritic
Otodectic mites--> name of mite? happens where in who?Otodectes cynotis occurs in the external ear canal of dogs and cats
Psoroptic mites--> Happens in who? Specific mites for specific species are?Infestation occurs in horses, cattle, sheep, goats, rabbits, and others. Psoroptes cuniculi is common in the ear canal of rabbits. Psoroptes ovis is cause of sheep scab
Chorioptic mange--> name of mite? affects who?Chorioptes bovis affects horses, cattle, goats, sheep
Cheyletiellosis--> caused by what sp of mite? affects who, what with results? (where does the mite live?)Cheyletiella sp. infests dogs, cats, rabbits, wild animals, and humans. The mite lives on the surface of the skin and induces hyperkeratosis and detritus (dandruff) along the dorsal midline
Psorergatic Mites--> which sp affects which animal specifically? (where geographically)?Psorergates ovis infestation occurs in sheep in Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, and Argentina (PSORE sheep in australia from all the..yes)
Trombiculiasis--> aka? what's happening?Trombiculiasis is infestation by larvae of trombiculid (harvest) mites also known as chiggers. (chiggers playing trombones)
Cutaneous reactions to tick bites result in? What might make this worse?focal dermatitis resulting in papules and circular areas of erythema. Tick-bite lesions may become secondarily infected by bacteria leading to more severe dermatitis
heavy tick infestations might lead to what?anemia and weakness
explain "tick paralysis"Tick paralysis is a rare condition of acute lower motor neuron paralysis caused by neurotoxins in tick saliva.
ticks are vectors of blood borne diseases. name 5Rocky Mountain spotted fever (Rickettsia rickettsia), Lyme disease (Borrelia burgdorferi), Anaplasmosis (Anaplasma marginale), African swine fever (Asfivirus), Hemotropic mycoplasmas
Mallophaga are?biting lice (i bit MALLory)
Anoplura are?blood-sucking lice (plural blood cells being sucked)
what is Pediculosis? What might this lead to?It is an infestation of lice. may lead to skin irritation and pruritus with papules, crusts, excoriations, and traumatic hair loss.
Haematopinus suis is a what? Why do we care? what might this result in?LICE INFECTION. Economically important. Can lead to hypersensitivity dermatitis, but more imortantly, is a VECTOR for swine pox, african swine fever, and Eperythrozoon suis
what are some reasons fleas can cause severe skin irritation? what other problem might they cause?Frequent biting--> intense pruitus causing self-inflicted trauma. There are also Flea bite hypersensitivity reactions to flea saliva. Might also cause severe anemia, esp. in puppies and kittens
what is the gross lesion caused by fleas/flea bite hypersensitivity reactions (couldn't tell which he was referring to)? Who do fleas usually affect? What can fleas be a vector for?Gross lesion: Miliary dermatitis. Usually a problem for cats and dogs. Vector for tapeworms (Dipylidium caninum)
Flies--> which fly causes an insect bite hypersensitivity in horses, and what is it commonly called?Culicoides sp. “sweet itch”
Cutaneous myiasis is aka?flystrike
Culicoides sp, aside from causing sweet itch in horses, cause what other problems?transmission of orbiviruses can lead to cutaneous hemorrhage and edema (blue tongue, Epizootic hemorrhagic disease, african horse sickness)
Cutaneous habronemiasis (Summer sores) of the horse is caused by what? how is it transmitted? what are the gross lesions?(HELMNTHS) caused by Habronema sp. or Draschia sp.. Transmitted by house flies or stable flies and incidence coincides with fly season. Gross lesions: Nodular ulcerated areas commonly on legs, prepuce, face, and medial canthus of eye
hookworm dermatitis is caused by what? what are the gross lesions and histopath?(HELMNITHS) Caused by cutaneous migration of Ancylostoma sp. or Uncinaria sp.. Gross lesions: Erythematous papules and linear to irregular areas of lichenified alopecia commonly on the feet of dogs. Histologic lesions: Larval migration tracks with eosinophilic dermatitis
Onchocerciasis of horses (caused by what type of organism?) how does transmission take place? what are the lesions?HELMNITHS--> Onchocerca sp. Biting flies transmit the microfilariae. Lesions: causes granulomatous nodules on ventral midline, head, neck, and medial forelimbs
Stephanofilariasis is caused by? Affects who? what are the lesions it causes?HELMNITHS-->Stephanofilaria sp.. biting flies transmit microfilarie to cattle, buffalo, and goats. Lesions: causes granulomatous nodules on ventral midline
Cutaneous leishmaniasis is caused by what kinda organism? Affects who?it is a PROTOZOA. Dogs, cats, and rodents serve as reservoirs of infection for humans. Leishmania infantum infection is endemic in Foxhounds throughout the US.
what are the gross lesions seen in leishmaniasis? WHERE are they usually seen? (histologic lesions?)Gross cutaneous lesions in dogs and cats consist of alopecia, nodules, and ulcers which Most often occur in areas which sandflies feed and transmit the organisms (muzzle, nose, ears, and eyes). (histologic lesions: Nodular granulomatous and ulcerative dermatitis with intrahistiocytic amastigotes)
other protozoa which OCCASIONALLY cause cutaneous lesions (aside from leishmania) are?toxoplasmosis, neosporosis, sarcocystosis, caryosporosis

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