Path 1- Integument 4

kelseyfmeyer's version from 2015-04-16 19:04

Lecture 5

Question Answer
what are the zoonotic pox viruses?monkeypox, cowpox, parapoxvirus
which poxviruses are most pathogenic? Who do these 2 viruses affect, and how?***Sheeppox and goatpox (FAD), caused by capripoxvirus, are the most pathogenic and typically result in systemic infection with mortality in young animals
*What is the pathogenesis of pox viruses?******Proliferation and Necrosis****!!! viral invasion of epithelium-->stimulation of host DNA causes epidermal and dermal hyperplasia-->vascular injury and ischemic necrosis
what is the lesion development of a pox virus?macule → papule → vesicle → umbilicated pustule → crust → scar
what is the diagnostic features of poxviruses?intracytoplasmic eosinophilic viral inclusion bodies
three main types of herpes infections mentioned?dermatotrophic, non-dermatotrophic, and oncogenic
histological features of poxviruses?hyperplasia (proliferation), ballooning degeneration, necrosis, intracytoplasmic eosinophilic viral inclusion bodies(<---DIAGNOSTIC!)
which TYPE of herpes mainly effects the skin? list the two viruses in this category.Dermatotropic herpesviruses. (1) bovine herpesvirus **2** (ulcerative mammillitis) (2) bovine herpesvirus **4** (mammary pustular dermatitis)
what are the 4 listed Non-dermatotropic herpesviruses? describe this definition.non-dermatotropic=cutaneous lesions are less common. (1) bovine herpesvirus 1 (bovine rhinotracheitis, vulvovaginitis, balanoposthitis) (2) equine herpesvirus 3 (coital exanthema) (3) ovine herpesvirus 2 (Malignant catarrhal fever) (4) feline herpesvirus 1 (feline rhinotracheitis--> ulcerative facial dermatitis and stomatitis)
which cells does the (Dermatotropic) herpesvirus infect? where does it replicate? what does this b/h cause to happen resulting in what?infects EPITHELIAL CELLS with replication in the nucleus. Lyses the nuc--> cell death-->virus spreads to neighboring cell---> MULTIFOCAL tissue necrosis
what does herpesvirus infection cause if it infects endothelial cells? Examples of the diseases with this?leads to vasculitis and cutaneous infarction. Examples of this are ovine herpesvirus 2 and alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 (Malignant catarrhal fever)
what is a property/thing that herpesvirus can do?can go into LATENCY! (with inactive virus persisting in tissue such as the trigeminal nerve ganglia.)
malignant catarrhal fever is from what type of virus, and what kinda damage does it cause?herpes, vasculitis and cutaneous infarction
*what kinda dermatitis does herpes cause? Describe the lesion progression**Vesiculo-ulcerative dermatitis**. Lesions progression is: vesicle → ULCER → crusts
what are the histological features of herpesvirus infection? epidermal ballooning and reticular degeneration, lytic necrosis, intranuclear eosinophilic viral inclusion bodies!!!! and few syncytial cells
what are some examples of ONCOGENIC herpes infections?Guinea pig leukemia, Rabbit lymphoma, Monkey lymphoma, and cutaneous tumors
describe from cutaneous tumors which are caused by oncogenic strains of herpesvirus? (1) Marek’s disease of chickens (cutaneous follicular lymphoma) (2) Sea turtle fibropapillomatosis (caused by herpes-like virus) (also kaposi's sarcoma of humans)
in what way(s) is/are papilloma viruses selective?SPECIES AND SITE SPECIFIC!
*what kinda lesions do papillomaviruses usually cause?TUMOR FORMATION!!!! USUALLY cause benign tumors (papillomas), but can also cause malignant tumors such as **carcinomas and sarcoids
explain the pathogenesis (And final result) of a papilloma infectionviral infection of squamous epithelium--> integration into host cell genome--> inactivation of tumor suppressor genes (p53 and Rb)--> TUMOR FORMATION
gross lesions of papillomaviruses are ___, and some examples of lesions are-they are VARIABLE gross lesions! may include benign papillomas (warts), malignant squamous cell carcinoma (less common), plaque-like lesions, and sarcoids
in who do benign papillomas occur most frequently in? how might you describe a papilloma?commonly occur in young animals. Papillomas are exophytic(tending to grow outward beyond the surface epithelium from which it originates), papilliferous(bear papillae), and non-invasive.
Papillomatosis versus papilloma?Papillomatosis= MANY papillomas
Who do sarcoids occur in? (which type of virus does sarcoids fall under?) how severe is a sarcoid?most commonly occur in cats and horses. associated with bovine papillomavirus 1 and 2 infection. they are INVASIVE and DESTRUCTIVE and often will recur after excision.
what is the most common skin tumor of the horse?sarcoids
viruses causing cutaneous lesions-->Picornavirus cause what diseases?FMD (swine, rumis) and swine vesicular dz
viruses causing cutaneous lesions-->Rhabdovirus cause what dz?Vesicular stomatitis (horse, cow, pig)
viruses causing cutaneous lesions-->Calicivirus cause what dzs?Vesicular exanthema of swine, feline calicivirus
viruses causing cutaneous lesions-->Parvovirus cause what dz?porcine parvovirus
viruses causing cutaneous lesions-->Retrovirus cause what dzs?Feline leukemia virus, Feline immunodeficiency virus

Lecture 6

Question Answer
Bacterial skin infections are most commonly caused by--?opportunistic pathogens.
what are some portals of entry which bacteria can get in?pores(hair follicles), Hematogenous spread, disruption of the physical barrier, disruption of the immunological barrier
what are two ways there might be a disruption of the physical barrier to allow bact to infect skin?(1) Damage to the epidermis (trauma, inflammation) (2) Disruption of the cutaneous microenvironment and microbiota (causes might be temp/humidity, antimicrobial therapy, bacterial overgrowth, and inflammation, such as in allergic and contact dermatitis)
what is dysbiosis?bacterial overgrowth
what are two ways the immunological barrier of the skin might be interrupted to allow a bact infection?immunosuppression and corticosteroids
*Bacterial skin infections are most common in WHO???THE DOG
what are some theories as to why dogs get bacterial skin infections the most?poorly understood. some theories are: relatively thin stratum corneum, low lipid content, poor seal at opening of hair follicles, relatively high pH of canine skin, genetic catastrophe (lots of inbreeding to get breeds)
what is a superficial infection of the skin called? how about a deep one?superficial pyoderma and a deep pyoderma
Canine superficial pyoderma is caused by WHAT ORGANISM? what are some possible predisposing factors?Staphylococcus pseudintermedius. some predisposing factors are trauma, allergy/pruritus. seborrhea(nonspecific term for clinical signs of scaling, crusting, and greasiness), immune deficiency, follicular inflammation or dysfunction, unsanitary conditions
Staphylococcus pseudintermedius causes what?canine superficial pyoderma
canine superficial pyoderma caused by WHAT??Staphylococcus pseudintermedius
what are the *GROSS LESIONS of CANINE SUPERFICIAL PYODERMA?erythema, macules, papules, pustules, crusts, and **collarettes**
Impetigo--> is this a superifical or deep infection? Who does it happen to most frequently? Where does it usually occur?SUPERFICIAL infection which most commonly affects puppies (and human infants) Less commonly in cows, ewes, does. This occurs on areas of thin hair coat, like abdomen, inguinal, axillary, and udder
what type of conditions/situations is impetigo usually associated with? How easy it is it get impetigo? usually associated with unsanitary conditions, abrasions, increased moisture, poor nutrition...highly contageous
which bacteria usually cause impetigo?it is usually caused by Coagulase-positive Staphylococcus sp, such as S. aureus, S. intermedius, S. pseudintermedius, and S. schleiferi
what are the gross lesions of impetigo? what are the histologic features?Gross: Multifocal pustules and crusts. Histo: *Non-follicular* subcorneal pustules with serocellular crusting
Canine mucocutaneous pyoderma--> is it SUPERFICIAL or DEEP? What is the cause of this?SUPERFICIAL infection, the pathogenesis/cause is unknown but responsiveness to Abx makes them believe there is a bacterial component suspected
Canine mucocutaneous pyoderma--> which areas are most affected? least?Lips and nose are most commonly affected site. Prepuce, vulva, anus are less affected.
Canine mucocutaneous pyoderma--> what are the gross lesions? what are the histological features?Gross lesions: erythema, swelling, crusting, ulceration, depigmentation. Histologic features: Dense band of lymphoplasmacytic and neutrophilic inflammation at dermo-epidermal junction (lichenoid inflammation), pigmentary incontinence
Exudative epidermitis of pigs (Greasy pig disease)--> superficial or deep infxn? What is the severity of this dz? What is the etiological agent?SUPERFICIAL infection which is often fatal in neonatal pigs but is milder in older pigs. caused by Staphylococcus hyicus
Staphylococcus hyicus causes what?Exudative epidermitis of pigs (Greasy pig disease) (HYIC! the pigskin. football ref? I tried)
Exudative epidermitis of pigs (Greasy pig disease)--> what are the gross lesions of this? Histological features?Gross lesions: Thickened, scaly, greasy, and exudative skin, especially on face. Histologic features: subcorneal pustular dermatitis and superficial suppurative folliculitis with acanthosis
Dermatophilosis--> aka? superficial or deep infection? happens most commonly to who, and when?aka “Rain Rot”, “Rain Scald”. SUPERFICIAL infection which occurs most often in horses, cattle and sheep in WET weather.
Dermatophilosis--> caused by? (describe causative agent, and what it does)caused by Dermatophilus congolensis. Gram-positive filamentous bacteria colonize the superficial epidermis and hair follicle. bacteria have “railroad-like” appearance
Dermatophilus congolensis causes?dermatophilosis/rain rot/ rain scald
dermatophilosis' gross lesions are? histologic features?Gross lesions: papules, pustules, and thick crusts that coalesce with matted wool or hair. Histologic features: suppurative epidermitis with hyperkeratosis and multi-laminated pustular crusts with characteristic bacteria
Ovine fleece rot--> superficial or deep infection? Usually associated with what? Causative agent?SUPERFICIAL pyoderma which is typically associated with wet weather--> excessive moisture penetrates the fleece and causes proliferation of Pseudomonas sp.
pseudomonas sp. are involved in which pyoderma?ovine fleece rot
what are the clinical signs/results of ovine fleece rot? What does fleece rot predispose the sheep to?acute superficial suppurative dermatitis with discoloration of the fleece and rotten odor. Malodor and weakened skin can predispose to myiasis (fly strike)
myiasis (fly strike) is predisposed by?ovine fleece rot
deep pyoderma is an infection of what stuff in the skin?hair follicle, dermis, and subcutis
which is more commmon-- deep or superficial pyoderma?superficial is more common
Deep pyoderma occurs most commonly in who, and most commonly involves which bacteria?DOGS, Staphylococcus pseudintermedius
Staphylococcus pseudintermedius usually associated with?deep pyodermas (and superficial!)
Bacterial folliculitis and furunculosis (explain the diff between the two, and their relation)Deep bacterial infection of the hair follicle (folliculitis) will often lead to follicular distension and rupture (furunculosis).
Furunculosis leads to what?leads to release of hair shaft, bacteria, and keratin debris that causes, severe, localized deep dermatitis--->**Infection AND foreign body-type inflammation.
folliculitis and furunculosis most often occur in who? Where? predisposing factors?most common in DOGS. and frequently occurs on pressure points and on the feet, especially interdigital spaces. Dogs with allergy, follicular dysplasia, cornification disorders, dermatophytosis, or demodicosis are predisposed. (In HORSES, lesions develop most commonly in association with tack (saddle sores), tail, and caudal pastern (greasy heel, scratches) )
Subcutaneous abscessation---> define this. Who is this most common in? (and why?)localized accumulations of purulent exudate (pus) within the dermis and subcutis. Common in *CATS due to high frequency of puncture wounds with subsequent bacterial infection. (Other causes include foreign body, injections, shearing and clipping wounds)
How does a subcutaneous abscess usually heal?Typically develop draining tracts and heal by scarring
Cellulitis--> what is it? what causes it and what happens?poorly demarcated area of bacterial infection. suppurative inflammation of the dermis, subcutis, and underlying muscle. Source of infection usually a penetrating wound or other injury
Necrotizing fasciitis--> happens in who? how common? what is it? What causes it? aka? how severe is this?DOGS and humans. a RARE, and SEVERE form of cellulitus (suppurative inflammation). Most often caused by Streptococcus canis infection. Aka flesh-eating-bacteria syndrome. life threatening condition due to concurrent septic shock
*life threatening condition due to concurrent septic shock-->necrotizing fasciitis
*Streptococcus canis usually associated with?necrotizing fasciitis (Dog bit me and the CANINE went into the FASCIA)
Mycobacterial organisms usually live where, who persist by doing what?intracellular bacteria that persist by surviving inside macrophages by preventing the fusion of phagosomes and lysosomes
*how do you identify mycobacteria?~ACID FAST STAINS such as Ziehl-Neelsen stain and Fite-Faraco stain
Obligate intracellular pathogens (mycobacterium) cause ___ and ___, and are transmitted ___tuberculosis and leprosy, transmitted horizontally

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