Path 1- Integument 2

kelseyfmeyer's version from 2015-04-16 19:04

Lecture 2 continued

Question Answer
what is pemphigus foliaceus?acantholysis occurs in superficial epidermis resulting in /subcorneal pustules/ (desmoglein 1)
what is pemphigus vulgaris?acantholysis occurs in deep epidermis resulting in suprabasilar vesicles and clefts with tombstoning and /ulceration/ (desmoglein 1 and 3)
how can a skin infection cause acantholysis, and what are two examples?//neutrophilic enzymatic destruction// from skin infections, esp. (1) bacterial pyoderma (Staph. and Strep.) (2) dermatophytosis (Trichophyton sp.)
what are Vesicles/Bulla?Fluid-filled spaces within or beneath the epidermis (blisters) Vesicles > 1 cm are termed bulla (pl. bullae)
what is the main cause of vesicle/bulla formation? what are some other causes?main causes are viral infections (herpesvirus, poxvirus, morbillivirus, rhabdovirus, picornavirus), also could be caused by dermal/epidermal edema, frictional trauma, burns, or acantholytic diseases (pemphigus vs. infection)
what are some viruses which could cause vessicles or bulla to form? (5)herpesvirus, poxvirus, morbillivirus, rhabdovirus, picornavirus
what is the term used to describe complete separation of the epidermis from the dermis?Subepidermal vesicle.....bullous pemphigoid
inflammation-->what is going on in the process of exocytosis?Leukocytes (mostly neutrophils) that infiltrate the epidermis migrate from the superficial dermal into the epidermis in a process termed exocytosis.
inflammation-->Exocytosis is commonly accompanied by what?spongiosis
inflammation--> if inflammation persists, what happens with the neutrophils?neutrophils will accumulate within the epidermis to form pustules, or microabscesses (pus).
inflammation--> aside from neutrophil accumulation, what else can form pustules, and what situations cause this?Pustules may also be formed by eosinophil accumulation which is often a response to ectoparasite bites, pemphigoid reactions, or feline eosinophilic disease.
inflammation--> when does Exocytosis of lymphocytes usually occur? (2)(1) immune dzs, such as lupus erythematosus (2) and with some chronic infections, such as Malassezia sp.
what are crusts?Crusts are composed of dried fluid and cellular debris on the epidermal surface which indicate an exudative process.
what are the two ways that hyperpigmentation occurs? (incld examples)(1) inc PRODUCTION of melanin, which happens with chronic dermatitis (allergic dermatitis) and endocrine dermatoses (e.g. hyperadrenocorticism) (2) inc melanocytes such as for lentigo and melanocytic neoplasia
what are some situations in which youd see hypopigmentation?acquired loss of melanocytes (skin injury), acquired lack of melanin production (copper deficiency), or can be congenital or hereditary due to genetic causes (albinism)
explain Pigmentary incontinenceit is is a histologic feature which refers to the loss of melanin by damage to the stratum basale with resulting accumulation of melanin within macrophages in the superficial dermis.
*DERMAL atrophy is usually caused by what kinda conditions (examples?)caused by CATABOLIC conditions such as severe, prolonged malnutrition (starvation), hyperadrenocorticism (Cushing’s), and long-term corticosteroid therapy (iatrogenic)
*dermis--> what is fibrosis?The gradual deposition and maturation of collagen to form scar tissue.
The early stage of fibroplasia in response to injury is called?granulation tissue
what is Exuberant granulation tissue usually called? when does this usually occur? (a.k.a. proud flesh) may occur with cutaneous injury, especially on the distal limb of horses.
*explain Collagen dysplasia (which layer of skin is this a dysfunction of?)(dermis) an inherited abnormality of collagen that results in decreased tensile strength and increased stretchability of the skin (e.g. Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, cutaneous asthenia)
cutaneous asthenia aka?collagen dysplasia (super stretchy skin)
*explain Solar elastosis and what it is a result from?caused by chronic exposure to ultraviolet radiation (solar damage) leading to increased numbers of thick, interwoven, basophilic elastic fibers in the superficial dermis.

Lecture 3

Question Answer
*what are three depositions which occur in the dermis?Amyloid, Mucin or hyaluron, and calcium
(Amyloid depositions are deposited where? in who?)in the DERMIS. and is rarely observed in dogs and horses. (Can be triggered by a monoclonal gammopathy or plasma cell tumors (AL amyloid) or by dermatomyositis (SAA protein).)
*mucin or hyaluron desposits where in the skin? what is it composed of? what is this condition called? When does this occur?in the DERMIS, it is an accumulation of glycosaminoglycans and accumulation in the skin is termed as cutaneous myxedema and may occur with hypothyroidism or in mucinosis of the Chinese Shar-Pei dog.
cutaneous myxedema is aka and happens when?mucin or hyaluron desposits of glycosaminoglycans in the dermis which happens in hypothyroidism or in mucinosis of the Chinese Shar-Pei dog.
*mineralization or calcification of the DERMIS occurs in what three forms?Dystrophic, metastatic, and idiopathic
dystrophic calcification usually happens when because of what?result of chronic injury or degeneration. hyperadrenocorticism leads to calcinosis cutis due to collagen degeneration in the dermis deposits may occur within granulomatous foci
granulomatous foci might have what kinda deposits in them?calcium
what depositing-disorder can result from hyperadrenocorticism?calcinosis cutis
how long does acute dermatitis usually last? what is happening during this? main cell involved?lasts hours to several days. and involves active hyperemia, edema, and migration of leukocytes, mostly neutrophils
(what are 4 outcomes of acute dermatitis?)complete resolution, formation of an abscess (pyoderma), healing and replacement by scar tissue, progression to chronic dermatitis(hotspots)
*how long does chronic dermatitis last? what is the main cell involved?lasts weeks, months, or years.tissue destruction, fibrosis, angiogenesis, and accumulation of mononuclear leukocytes (macrophages, lymphocytes, plasma cells)
*what is the yellow example he gives for chronic dermatitis?acral lick dermatitis(sustained physical injury or self-trauma)
(4 causes of chronic dermatitis?)persistent infections, often accompanied by allergic dermatitis, formation of granulomas (infectious or sterile), autoimmune dermatitis (SLE, pemphigus foliaceus), sustained physical injury or self-trauma (acral lick dermatitis)
Repeated skin surface trauma (acral lick dermatitis) affects the adenexa how?causes adnexal hypertrophy.
what is the adenexa?"skin appendages" -- ie hair follicles and associated glands in the skin
*Follicular dysplasia is what, and usually leads to what?abnormal development of follicles and hair shafts that frequently cause alopecia
*what are some examples of follicular dysplasia?color dilution follicular dysplasia (mutant color alopecia) (causes clumping of melanin pigment and increased hair shaft fragility), structural follicular dysplasia, atrophic follicular dysplasia (pattern baldness), cyclic follicular dysplasia (seasonal alopecia)
disruption of the normal stages of hair development is usually due to what?often caused by hormonal disorders such as hypothyroidism or hyperadrenocorticism
*check out picture of "inflammatory patterns of adenexa"he said no pics on test, just understand concept
*what is Mural folliculitis? when is this commonly seen?inflammation of hair follicle wall. commonly seen with demodicosis or pemphigus foliaceus.
*what is Luminal folliculitis? when do you usually see this?Inflammation of the follicle lumen. most commonly associated with infection of the hair follicle with bacteria (Staphylococcus sp.), dermatophytes (Microsporum sp. Trichophyton sp.), or parasites (Demodex sp.)
*what is bulbitis? example of a condition of this?inflammation of the hair bulb (alopecia areata) ("spot baldness" prolly autoimmune disorder)
*what is furunculosis? how does this happen?Severe luminal folliculitis can lead to distention of the hair follicle by exudate--> Subsequent hair follicle rupture can lead to a /foreign body inflammatory response/ in the surrounding dermis, know as furunculosis
(what can furunculosis lead to?)Furunculosis can lead to a nodular skin mass and localized bacterial infection which is slowly responsive to antibiotic therapy and frequently causes scarring.
what is Adenitis?inflammation of a gland
what are the two types of adenitis of the skin? briefly explain**(1) Sebaceous adenitis is inflammation of sebaceous glands.(usually in dogs, prolly immune mediated, if chronic, can have loss of gland with scarring) (2) Hidradenitis is inflammation of apocrine glands. (suppurative hidradenitis occurs in conjunction with staphylococcal folliculitis and furunculosis--may be due to extension of bacterial infection from the hair follicle)
what is the PRIMARY TARGET OF INJURY?blood vessels
(what are possible causes of vasculitis?)Infection, Immune-mediated injury, toxins and drug reactions, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), idiopathic - most cases have unknown cause
which animals are most often affected by vasculitis?dogs and horses
what are clinical signs of vasculitis?edema, hemorrhage, ischemia, and infarction
**what are three classic examples/causes of vasculitis?(1) Type III (immune complex) hypersensitivity during SLE (2) endotheliotropic infections (e.g. Rickettsia rickettsii, herpesviruses, FIP virus) (3) bacterial embolism (e.g. Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae)
what is Panniculitis?inflammation of the subcutaneous adipose tissue
**what are some causes of panniculitis?Infectious - bacteria and fungi, immune-mediated - SLE, physical injury - trauma, injection sites, foreign bodies, nutritional disorders - Vit E deficiency (feline pansteatitis), pancreatic disease - pancreatitis, pancreatic carcinoma. idiopathic - a.k.a. sterile panniculitis
what are some clinical signs of panniculitis?painful, palpable nodules that can become ulcerated and drain an oily or hemorrhagic material. animal may be pyrexic with lethargy and inappetence
*what are the two ways an animal can get Congenital alopecia and hypotrichosis?(1) genetic (2) non-genetic
*what are the two known causes of non-genetic congenital alopeia and hypotrichosis?(1) maternal iodine deficiency (2) in utero pestivirus infection, i.e. BVD and CSF (wouldnt have thought iodine and viruses would kill your hair..)
*what are the three Collagen dysplasia disorders?(all are rare) hyperelastosis cutis, dermatosparaxis, and cutaneous asthenia.
*which breed do you see mucinosis in?sharpei (may rarely present with severe forms resulting in fragile skin)
Epidermolysis bullosa is aka? what is going on? who's prone?"red foot dz" where you get bullae from minor mechanical trauma. caused by structural defects of the dermo-epidermal basement membrane zone. In cattle, sheep, dogs, or cats
Epitheliogenesis imperfecta is aka? what is happpening?aka Aplasia cutis, failure of the epidermis to develop completely, resulting in areas of exposed dermis. Usually die from dehydration and infection, occurs in most domestic spp
*Congenital hypertrichosis--> affects who? aka? what is happening?excessivly hairy lamb. Usually caused by in utero pestivirus infection (border dz virus). lambs also have cerebral cavitation, poor conformation, and tremors. Aka border disease or hairy shaker disease
*Dermatosis vegetans--> affects who? what is happening?inherited disorder which affects YOUNG PIGS, specifically Landrace pigs. characterized by vegetating skin lesions, hoof malformations, and giant cell pneumonia. Lesions either present at birth or develop at 2-3mo of age (VAGETA LANDS on the PIG to crush its skin)

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