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Path 1- Inflammation 3 & Immunopathology

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dslemeraldcity's version from 2016-09-20 02:34

healing and repair

Question Answer
define healingprocess of replacement of damaged or dead tissue
what is healing by regeneration?healing by same kind of cells
what is healing by repair?damaged cells replaced by OTHER TYPES OF CELLS, connective tissue
with healing by regeneration, cells can be divided into three categories depending on their capacity for regeneration. what are they?(1) labile cells (2) stable cells (parenchymal cells, mesenchymal derivatives) (3) permanent cells
what are labile cells?(continuously dividing cells): Cells, which multiply throughout life. These include epithelial cells of skin and mucous membranes, and cells of bone marrow and lymphoid organs (lympho-hemopoietic cells).
what are stable cells?(quiescent cells): These include cells of parenchymatous organs like liver, kidney, pancreas, adrenal, bone, tendon, nerve and smooth muscle cells. Can regenerate if they HAVE to. However, their power of regeneration decreases with age.
what are permanent cells? :(non-dividing cells)Cells, which have left the cell cycle and lost their power of regeneration. These include neurons of central nervous system, cardiac and skeletal muscle cells.
give a lookie to that cell cycle diagramwoo
what is the down side of healing by repair? (examples?)(healing with connective tissue). there is a permanent loss of specialized function of the tissue. (eg, renal failure in fibrous replacement of the kidney, or heart failure in myocardial infarct and fibrosis)
what are the two ways there is healing by connective tissue?(1) primary healing/ primary union/ healing by first intention (2) secondary union/healing by second intention
**primary healing/ primary union/ healing by first intention is healing of what kinda situation?healing of a clean wound where tissues are opposed (they can touch each other, not a huge chunk missing)
look at diagram of healing by first intention and second intentionshows some diffs
**healing by second intention deals with what kinda wound? ex?healing of tissue where edges cannot be opposed. ex: extensive ulceration, surgical wound (cant get it back together), infarction and abscess. TAKES MUCH LONGER THAN PRIMARY INTENTION
(not as important)*factors that affect adequacy/quality of repair--> stimuli to prolif of cells (note about this, and various factors?)stim for cell division is unknown, however the following theories are: (1) cytokines and wound hormones (see pg 111 in long notes) (2) chemical stimulants (3) pressure gradients (contact inhibition- they will keep growing and repairing until they contact their neighbor. so when damage in area, the contact inhibition is lost and they will start growing)
*factors that affect adequacy/quality of repair--> systemic factors (what are the factors? 3)(1) physiological condition of host (2) nutrition (3) endocrine factors
*factors that affect adequacy/quality of repair--> local factors (are? 4)(1) blood supply (2) infection (3) mobility of tissues (4) site of injury
what is Cicatrization?formation of large amounts of scar tissue, as seen in healing by second intention (healing by repair)
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Immunopathology

Question Answer
Type 1 hypersensitivity (what type, results from, examples, immunologic mediator)(immediate type). anaphylaxsis, allergies, immediate hypersensitivity, atopy. results from exposure to an antigen in a previously sensitized host. the immunological mediator is IgE (the allergy one)
look at type 1 hypersensitivity pic (he wanted us to know the two major things from it, which are):P know two phases-- (1) once antigen enters body, it stimulates production of IgE. they get mast cell coated, and that's sensitization stage. then 2nd dose of same antigen enters, IgE is on mast cells, cases mast to degranulate, and it releases histamine (histamine effect affects SM MM and it effects permeability for causing SWELLING)
specific features of the type 1 hypersensitivity? (5)(1) pathogenesis involved a sensitization and a effector phase (2) needs re-exposure (3) xferable to normal animal by injecting serum from sensitized animal (4) genetic predisposition for certain individuals to produce IgE (5) reaction time- 15-20 min
the two effects(types) of type 1 hypersensitivity are..(2)(1) systemic (2) localized
what happens in systemic anaphylaxis (type 1 hypersensitivity)?massive release of histamine into system. (tx with injection of epinephrine)
what happens in localized anaphylaxis (type 1 hypersensitivity)?antigen coming from one route, and only that route responses (inhale dust, respiratory rxn)
what is a lick granuloma? (acral lick dermatitis)a common psychogenic dermatitis usually developing on an extremity (acral- means extremity or apex). It is caused by persistent licking or chewing. cause is unknown. sensory poly neuropathy or boredom can play a role
how does a lick granuloma differ from a type 1 hypersensitivity?usually psychogenic origin, licking causes the reaction not a particular Ag (also ONLY PLASMA CELLS not plasma, lymph, neutrophils, mast cells. AND! unknown etiology, whereas type 1 is known)
*The 5 features of a Type 2 hypersensitivity?(1) mediated by Abs directed towards Ag on the cell surface/ cell surface receptor (2) antigen might be intrinsic to cell membrane or cell receptor or exogenous adsorbed on cell surface (3) pathogenesis of rxn is central to development of anti-receptor or anti-cell surface antibodies (4) rxn results from binding of Abs to cell surface Ags or cell surface receptors (5) rxn leads to cellular/tissue damage or activate or block the activation of the cell
what is the Ab involved in a type 2 hypersensitivity? what is it being produced against?IgG, and self-cell surface antigens or receptors
type 2 hypersensitivity is basically?autoimmune-- Abs against own cells, usually blood cells.
Type 2 HS--> complement dependent rxn--> 4 types of conditions that exemplify this? (sps common with?)(1) transfusion rxn (2) hemolytic anemia of newborn (foals, sometimes dogs/cats/pigs/calves) (3) autoimmune hemolytic anemia(dog, cat, horse)/ autoimmune thrombocytopenia (dog) (4) certian drug rxns (drug and Abs get complexed to red cell antigen)
major sign of thrombocytopenia, which is related to which hypersens.?small hemmorhages like petechiae, and its type 2
Type 2 HS--> Ab mediated cellular dysfunction (what is happening? examples?)Abs directed against cell surface receptors, which impair or disregulate fxn of receptors (ABS AGAINST CELL RECEPTORS) Ex's: autoimmune thyroiditis in dogs/chickens, adrenal and testicular lesions, coon hound paralysis, myesthenia gravis in dogs, less common in goats/cats, pemphigus vulgaris/phemphigus foliaceus (Abs against epithelial cement) and eosinophilic granuloma complex
Type 3 HS (immune complex mediated hypersensitivity)- what are the 2 features of this?(1) immune complexes are large molecular aggregrates formed by union of Ag-Ab and sometimes compliment. (2) tissue damage results from hypersensitivity rxn of Ag-Ab complex
Type 3 HS--> 2 factors determining extent of tissue damage(1) SIZE of complexes (if Ab>>Ag, complex is huge, phagocitized and removed. if Ag>>Ab, complex smaller, remain soluble and circulate longer SO THEY CAUSE TISSUE DAMAGE) (2) overload of immune complexes and intrinsic dysfunction of macrophage-phagocyte system (so....size, how many, and are the macrophages doing anything about it?)
glomerulonephritis is what type of hypersensitivity?SYSTEMIC immune complex (type 3)
idiopathic polyarthritis is what type of hypersensitivity?SYSTEMIC immune complex (type 3)
 periarthritis nodosa/necrotisizing polyarthritis is what type of hypersensitivity?immune complex (type 3)
immune mediated meningitis is what type of hypersensitivity?SYSTEMIC immune complex (type 3)
hypersensitivity pneumonitis is what type of hypersensitivity?LOCALIZED immune complex (type 3)
vasculitis is what type of hypersensitivity?LOCALIZED immune complex (type 3) (in dogs, drug induced, in horses, idiopathic)
purpura hemorrhagica is what type of hypersensitivity?LOCALIZED immune complex (type 3) (seen after strep equi in horses)
anterior uveitis is what type of hypersensitivity? describe who with whatLOCALIZED immune complex (type 3). Dogs= infectious canine hepatitis Cats= FIP (or IFP) infection. Horses= leptospiral and onchocer
what type of Abs are involved in type 4 hypersensitivity?NONE. LULZ. it's T-lymphocytes sensitized cells
Type IV hypersensitivity is what, and aka?DTH- delayed type hypersensitivity, aka CELL MEDIATED HYPERSENSITIVITY
what are the FEATURES of a type IV hypersensitivity? (6)(1) LACK OF DEPENDENCE ON Ab! (2) sensitized lymphocytes involved (3) cant transfer between animals by transferring serum (other hypersensitivities, this is true) (4) DELAYED time frame (5) observed in intracellular infections (6) allergic contact hypersensitivity/ direct cytotox by CD8
classic example of a type4 DTH rxn?tuberculin test (test for tuberculosis, inject, check back later for response)
name the Abs involved for the 4 hypersensitivities(1) Type 1- IgE- allergies (2) Type 2- IgG- cytotoxic/autoimmune (3) Type 3- IgG- immune complex (4) Type 4- NONE- delayed type hypersensitivity (cell mediated response)...Th1 (helper T cells) are recognizing Ags and triggering killer T cells
explain contact dermatitis/hypersensitivity (type IV) (in who?)usually dogs/horses. sensitization to metals/plastics/whatever (haptens) which arent immunogenic, but bind to protein in the epidermis and form a new antigenic protein--> host's cell mediated response will damage the skin
flear allergy dermatitis (FAD) is which HS? explaintype 4-- allergy develops against flea salivary Ags. (start as type 1--> move to type 4 as animal gains resistance)
sweet itch is which kinda HS?type 4, horses geting bit by midges (start as type 1--> move to type 4 as animal gains resistance)
what is pemphigus foliaceus?TYPE 2 HYPERSENSITIVITY--> Abs are formed against the cellular cement in the epidermis. get crusting dermatitis (autoimmune disorder)
antibody mediated cellular dysfunction is what kinda hypersensitivity? examples?type 2! phemphigus vulgaris/folicaceous, myesthenia gravis
which hypersensitvity could you say resembled a granulomatous reaction?type 4, because it is immune cells but not Abs playing a role
what is a compliment dependent reaction?Type II hypersensitivity with antibody/antigen reactions leading to lysis or phagocytosis, mostly involving RBC, WBC, or platelets
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