Path 1- Immunity

taylormaloney's version from 2016-08-10 05:19

Section 1

Question Answer
Define ImmunityThe body's defense mechanism against infection or foreign substances.
Define ImmunologyStudy of physiologic mechanisms that allow the body to recognize materials as foreign and to neutralize or eliminate them.
Excessive or inappropriate activity of the immune system can cause what?Hypersensitivity Response, Immune Complex Disease, or Autoimmune Disease.
What are organs of the immune system referred to as?Lymphoid Tissues.
What are the primary lymphoid organs?Bone Marrow and Thymus.
Primary Lymphoid Organs are the central sites of what?All cells of the immune system and B + T cell differentiation.
What are the Peripheral or Secondary Lymphoid Tissues?Lymph Nodes, Tonsils, Peyer's Patches, Spleen, and Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissues.

Section 2

Question Answer
Define Innate ImmunityNatural Immunity, inherited and operating at birth. Acts as body's first line of defense. Non-specific + Non-adaptive.
What is the first line of defense?Physiological barriers such as skin, mucosa, saliva,stomach acid etc.
What is the second line of defense?Phagocytes + NK Cells, Inflammation.
What are interferons?Product of virally infected cells, to limit the spread and protect surrounding non-infected cells. Coat surrounding cells to make them viral resistant.
What are the two main functions of interferons?They act as messengers within the immune system and between other systems. They also inhibit tumor growth.

Section 3

Question Answer
Define Acquired Immunity.Adaptive + Specific. Not present at birth, it is learned. It can recognize, attack, and destroy foreign substances. Produces specific responses to invader. Prevents proliferation of mutant cells.
Acquired Immunity is primarily mediated by which cells?T-cells + B-cells.
Define Immunocompetence.Ability to mount an appropriate immune reaction.
What are the two types of acquired immunity?Cell mediated- T cell immunity. & Humoral- B cell immunity. Immunoglobulin related immunity.
What is the essential first step in leading to a specific immune response?The engulfment of a pathogen by a macrophage.
What are the Antigen Presenting Cells?Macrophages.

Section 4

Question Answer
Define AntigensAny substance that does not have the characteristic cell surface markers MHC of that individual, and is capable of eliciting an immune response.
Define AntibodiesProtein Molecules that fit specifically to an antigen.
Define Major Histocompatibility Complex.Cell markers on the surface of all of our body's cells that are unique to each of us. Allows the immune system's cells to communicate with one another.
Define EpitopesThe part of an antigen that elicits the immune response. The part that binds to the antibody.
More eptitopes = ______The greater the immune response.

Section 5

Question Answer
What are the five classes of immunoglobulins?Ig G, Ig A, Ig M, Ig E, and Ig D
All of the classes of immunoglobulins are comprised of _________.Light and Heavy chains, the heavy chains are specific to each type of Ig.
What produces Immunoglobulins?B- Plasma cells. ( B Lymphocytes ).
What are the characteristics of Ig GMajor antibacterial and anti viral. Most abundant in blood. Only antibody to cross placenta. Responsible for protection of newborn for first 6 mo.
What are the characteristics of Ig MPrimary or Initial Immune Response, Largest, stays in blood vessels.
What are the characteristics of Ig AisticDefends external body surface, found in secretions of saliva, breast milk, urine, seminal fluid etc.
What are the characteristics of Ig DControls lymphocytes activation or suppression.
What are the characteristics of Ig EPrimary in eliminating parasitic infections. Functions during allergic reactions.

Section 6

Question Answer
What are the four types of hypersensitivity reactions?Type I- Anaphylactic. Type II- Cytotoxic/Antibody mediated. Type III- Immune Complex-mediated Type IV- Cell Mediated, Delayed Type.
Type I Hypersensitivity characteristicsMediated by IgE and Mast Cells. Specific- high number of Eosinophiles.
The three main clinical examples of Type I HypersensitivityHay Fever, Atopic Derematitis, Bronchial Asthma.
Type II Hypersensitivity characteristicsMediated by cytotoxic antibodies. Ig G / Ig M. Examples- hemolytic anemia, grave's disease, myasthenia gravis.
Type III Hypersensitivity characteristicsDeposition of Ag-Ab complexes in small blood vessels. Examples- vasculitis, serum sickness, systemic lupus, post streptococcal glomerulonephritis.
Type IV Hypersensitivity characteristicsNot antibody mediated, takes 2-3 days to develop.In response to complex organisms.