Path 1 - Hepatobiliary 2

drraythe's version from 2016-01-26 12:38


Question Answer
Hepatocellular steatosis (lipidosis) looks like what?Greasy, Enhanced lobular pattern, Pale tan-yellow color
Glycogen accumulation looks like what? What kind of changes wont you see?Enhanced lobular pattern, Pale, Midzonal hepatocytomegaly. THERE ARE NO FATTY CHANGES
Amyloidosis → what are the 3 types? explain a little. Which is most common in vetmed?(1) Primary → Amyloid AL (light chain) from IMMUNOGLOBULINS
(2) 2⁰ → SAA (serum associated amyloid) from LIVER. MOST COMMON!!!
(3) Inherited / Familial
Explain the pathogenesis of copper accumulation!!Copper accumulation → formation of ROS (reactive oxidative substances?) → lipid peroxidation → mitochondrial damage → membrane damage
What should you know about sheep & copper?Poor regulation of Cu storage → centrilobular Necrosis, severe IV hemolysis
what should you know about dogs & copper?Hereditary Cu metabolism disorder → hepatocellular Necrosis → Fibrosis (AUTOSOMAL RECESSIVE in Bedlington terriers & West Highland terriers)
what kinda lesions would you see w/ a viral infxn of the liver?MULTIFOCAL NECROSIS & FIBROSIS
Infectious canine hepatitis (ICH) – Canine Adenovirus 1 → what unique clinical sign?Edema of the wall of the gallbladder
Herpesvirus infxns → result in? lesions?ABORTION! Multifocal, small <1mm, areas of necrosis, maybe intranuc. inclusion bodies
What are some signs/lesions of a Leptospira infxn?IV HEMOLYSIS, Dissociation of hepatocytes
Protozoal dzs cz what kinda necrosis?Multifocal
Dimorphic fungal Dzs cz what kinda condition?Granulomatous hepatitis
What is a hepatotoxic bacteria?Blue-green algae
**TQ Pyrrolizidine alkaloid-containing plants → damage the liver how?HEPATOTOXIC INJURY, the alkaloids are activated by CYP450. Are anti-mitotic → Megalocyte (hepatocyte w/ ENLARGED NUCLEUS & ↑ cytoplasmic volume)
**TQWhat is a Megalocyte? WHEN do you see them?(Hepatocyte w/ ENLARGED NUCLEUS & ↑ cytoplasmic volume). You see these in PYRROLIZIDINE ALKALOID TOXICOSIS
*What is a MYCOTOXIN he emphasized & what are the effects of it on the liver?Aflatoxins from aspergillus. Carcinogenic, teratogenic, Hemorrhage, Lipidosis, Necrosis → fibrosis, Biliary hyperplasia
4 hepatotoxic chemicals?Xylitol
Carbontetrachloride (Chlorinated Hydrocarbons)
Hepatotoxic chemicals → Carbon tetrachloride (Chlorinated Hydrocarbons) → how do these affect the liver?Centrilobular necrosis & lipidosis
Who is most susceptible to hepatotoxic therapeutic drugs & why?Cats more susceptible bc no glucoronidation: glucuronyl transferase activity
**TQ PROLIFERATIVE LESIONS OF THE LIVER → Hepatocellular nodular hyperplasia. WHO is this common in? What czs this to ↑? What is the effect on the liver?COMMON IN DOGS w/ OLD AGE. ****Neither result of nor cz of hepatic dysfxn****
**TQ What should you know about Regenerative nodules?Response to loss of hepatocytes (hepatopathy) → sig. FIBROSIS
Hepatocellular adenoma is common in who?Young rumis (RUMIS have ADDED mass, the SHEEP are able to fit in the CAR)
Hepatocellular carcinoma is common in who?Uncommon in general, but frequent in sheep
**TQ #1 neoplasm in cats???Cholangiocellular (bile duct) adenoma
**TQ Cholangiocellular (bile duct) adenoma is common in who?CATS!!
Equine serum hepatitis (Theiler’s Dz) → aka? what happens w/ this?Aka dish rag liver. After injxn of biologic (serum, tetanus anti-toxin, etc)
*Copper tox in RUMIS vs DOGSRUMI: Centrilobular Necrosis, SEVERE IV HEMOLYSIS
DOG: Hepatocellular Necrosis → FIBROSIS
What are 3 WAYS a RUMI can get copper tox?~EXCESS DIETARY
Pastures w/ inadequate molybdenum (no inhibition of plant copper uptake)
Pyrrolizine alkaloids (anti-mitotic → copper accumulation)
What czs white liver dz, in who?RUMIS, Insufficient Cobalt intake → B12 deficiency ((w/o the blue, it's just white)
Hepatosis dietetica affects who, how does this happen?Pigs, deficient in vit E or selenium → hemorrhagic NECROSIS (massive)
How does COPPER TOXICOSIS affect dogs & SP PREDISPOSITIONS?Leads to hepatocellular necrosis & FIBROSIS. This is often bc of an Autosomal recessive disorder of copper metabolism → impaired biliary copper excretion. BREEDS PREDISPOSED TO THIS ARE: Bedlington & West Highland terriers
How do glucocorticoids affect the liver?(STEROID HEPATOPATHY) Hydropic degeneration → hepatocytomegaly (midzonal accumulation of glycogen)
What is a hallmark sign of Infectious canine hepatitis?Edema of the wall of the gallbladder
Lymphocytic cholangitis → happens in who? CS?Common in cats >4 years w/ icterus from intrahepatic cholestasis


Question Answer
What is the fxn of the gall bladder?Store, concentrate & release BILE
Cholelithiasis → what are these? common in who? what is it usually 2° to? what should we know about the dx?GALL STONES. Common in RUMIS!! 2° to chronic Cholecystitis. They are x-ray transparent!!
What is CholeCystitis?Inflammation of the gall bladder.
What is a dz in dogs which can cz CholeCystitis?Infectious canine hepatitis!
What is a bacteria which can cz CholeCystitis?Salmonella enteritidis (salmons in your gallbladder is irritating)
Thrombosis & infarction of the gallbladder happens in who?Dogs
Gallbladder mucocele → what is this & who does this happen to?Gallbladder filled w/ mucus (usually associated w/ obstruction) common in SMALL BREED DOGS
Cystic mucinous hyperplasia of the gallbladder → happens in who?Dogs & Sheep
Adenoma of the gall bladder usually happens in who?YOUNG cattle (cattle ADD on the weight of the gb)
What is the ENDOCRINE portion of the pancreas?Islets of Langerhans (hormones)
What is the EXOCRINE portion of the pancreas?Acini + secretory cells (enzymes, electrolytes)
Explain the normal duct situation in sheep1 duct, into common bile duct (sheep are single & simple minded)
Explain the normal duct situation in horses & cattle2 pancreatic ducts
Explain the normal duct situation in dogsLarge accessory duct → minor duodenal papilla. small pancreatic duct → major duodenal papilla
Exocrine Pancreas Insufficiency (EPI) → what happens in HORSES?Hypoinsulinism w/o signs of EPI
Exocrine Pancreas Insufficiency (EPI) → what happens in CALVES?It's sporadic
Exocrine Pancreas Insufficiency (EPI) → what happens in CATS?From chronic pancreatitis
Exocrine Pancreas Insufficiency (EPI) → what happens in DOGS?Idiopathic acinar atrophy
Feel free to look at portals of entry & defense mechanismsNot highlighted
Exocrine pancreatic atrophy → AKA? common in WHO?Juvenile pancreatic atrophy... Common in **GSD* (6-12 months of age)
I say GSD & pancreas, you thinkExocrine pancreatic atrophy (aka juvenile pancreatic atrophy) (Autosomal recessive, potbelly due to intestinal dilation)
What should you know about Choristomas?(related to a hamartoma) They are an incidental finding, normal tissue in an abnormal location
Who has Pacinian corpuscles in their pancreas?CATS!
Pancreatic calculi (pancreolith) are common in who & WHY?Common in cattle >4 years. Associated w/ pancreatitis due to flukes
Hypoplasia of the pancreas is common in WHO? WHY does this happen? HOW can you tell it's hypoplasia?It is sporadic in calves & results in EPI (exocrine pancreas insufficiency). There is a ABSENCE OF LIPOFUSION in this condition
What will you not see in atrophy of the pancreas?Wont see zymogen granules
ACUTE PANCREATITIS/ACUTE PANCREATIC NECROSIS → what is the pathogenesis of this? (3 reasons)Obstruction of ducts, direct injury to acinar cells, Deranged intracellular transport of pancreatic enzymes
Acute pancreatitis → happens most commonly in who, in what situation?Dogs, after high-fat meals
When does chronic pancreatitis happen in DOGS?(Following OBSTRUCTION of pancreatic ducts) → Fibrosis, parenchymal atrophy
When does chronic pancreatitis happen in SHEEP?Zinc toxicosis → necrosis → fibrosis
When does chronic pancreatitis happen in HORSES?Parasitic migration → ascending bacterial infxn → chronic
Acute pancreatic necrosis is common in who? what are the results of it?OLD, OBSESE, FEMALE DOGS!! you have NECROSIS (↑ in proteolytic enzymes/lipases → fat hydrolysis), EDEMA (↑ in O2 derived free radicals → affect endothelium), DIC+SHOCK (↓ in α-macroglobs, activate kinin & coag)
Pancreatic nodular hyperplasia → common in who? what does it look like?Common in older dogs & cats. Multiple pale, raised, smooth flat elevations
Pancreatic carcinoma → common in who? What does this tumor do (grossly) that's notable? what does it look like?Common in dogs/cats, it has ADHESION TO ADJ. TISSUES, Multiple firm **yellow** nodules
What are some different types of peritonitis?Fibrinous
What would cz Fibrinous peritonitis?PIGS → GLASSIERS DZ (Haemophilus suis)
What are some reasons there would be suppurative peritonitis?Hardware dz, Arcanobacterium pyogens, IN HORSES, ALMOST ALWAYS FATAL → Rhodococcus equi (foals)
Pyogranulomatous peritonitis happens in who & why?(1) Dogs (nocardia & Actinomyces)
(2) Cats (FIP)
When would you see Granulomatous periotonitis?Tuberculosis “pearls Dz
What are the notable sequale to peritonitis?Intestinal hypermotility → paralytic ileus supervenes (to follow or result). Endotoxins absorbed → shock
Abdominal fat necrosis can happen when what other organ necrosis? what are some signs of this?Can happen as a sequale to pancreatic necrosis. Diffuse & you will see Droplets of fat in the peritoneal fluid (chicken soup)
What is abdominal fat necrosis like in sheep?Small, dry, firm, or gritty plaques
What is the abdominal fat necrosis like in CATTLE? (what type of necrosis, what do they look like, what are some czs?)Massive necrosis (lipomatosis), Small-large Hard lumps which could be due to intestinal obstruction, compression of ureters, or obstruction of pelvic canal
Steatitis is aka? what czs this?Aka yellow fat Dz, this DOES NOT HAPPEN IN RUMIS!! from a Diet low in polyunsaturated fats & tocopherols
Mesotheliomas → 1° or 2° tumor? WHO? looks like what?1° tumor which occurs in cattle & dogs. (Multiple, firm, pedunculated, nodules, Fibrous or sclerosing plaques)
Who are lipomas common in?? (2) explain differences btwn the 2 sp w/ these(HORSES) LArge or PEDUNCULATED → STRANGULATION OBSTRUCTION, originates in the mesenteries. (DOG) Large, not pedunculated, from omentum
What is the main 2° tumor of the abdominal cavity?Carcinomas

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