Path 1- Fluid + Hemodynamics

taylormaloney's version from 2016-08-10 03:21

Section 1

Question Answer
In adults what percent of the human body is made of fluids?Between 55-65%
What amount of body fluids are found inside + outside cells?Inside cells- 2/3. Outside cells- 1/3.
What are the components of Intracellular and Extracellular Fluids?Intracellular = cytosol. Extracellular= interstitial fluid ( 80% ), and blood plasma ( 20% ).
What is the function of the plasma membrane?Separates intracellular fluid from interstitial fluid.
What is the function of blood vessel walls?Separates interstitial fluid from blood plasma.
What is the function of capillary walls?Allow exchange between blood plasma + interstitial fluid.

Section 2

Question Answer
What is water intoxication?When excess water causes cells to swell.
What causes water intoxication?When person consumes water quicker than kidneys can excrete it.
What is the main factor regarding total body fluid volume?The amount of urinary salts present, loss of salts = loss of water.
What are the three main hormones that control renal function?Angiotensin II, Aldosterone, and Atrial Natiuretic Peptide.
What hormone is responsible for regulating water loss?Antidiuretic Hormone.

Section 3

Question Answer
What is the definition of edema?Excess fluid in the interstitial spaces and/or body cavities.
What are the two types of edema?Localized + Generalized.
What are the specifically concerning varieties of local edema?Cerebral, Pulmonary, Ascites, Hydrotorax, and Hydropericardium.
What is Anasarca?Another word for generalized edema, related to kidney diseases.
What are the two types of edematous fluids?Exudate + Transudate.
What is the difference between them?Exudate- fluid rich in WBC's and proteins. Caused by increased permeability of blood vessels. Transudate- Less Proteins and fewer WBC's. Caused by increased hydrostatic pressure.
Edema occurs as a result of what?Imbalance between the forces that keep the fluid in blood vessels and those that promote it's exit into interstitial space.
What are the 5 main forms of edema?Inflammatory, Hydrostatic, Oncotic, Obstructive, and Hypervolemic.
What is pitting edema? How do you test for it?Edema that is indicative of heart failure, putting pressure on swollen area and having the imprint of the pressure for some time after pressure was removed.

Section 4

Question Answer
How is edema distributed?Dependent on it's cause. Heart failure- lower limbs. Cardiac Edema-pulmonary edema/shortness of breath etc. Renal Edema- causes diffuse edema. Liver Cirrhosis- Ascites. Cerebral Edema- high intracranial pressure.
Define Hyperemia.'Too much blood', accumulation of blood in peripheral circulation.
What are the two main types of hyperemia?Active + Passive.
Define Active Hyperemia.Dilation of arterioles, leading to rush of blood into capillaries. Such as blushing, exercise, acute inflammation etc.
Define Passive Hyperemia.Congestion- increased venous backpressure. Often associated with hydrostatic edema/cyanosis. (Blue-ish discoloration = cyanosis.)
Explain the correlation between passive hyperemia and alveolar edema.Increased venous backpressure -> extravasations into the alveoli causing alveolar edema. Chronic Passive Congestion - Anoxia- Pulmonary Fibrosis.

Section 5

Question Answer
Define Hemmorhage.Passage of blood outside if the cardiovascular system.
What are the 5 types of hemmorhage?Cardiac, Pulmonary, Arterial, Capillary, and Venous.
What are three clinically important forms of hemmorhage?Petechia- small less than 1mm in diameter-skin and mucosa. Purpura- small 1mm-1cm in diameter found in skin and mucosa. Echymosis- Larger blotchy bruises.
What are the 7 types of clinically important venous hemorrhages?Hemoptysis-respiratory tract. Hematemesis- vomiting of blood. Hematochezia- ano-rectal bleeding. Melena- black blood in stool. Hematuria- blood in urine. Metrorrhagia- utero-vaginal bleeding. Menorhorragia- normal menstrual bleeding.
How much blood can an average adult lose with no consequences?Approx 500ml
How much blood loss could lead to profound circulatory shock?1000-1500mL.
How much blood loss is usually lethal?Any loss more than 1500mL.
Define Thrombosis.Clotting- transformation of fluid blood into a solid aggregate. Thrombus= Blood cells + Fibrin
What is Virchows Triad?Three predisposing factors for thrombosis. 1) Endothelial cell injury 2) Hemodynamic Factors 3) Hypercoaguability of blood.
How are thrombi classified?By location. Ie- intramoral of heart, valvular of heart, arterial, venous, microvascular etc.
What does the fate of a thrombus rely on?Lysis of thrombus, organization of thrombus, and recanalization/reestablished blood flow.
Define embolism.When a thrombi breaks off from the anchoring surface.

Section 6

Question Answer
Define Shock.State of hypoperfussion of tissue with blood-> Anoxia -> Multiple organ failure.
What are the 3 main types of shock?Cardiogenic, hypovolemic, hyptotensive.
What are the three clinical stages of shock?Early/Compensated. Decompensated but reversible. Irreversible.
What are the symptoms of the first stage of shock.Tachycardia, Vasoconstriction of Arterioles, and Reduced Urine Production.
What are the symptoms of the second stage of shock.Hypotension, Tachypnea and Shortness of Breath, Oliguria, and Acidosis.
What are the symptoms of the third stage of shock.Circulatory Collapse, Marked Hypoperfusion of Vital Organs, and Loss of Vital Functions.