Path 1 Female Repro 6

drraythe's version from 2016-05-02 01:08

Normal Placentation

Question Answer
Anatomic classifications of placentas? Which animals have which?Zonary - dog, cat
Cotyledonary - ruminants
Diffuse - horse, pig; Endometrial cups in horses → Cells fetal in origin → Drop down around day 37 → Visible day 40-45 → Increase until day 60 → Slough b/t days 60 & 150
Produce PMSG, aka equine chorionic gonadotrophin → Has FSH- and LH-like activity
What's special about the placentation of a horse?Endometrial cups!! Cells are fetal in origin → Drop down around day 37 → Visible around day 40-45 → Inc until day 60 → Slough b/t days 60 & 150
Produce PMSG aka equine chorionic gonadotropin → Has FSH & LH-like activity

Diffuse Placentation (Horse, Pig)
Zonary Placentation (dog, cat)
Cotyledonary Placentation (Ruminants)
What are the histologic classes of placentas? Which animals have which?Epitheliochorial - ruminants, pigs, horses
Endotheliochorial - dog, cat
Hemochorial - man, primates
Fluid accumulation is a problem w/ fluid in the placenta. Where can this happen? They're called?(2)Hydramnios - excess fluid in amniotic sac → fetal malformation
Hydrallantois - excess fluid in allantoic sac → uterine disease, too few caruncles

BOVINE Abortions

Bovine Abortions in General

Question Answer
Early embryonic death is?Death of the embryo early in gestation (large animals 35-45 days after conception)Resorption of fetus Often 2° to genetic defects or Dz
Fetal death is?Fetus dies after ~45 days in large animals. Less in small animals (~20 days depending on sp.)
Main outcomes of embryonic and fetal death?Embryonic death & return to estrus at the normal interval
Embryonic death & delayed return to service
Fetal loss w/ no autolysis
Fetal loss w/ autolysis
Abortion in cows is?Cessation of gestation w/ expulsion of fetus when it is too immature to survive (~day 260 in cattle). Normal gestation period of cow is ~9 months (~285 days)
Perinatal death in cows means?Calf dies immediately prior to or during parturition
Name the normal placental “lesions” (3)Amniotic plaques
Placental mineralization
Non-infectious czs of stillborns?Congenital malformations
Weak, term calves
Immature calves – appearance of calf depends upon just how immature it is. Hair, teeth, size.
What would you see in a calf that died during Dystocia or shortly after birth?Subcutaneous edema of head/neck
Inflated lungs
Subdural hemorrhage
Ruptured liver
Staining or aspiration of meconium
Hemorrhage of amniotic tissues
Name the tools in your Abortion Diagnostic Toolbox?Smears – blood/impression
Bacterial culture/ID: Impression smears, Pure culture, PCR, Demonstrate lesions in fetal tissues that support the bacterium you cultured
Viral culture/identification: PCR - needs to be checked against gross/microscopic lesions & other tests, Cytopathic effect on monolayers, EM – observation of viral particles
Factors suggesting a viral etiology, Multiple cases of abortion during breeding season, Abortion storms, Increased congenital defects – BVD, Malformations of fetus
Fungal culture and identification: Impression smears
Pathology – Gross and microscopic lesions
What is the best option for necropsy/sample submission?Send the whole fetus & placenta to a pathology lab!
What tissues should be sampled if you suspect a bacterial agent?Lung, liver, kidney, spleen, cotyledons, others
Place tissues in separate sterile bags and place on ice (do not freeze)
What tissues should be sampled if you suspect a viral agent?Lung, liver, spleen
Place tissues in separate sterile bags & place on ice (can be frozen)
What tissues should be sampled for histopathology?Lung, liver, kidney, spleen, heart, adrenal, lymph node, thymus, brain, skeletal muscle, placenta
Place tissues in 10% buffered formalin
What should be done when sampling blood for pathology of an abortion?Take blood samples from dam & some of her friends as reference samples. Sample at time of abortion & again 3-4 weeks later.

Non-infectious Abortion

Question Answer
Non-infectious czs of stillborns?Congenital malformations
Weak, term calves
Immature calves – appearance of calf depends upon just how immature it is. Hair, teeth, size.
Non-infectious czs of abortions?Umbilical torsions/strangulations – rare in cattle b/c of shorter umbilicus than in other species
Adventitial placentation
Heat stress - minimal to no gross lesions
Poisonous plants – lesions usually nonspecific, Ponderosa pine needles – immature to weak calves, often retained placenta, Locoweed – hydrops amnii, Broomweed – immature to weak calves, often retained placenta, Other
What is Umbilical torsion?Umbilicus becomes twisted cutting off blood circulation to fetus
What is Adventitial placentation?Extra tissue forms in attempt to make up for a Uterus’s which lack of sufficient caruncles

Infectious Abortion

Question Answer
What are the placental lesions in infectious abortions & what czs them?Necrotic cotyledons – Brucella, Campylobacter, Lepto, fungal
Hemorrhage – Listeria, Coxiella
Intercotyledonary edema – Brucella, Lepto
Purulent inflammation – Trueperella pyogenes
What is this lesion?
What is placentitis? Czs? What does it look like?Placentitis is inflammation of the placenta. Has many many czs:
Infectious czs of stillborns?Degree of fetal maturation
Early – BVD, Trichomonas
Mid – IBR, Campylobacter, Neospora
Late – Brucella, A. pyogenes, Lepto
Fetal abnormalities
BVD - Cerebellar hypoplasia/skeletal abnormalities
What lesions might you see in stillborns from infectious abortions?Hepatic lesions – Campylobacter, Listeria, IBR
Interstitial pneumonia – Brucella, bacterial septicemia
Fibrin on serosal surfaces – bacterial septicemia
Pale streaky skeletal/cardiac muscles – Neospora
What do the lesions of Campylobacter & Listeria look like?(Campylobacter)
BVD & Trichomonas cz abortion when?Early in fetal maturation (early gestation)
IBR, Campylobacter & Neospora cz abortion when?Mid gestation
Brucella, A. pyogenes & Lepto cz abortion when?Late gestation
BVD in a fetus will cz ?Cerebellar hypOplasia & skeletal abnormalities
Fetal hepatic lesions & Hemorrhage. What's is the agent?Listeria
Mid gestation abortion, Fetal hepatic lesions, Necrotic cotyledons. What's is the agent?Campylobacter
Late gestation abortion, Fetal interstitial pneumonia, Necrotic cotyledons, Intercotyledonary edema. What's is the agent?Brucella
Late gestation abortion, Necrotic cotyledons, Intercotyledonary edema. What's is the agent?Leptospirosis
Mid gestation abortion, Pale streaky skeletal/cardiac muscles. What's is the agent?Neospora
Purulent inflammation = ?TRUEPERELLA
Early gestation abortion, Cerebellar hypoplasia/skeletal abnormalities. What's is the agent?BVD
Mid gestation abortion, Fetal hepatic lesions, no other abnormalities. What's is the agent?IBR

Time of death

Question Answer
Determining time of death in prenatal death depends on?Degree of autyolysis
Characteristics of Natal Death (during parturition)?Tissues not stained w/ hemoglobin, No thrombus or hemorrhage in umbilical artery
Characteristics of Early natal death? (during parturition)Variable renal cortical autolysis & No subcutaneous edema
Characteristics of Late natal death? (during parturition)No renal cortical autolysis; Localized SQ edema of head, forelegs, perineum
Characteristics of Neonatal death (after parturition)?Thrombus in umbilical artery; Lungs contain air & float in formalin
Characteristics of Early neonatal death (after parturition)?Soft to firm umbilical thrombus/hemorrhagic stump
No milk in digestive tract, no absorption of milk
No wear on slippers (eponychium)
Characteristics of Late neonatal death (after parturition)?Firm umbilicus/umbilicus dried up
Milk in digestive tract w/ evidence of absorption
Some wear on slippers

EQUINE Abortions

Equine abortions in general

Question Answer
Remember endometrial cups? Tell me about themEndometrial cups form when the fetal chorionic girdle cells invades the endometrium of the mare. ~36-38th day of gestation. Reach max size ~55-70th day & begin to degenerate/slough. Gone by days 100-140 of gestation
Source of equine chorionic gonadotrophin which is the equine luteinizing hormone
Destruction of endometrial cups = Immune system of mare destroying “invading” fetal cells
Normal “lesions” placental in the equine?Endometrial cups, Hippomanes, Mineralization & Amnionic Plaques
What kind of abortions can the mare have? (4)Viral, Bacterial, Mycotic & Non-infections (Twinning, premature placental separation)
How does Twinning cz abortion?Horses rarely give birth to twins b/c the placenta is unable to support both. 1 usually dies → Fetal mummification
What is Premature Placental Separation & aka?aka “Red Bag”
Chorioallantois does not rupture at the cervical star (her water doesn’t break!) → protrusion of the intact fluid-filled chorioallantois through the vulva → looks like a “Red Bag”

Viral equine abortion (Equine Rhinopneumonitis)

Question Answer
***Equine Rhinopneumonitis is czd by? When does it cz abortion?Equine Herpevirus I (EHV-1)
Late term abortion – 3rd trimester (8-11th mo) – 95% of the time
What does Equine Rhinopneumonitis cz in the placenta?Mild edema & congestion
What is the Pathophysiology of abortions due to Equine Rhinopneumonitis?Virus infects maternal uterine endothelial cells → Endothelial necrosis → Thrombosis of placental vessels → Separation of maternal & fetal portions of placenta → Abortion
What will you see in a fetus aborted due to Equine Rhinopneumonitis?Edema in the subcutaneous tissues & in the facial areas
Small amount of amber fluid in body cavities
Lungs: Severe edema, Lungs heavy & rubbery, Edema in interlobular septa, Multifocal areas of necrosis – pale to red foci
Liver: Gray to tan to whitish areas of necrosis on capsular & cut surface
Spleen: Moderately enlarged, Petechial hemorrhages on capsular & cut surface
How will you Dx Equine Rhinopneumonitis?Gross lesions
Microscopic lesions: Multifocal necrosis of a variety of tissues & Intranuclear inclusions
Viral isolation: Virus can be isolated from many tissues including the lung, liver & spleen, Take samples & place in individual ziplock bags & ship on ice. Can be frozen but best if not.

Bacterial Equine Abotion

Question Answer
Bacterial equine abortions are czd by?Streptococcus sp., Pseudomonas sp., etc via ascending infections that can occur at any time during pregnancy. Make sure you Examine fetus & placenta!
What will bacterial Placental lesions look like?Lesions usually centered around part of placenta in close apposition to the cervix (near the cervical star)
Placental lesions include pale-dark discoloration of the placental tissues. Early on, lesions may be thickened but w/ time & advanced necrosis the placental tissues will become thin & friable (crumble/destroyed upon touch)
What will bacterial fetal lesions look like?Its uncommon to find lesions on/in the fetus. May have fibrin over surfaces & multifocal areas of necrosis but it’s not often seen
How do you Dx bacterial abortions?Gross & microscopic lesions
Culture of fetal organs – septicemia in liver, kidney, lung

Mycotic Equine Abortion

Question Answer
What czs Equine Mycotic Abortions? When does these abortions occur?Aspergillus sp.
Absidia, Mortierella, Mucor, Rhizopus
Abortion can occur anytime but usually mid to late term
What do Mycotic Placental lesions look like?Lesions usually most severe around cervix → Affected placenta becomes thickened & brownish
Mycotic Fetal lesions look like?May have small white to yellow to brown plaques on the foal’s skin or may be normal
Dx Mycotic abortion?Gross & microscopic lesions
Fungal culture: Collect placental lesions, place on ice & ship to lab